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VO L. I 

NO. I 

JULY, 1936 






State Director 

Now th&t we of the Federal 
Music Project In California are 
starting on our new program, let 
us stop for a moment to consider 
what the Music Project really 
means to us. 

This Is the first time In the 
history of the United States 
that musicians have been brought 
together for the furtherance of 
music under the sponsorship and 
direct financial support of the 
government. Musicians have been 
given the opportunity to Improve 
their skill, to add to tnelr 
musical education, to obtain In- 
valuable experience In playing 
under excellent conductors, and 
to do this without economic wor- 
ry. In return it Is our respon- 
sibility to give to the people 
the results of our combined ef- 
forts. This Is our chance to 
establish music as a necessary 
part of the community life. 

The effect we have had al- 
ready on cultural life every- 
where Is tremendous. Letters 
are prurlngln from all over the 
stats', from schools, recreation 
centers, chambers of commerce, 
patrons of mi sic, advisory board 
members, private citizens. In 
appreciation of the fine pro- 
grams which have bsen given by 
the Music Project In their cora- 

Pei„ember that musical units 
are playing all over the country, 
each one contributing to the 
culture of Its particular local- 
ity, as well as to the musicians 

What will be the result of 
all uhls music? Fine musicians, 
splendid orchestras, operas, 
soloists, choral groups; appre- 
ciative and educated audiences 
Who will contribute to the per- 

(Continued on t>age Z) 


(Reprinted fron the Long Beach 
Press Telegram, a fdir^niniei 

"When the New Deal Is men- 
tioned In company, there Is sure 
to be division of opinion, some 
persons being strongly for it 
and others strongly against It, 
for It Is not a matter about 
which many are neutral or Indif- 
ferent. A fewof the Innovations, 
however, have been fenerally ac- 
cepted as good, and certain to 
be retained permanently. 

Probtibly CCC is one of the 
experiments that will become a 
fixture. Probably another Is 
the Federal encouragement of the 
fine arts and those wno devote 
their lives to the arts. Amer- 
ican musicians, painters, sculp- 
tors, writers and actors have 
been aided with excellent re- 
sults. Good work has been done, 
and promising talent has been 
given the opportunity of self- 
expression. It Is gratifying 
tc all who realize that the de- 
velopment cf a truly Anerlcan 
art Is an Important part of the 
national life. 

Appointment of Mr. James G. 
McGarrl^le of Long Beach as Dis- 
trict Supervisor of the Federal 
Music Project In Southern Callf- 
ornl« has s^lven this community 

(Continued on page Z) 


Plaudits, praise, and pearls 
to the Monterey Project! With 
forty-one members, seven sepa- 
r?.te units have been organized. 

One musician plays In five 
units. Another In four. And 
many pl>v In three! 

State Headquarters In los 
Angeles would llk« to stand up 
and bow. And tney would If the 
desks weren't so close together! 

(See complete story »t ptft 8-/ 


Nearly six thousand people 
from Southern California Jammed 
Che Kedlar.ds Fowl to hear Gluck's 
"Orpheus", presented by the San 
Bernardino Projict under the di- 
rection of Mr, Vernon Robinson, 
in cooperation with the Redlands 
Music Association. 

The chorus, dressed In Grecian 
robes, s-ing In the snell of the 
stage, while a ballet of forty- 
five, under the personal and cap- 
able dlrectlonof Mr. Mlchlo Ito, 
Interpreted the dra;'iatlc action. 
This was In tns manner of the 
ancient Greek musical drama, and 
was the first tlm" "Qrpneus" had 
been given tnls particular Inter- 
pretation In Amerlc .. 

Miss Clemenoe Glf ford, renown- 
ed contralto, sana Orpheus with 
be-iutlful feeling, and was high- 
ly satisfactory. Rulh LaGourgue, 
\ fine young artist from the Riv- 
erside Opera Association, sang 
Eurydlce In a convincing manner. 
Genevieve Young, of Redlands, 
sang Amor. Miss Young has a 
pleasing soprano voice, and was 
especially suited to the role she 

Mr. Mlchlo Ito, himself a fa- 
mous darxer, create 1 an Inspiring 
choreograpni' for ti.e opera. Har- 
riet Huntington d;mced Eurydlce, 
and Byron Polndexter, of the RKO 
Studios, d^ced Orpheus, both 
with am'^zlng Interpretive skill. 
Lester Shaeffer created a sensa- 
tl:n as Lucifer, ;tnJ his second 
act "Fury" ^as "tcps". The stage 
was bathed In red spotlights, 
while Kr. Shaeffer wore a red 
cape. He created a large black 
shadow which danced on the back- 

The Redlands Bowl is the site 
In which the San Bernardino Proj- 
ect Sj-mphony Orch:stra of fifty- 
five pieces has pros.nted several 
previous programs featuring Mr. 
Ito and Mary Elizabeth Paine, 
RiJlands pianist, as guest art- 

Negotiations are under way to 
repeat "Orpheus" In Los Angeles. 

Page Z 

TH6 e>ft?0f\) 

BB I ©C\) 

Pu61ishea Every Month 


State HeaOquarters 



635 So. Manhattan Place 

Los Angeles 

RAY P. DAVIS, Eaitor 


(Stntinued from page 1) 

manent maintenance of their own 
local musical talent. But more 
than these, there will be a 
steady •low of beauty Into the 
minds and hearts or America's 

Nations are not great because 
of the wars they flgftt or be- 
cause of the size of their coun- 
try, or the wealth It repressnts; 
but because of the artistic a- 
cnievements which express t&c 
thought and life of the people 
of the times. Peoples and na- 
tions may thrive and seemingly 
perish, but they are remembered 
by the art they have produced. 

We are like the house set upon 
a hill - everyone can see us. 
Me must produce! Dr. Sokoloft 
will lead us, but It Is only 
through the sincere effort of 
every musician that Music will 
become a worthy and permanent 
expression of the American peo- 


(Cqntinued fron page 1) 

added Interest in the project, 
which has proved by local per- 
formances that It is worthy of 
the Interest.. . 

...The Los Angelesunlts have 
performed before 931,470 persons 
on 1510 occasions. ..Opera units 
have presented three standard 
operas to large and appreciative 
audiences. Their own fine orch- 
estras provide the accompani- 
ment. Choruses trained In all 
departments of vocal music win 
popular acclaim. S&'raphony con» 
certs, often featuring American 
compositions, directed by guest 
conductors attest to the versa- 
tility and national character of 
this Important •'ilvlslon of mu- 
sic. Folk scnts from all the 
co'Jhtrles of the earth are pleas- 
ingly presented by a ^roup of 
well trained singers.. .Prlnarl- 
Ij, the purpose of the project 
Is to furnish employment for tne 
musicians thro'wi out of work; 
but It Is stimulating musical 
expression by the American peo- 
ple, and cultivating their musi- 
cal appreciation." 


The chorus of the San Fran- 
cisco District will present the 
San Francisco premier of Men- 
delssohn's beautiful oratorio, 
"St. Paul", on Friday, July 10th, 
with GuUlo Suva airectlng. 
The work will be sung In Its en- 
tirety with Raymond Keast, first 
baritone of the chorus, singing 
the part of "St. Paul". The 
other soloists win be Ted Roy, 
tenor; Margaret Hopkins, so- 
prano; and Margaret Sheehan. 

Ob Friday, July 24t)i, 0«stOu« 
UslgU, 8up«rvlsor for the oak- 
land District, and organizer of 
the San Francisco Chamber Sym- 
phony, win be guest conductor 
of the sympnonj' orchestra, which 
Is comprised of sixty pieces. 
Ernst Bacon, District Supervi- 
sor, directed the symphoriy orch- 
estra at tne Veteran's Audltoi^ 
lum In his farewell appearance 
recently before leaving for his 
EXiropean tour. Frederick Pres- 
ton Search and Ben Bauer are 
Mr. Bacon's assistants. The 
Concertmaster, Victor Hayek, was 
associated with the great Pav- 
lowa for several years, while 
Max Amsterdam, ;isslstant Con- 
certmaster, was a member of the 
San Francisco Symphony for eight- 
een years. 

At the present time soloists 
are busily preparing two opera««. 
Beethoven's "Fldello" and the 
"Pirates of Penaance" by Gilbert 
and Sullivan are being whipped 
Into Shape for early production. 
Andre Ferrler, well-known tiieat- 
rlcal producer. Is In charge of 
the dramatic direction. 

Many of the smaller Califor- 
nia towns in this district will 
be Invadod by the music forces 
during the sujper months, and 
several distinguished guest con- 
ductors ar":' scheduled to appear, 

Arraric-jments are beln>; com- 
pleted with the Board of Park 
Conmlssli-ners to have a band 
play In Union Square, the Marina, 
and other well-peopled city parks 
during t;ie summer months. The 
concert band Is now conMnulng 
Its prograri of playing la San 
Francisco's playgrounds three 
tines a week. These coiicerts 
were arranged under the auspices 
cf the S'.n Francisco Recreation 
Conmlsslon, and are well-attend- 

The San Francisco Project em- 
ploys three hundred and forty- 
six people, and has seven sepa- 
rate units. These consist of a 
symphony orchestra, theatre or- 
chestra, chorus, band, dance 
band and the teachln ', unit. 

The teaching unit Is expect- 
ed to follow the example cf the 
San Jose District In teachlnii 
music to school children during 
summer vacation. 


M O' 



W fJ 




The Baton Presents the first 
of a series of intimate biog^ra- 
phias on project personalities. 

Nikolai Sokoloft, director of 
the Federal MUslc Project of the 
Works Progress Admin tstrat Ion, 
and for fifteen years conductor 
of the Cleveland Symphony Orch- 
estra, was bom In Kleff, South 
Russia, Ma>' 28. 1886, of a fam- 
ily which for generations had 
been professional musicians. At 
the age of five, as soon as his 
fingers could span the strings, 
he began the study of the vio- 
lin with his fatner, Gregory 

At thirteen the young vio- 
linist was admitted to the Yale 
University School of Music on a 
scholarship created ror him. 

After three years at Tale he 
entered the Boston S:.'mpbony Or- 
chestra as a first violinist, 
mea!;vmlle studj'lng with Charles 
Martin Loefflor. In 19C7, he 
w.nt to France tc become a pupil 
cf Vincent D'lndy ind Eugene 
Ysa^-e. In 1911 Mr. Sokoloff 
mad^ ooncert tours In a»gl«nrt and 
France, and was called to Msm- 
chestor to direct an orchestra, 

T^'a s^iTjt year he returned to 
America as concertp.aster of the 
Russian SyTiihon:- Orchestra di- 
rected by Modest Altschuler. 
Five years later he was called 
tc bar Francisco to organize and 
be the fl»-st vlcllnlst of a 
string TUirtet. Stortly there- 
aff^r he w^.s selected as the 
conductor cf t,,c San Francisco 
PhUn., Orchestra, 

Leavlns; :alirornla In 1917, 
Dr. Sokr-lcff rcturnea to France 
where he or arilzed anJ directed 
music 11 groups for the American 
Expeditionary F.rces. The fol- 
lowln-: year hs wes erigaged as 
concuctor f:r a series of con- 
certs with the Cincinnati Sj-m- 
phony Orchestra. He met with 
success so prcnrunced that he 
was Invited to ^rxanlze and di- 
rect the Cleveland orchestra. 
Dr. Sokoloff Is creclted with 
gul-.m,/, the destinies of the 
Cleveland Orchestra which saw, 
between 1918 and 1933. when he 
retired, a growth from humble 
boglnnlncjS tc one of the r;reat 
symphony orchestras of the coun- 

As conductor of the Cleveland 
orchestra or as a i^est wltii 
(Continued on page 6) 

Ttie 6hT©N 



with a personnel of one hun- 
dred and twenty- five, Including 
a symphony orchestra, concert 
band, dance orchestra and opera 
and choral units, regular weekly 
, programs are being offered to 
many communities by the Orange 
County Project. 

The concert band, under the 
baton of Edward Klein, Is lim- 
ited to twenty-one men, but bor- 
rows members from the orchestra 
unit so that it appears at con- 
certs with a membership of ap- 
proximately thirty. Regular 
Sunday afternoon concerts at the 
beach towns and In Irvine Park, 
have been given recently. A 
series of mld-weeK evening con- 
certs In Inland towns Is also 
being presented. 

The Orange County Project 
recently collaborated with the 
Music Arts Club of Santa Ana In 
sponsoring a series of concerts 
celebrating Music Week. Pro- 
granis glvtn Included concerts 
by the Federal Music Project 
bind and orchestra, and rocltdls 
by outstanding Santa Ana ausl- 
olans. "PuDllc Scnooi Night" 
was an Intel asting uemonstrs-clon 
of what the schools of Santa Ana 
are doing In nuslc, and Illus- 
trated how bcardG of education 
as well as civic authorities ».re 
eager to cooperate. 

In the m-ittcr of rehabilita- 
tion the rei^ular work ofisrs ex- 
perience In tl.e standard orcr.^s- 
tra, band, and chorus routine. 
In addition to this, cl^ssis are 
maintained for the beiie'lt of the 
musicians In the theo.-etloal 
subjects; and Instruction Is 
given In th'' varlou.T orchestra 
and band Instruments. 

The symphony irch^.stra Is 
really a "little" sy;apncny v;lth 
a persorciel of thlrty-slx. How- 
ever, tne merabershir is all pro- 
fessional, and the Instrumenta- 
tion Is comrlete for all practi- 
cal purposes. 

The dance orchestra, under 
Director Frank. Nlcman. has found 
it necessary to use cere In the 
selection of occasions wiiere It 
appears. This unit, as well as 
the others, offers -'o competi- 
tion to private r.uslclans, and 
friendly relations vlt' the coun- 
ty musician's union t-re enjoyed. 

The project mikes Its acti- 
vities as nearly countj--wlJe as 
possible. Regular v.-eekly or 
semi-monthly entertainment Is 
offered to the many communities 
In the county. Only good music 
Is offered, but th'j programs are 
kept within audience understand- 


Mr.^. Ada Joi-din Pray, well- 
known teacher of voice and piano, 
has been appointed supervisor of 
the new Federal Music Project 
District recently established 
at Orovllle. 

Mr. Jacques Nelll, a high- 
ranking musical director, known 
for his musical .iCCor.plUhments 
throughout the San Joaquin Val- 
ley, has bten placed In charge 
of the new music project at 

These recently established 
projects give the State of Cal- 
ifornia a tot»l of fifteen. 

Mrs. Pray Intends to develop 
a rural teaching program, as- 
signing music teachers to schools 
whose budgets do not provide for 

Mr. Nelll plans to have a 
well-balanced concert orchestra 
of thirty pieces ready for pub- 
lic performances shortly. 

Venous city officials aided 
Mr. Nelll In securing temporary 
rehearsal quarters. 

Tiiat Ernst Bacon won the Pul- 
itzer prize In 1933 for his work 
"Symphony In D Minor"? 

That tne Los Anfteles Project's 
Public R(ilatlons office has re- 
ceived nearlj' a thousand letters 
this year commending Federal 
Music Project cnltj cultural and 
civic attainments? 

That Modest Altschuler Is the 
only llvlr.g master who possesses 
one of the four medals presented 
by Tschalkowskv'spujllsher aft- 
er tne t;reat composer's death? 

That there are now fifteen 
separate music projects In the 
12 districts In California? 

That the Monterey, California 
Project, with only forty-one 
•vorkers, boasts seven distinct 

That there are tiwnty-sli 
members of the Los Angeles Proj- 
ect symphony orchestra with col- 
lege decrees? 

That Dr. Sokoloff conmlsslon- 
ed Ernst Bacon to compose £ 


Here must be a world's record I 
The Monterey County District, 
started on March third of this 
year, numbers only forty-one, 
and yet It has seven units! 
There Is a concert orchestra, 
a band, chorus, Tlplca orches- 
tra, strlnii quartet, and a unit 
In musicianship. The personnel 
of the different units overlap, 
of course, one person playing 
In five of the activities, and 
several in three and four. 

The concert orchestra, di- 
rected by Bernard Gallery, com- 
prises approximately fifteen 
players who rehearse two hours 
dally. These reheirsals are 
open to visitors who, lured by 
the Insistence of the Italian 
Symphony's "Allefcro", or the 
rollicking str.iins of Percy 
Grainger's "Shepherd's Hey", 
loiter as thsy p.ass the project 
on Dolores Street on their way 
to the village. 

The brass ?nu reaa sections 
of the orchestra form the "Fed- 
eral Band" of some ten plaj-ers 
who, assisted oy tne chorus and 
Tlrlca group, give weeltly open- 
air concerts In the Carrael City 
Park and In the Customs House 
Reserv-it'.on In Monterey. 

The Chorus, directed by Dene 
De.oiy, sliigs Bach chorales a 
oapptlla, and Licludes most of 
the project workers. In the 
open-air concerts the entire 
project sings tne "Star Spenglf-S 
banner" to the accompaniment of 
the cand. 

The String Quartet, with Its 
Players from the string section 
Of the Concert Orchestra, has to 
I'lrht for ? chance to rehearse 
Its ;:avj.i G-;iaJor! 

Nrt l^ast In Importance Is 
the unit In i-luslcldnshlp, under 
the Qlrectlon of Cane Denr:y and 
bernard Call^rv, who teaoh such 
workers as need It keyboard har- 
moriy, soirece, and lessons on 
various Instruments. Many of 
the workers are learning the 
techiilc jf several Instruments, 
In order to be better equipped 
for future work. 

Manuel Serrano, one cf the 
workers, who was recoijnlzea as 
the secGnl-'iest guitar player 
In Spain, aoads the llplca or- 
chestra, Wilch plays traditional 
Spanish ard Mexican airs. The 
group sings as It plays tangos 
and Jota.-,, and has added to its 
eultars arid mandolins several 
anclen:. F^^cu3slon Instruiients 
made hy native Spaniards whose 
ancestors carved their memories 
of Spain Into the wood of Mon- 

Page 4 


That city officials are ea^er I 
to cooperate with the Federal | 
Huslo Project has oeen noted In | 
raa;;y liistaiices, ana mor^ recent- 
ly in a concert conlucted ty Jo- 
seph Clzkovskj-, Supervisor of 
the San i:ateo Projec-. The con- | 
cert was presented In 'he Sequoia j 
Hli^h School Audltc.'lun, ar^d wt^ , 
given under the £3Cn!;nrshlp of 
the City Council. ! 

Grace K. Douglas, contralto, | 
was ruest oololst of the orch- 
estra. Shi Is .vell-knoivn In San 
Mat9o County for h:r work. In the 
LI~ht Opcr- Association. She | 
sang the rcle of ":'.atl3ha' In 
"The", In S^- Mateo, and i 
often i-ppe^rs with the San Ftar.- 
clcco Oper'i Assoclitloa. I 

Another Sv-eclal feature tos | 
the number "Dance for violin", | 
which was played by Mr. Frail 
ROosett, This number was writ- 
ten by David Williams of Belmont, I 
celliSt with the orc.iestra. ' 

The mayor and city council, i 
In spoiiscrlnr this concert. In- 
vited all music lovers In t:.e 
city to attend. And JudK,lri(; I 
from the attindance, there Is a I 
surprising r.-iraber of music lov- 
ers In this project's terrltorj . 

The orchestra previously wr.s 
successful In presenting cor,po- 
tltUns by two cf Us members: 
a marc II, "'Frisco to Philadel- 
phia" ty Ed ;ar Vlnal. Violinist, 
and "Dince for Violin', previous- 
ly mentioned. I 

T..e Rodwo?d City Project In- I 
eludes a concert orchestra, a 
chamber mujlc ensc-ible, a dance 
unit, a teacner, and a vo- | 
cal unit. There Is also a 11- | 
^rarian vjho, our correspondent 
informs us. Is "also a piano 
tuner"! ! 

Tne teacher's unit has two 
■.■.■ome.i who are attached to icoal 
M^ schools and whc will te em- 
ployed during school vacation 
co'-chlng the members of the vo- 
cal unit. 

Mr. CizUcvsKj', also supervi- 
sor for Saji Jose who recently 
In lU^urateJ the very successful 
sumrier tuaohlng courses for the 
ochool children during vacation 
it fan Jose, is ir.stlgatlr.j a 
Elnllar program for Redwc;d 

7H ^ _l_ _B!j7J)."\)_ 


Pr. Nikolai SoKoloff, Nation- 
al Director of the Federal Music 
Project, has made arrangements 
tc visit California the latter 
part of July or early in August. 

\. ^. 


! 't 

La^^r the famous TsdhalK.ow- 
-t//me^a3.s presented afte;- the 
Huy^a.-/, tonposer's death Ij four 
".iflends by his, rubitsher, 
.1. is the i'rlzea'\pos- 
Jfv, ar, Mouea^^ Altschuier, 
fey!.({>B6..i Vllrector, chief 
tor ^ror the ^as if g* ins 
lUsVc Project. / 

U tscihii^ isj,afe^nly 
livlnfeMiierijer o'''''*J95fc*lginal 
re:;lp|rtncs, ana has a rlcn store 
AC'lotes from his /Student 
days it t..s In.perlal Conservatory 
of MoEcov', where Tsan^'lk.ov(SK.y 
and oB:,er great Russian irtlsts 
would IfreKiuent the library arid 
iiiuslc pal|ls. 1 

FollcUng mllit£ry\ services 
for tjie ""fear, Altsohuler toured 
Europe asV a 'cellist 'with the 
Moscow lrlo\ coming to this coun- 
try ln\ 900. \ During tie ensuing 
period Yie nat conduct id in more 
than foir huAjred cltj^s of the 
United Istitefe and Cr-friada, and been largply inairumei.tal 
In mak.inA rauslQai bwim-ds here 
of the great RuVsiaa'dprnposers. 

? l-<^ K/ I 

A L T S C H U L E R 


Oastone Uslgli, supervisor 
fcr the Federal Music Project's 
eighth district (Or.iaar;'!), -.vlll 
present his sy-.p-i'^ni rruicstra 
unit In a cnn :ert in the '.vcria- 
rencwred Gre'>k T^ieatre 'n the 
campus ti the University '-f Cal- 
ifornia on S'irday, Ji-ly ?Oth. 
This will s»r/e as a prelude to 
the Ax.gusc Music Festival which 
Mr. Uolgll Is irranglr ; f or berlc- 

The first of these presenta- 
tions will be for the symphony 
alone, the s-'cond will present 
two oratorios, iind the tnirdwlll 
oe concrtlzed opera, employing 
symthfiny, cioris, and soloists. 

Three orl...inal r:inuscrlpts 
have recently been submitted to 
Mr. Usigll, f5ut he found thera 
slightly imdequate. However, 
he is encouraging comfosers to 
revist, and submit taelr worR, 
offeringhls r-rsonal asslstaiice 
on th; revision. 

.-. cohductinf. class has been 
luau^rated by Mr. 'Jsl, 11. In- 
struction 18 bsln^:, ,-lver to three 
student conductors. 

One cf the units in this dis- 
trict, 1 theatre orchestra of 
sevenoy, has four divisions. 
Three of thf-.j are attached to 
the Feder'M Theatre, wnile the 
fourth serves tne Tneatre Proj- 
ect wnen special occasions de- 
mand, and otiierwlse gives con- 
certs in schools, rarks, and 
public and choTit^ole Institu- 

A colored chorus of twenty- 
six u.ider Elmer Keeton, and a 
colorsd dance oand under Jimmy 
Simpson both have gi-.iued great 
local popul?.rlty. Tne band has 
pla;/ed over fifty en- a^eraents 
since the first of this i'ear. 


Negotiations pave teen com- 
pleted whereby the Federal Mu- 
sic Project will cooperate with 
the Federal T.-.€dtre Project In 
the use of the :-reek Theatre in 
Orlffith Park., Los Aai-eles, dur- 
ing July and Au.;ust. 

A varied protrram will be pre- 
sented By th? Music Project, 
covcrin.^ a series ol Sunday even- 
ing symphonic, choral, ballet, 
and operatic performances, /mong 
the earlier bookings will be 
"Orpheus", recently presented 
with .i,reat success In Redlinds 
by the San Bernardino District. 

Th. Theatre Project will con- 
tinue to present plan's during 
the week. 


Page S 



Los Angeles Robinson 

OaKland Clzk.ovsky 

San Bernardino . . . Uslgll 

12 th 

Los Angeles (1) . . . tlslgll 

Pasadena Alcschuler 

San Francisco .... Reiser 

Oakland Bacon 


Glendale Koehler 

Los Angeles (2) . . . Coleman 

Long Beach Altschuler 

Los Angeles (1) . . . Bacon 

26 th 

Los Angeles (1) . . . Altschuler 

San Diego ClzRovsky 


Mr. Uslgll at the Oakland 
Project discovered Miss Elena 
Gulrola Hitchcock, a splendid 
young pianist, and presented her 
as guest artist recently. She 
played Rachmaninoff '« "Rhapsody 
on a Theme of Paganlnl", for Its 
first presentation on the Pacif- 
ic Coast. 

:<( :4c ^ ](c * 4: 

Darren Rexford, assigned to 
the San Mateo Project as a drum- 
mer, was discovered by Mr. Clz- 
kovsky, the director, to have a 
magnificent baritone voice. He 
Is now In heavy demand as a vo- 
cal soloist. 

if :lf :M * * * 

The San Bernardino Project 
announces the discovery of a 
young baritone singer, Frank 
Tavagllone, who Is destined, ac- 
cording to Mr. Vernon Robinson, 
Director, for a brilliant future. 
Ke was chosen to represent River- 
side In the "California Hour" 
contest presented over the Co- 
lumbia Broadcasting System re- 

Tlf ifi ^ Tifi * if 

A sensational Stockton dis- 
covery Is Hoyle Carpenter, young 
oboe player, who Is also a pian- 
ist and composer. His descrip- 
tive suite based on Coleridge's 
"Ancient Mariner" will be played 
In San Francisco as soon as ar- 
rangements are completed. The 
work has received previous ac- 
claim In Stockton and Oakland. 

It was written In 1932, and 
has had tnree previous perform- 

4c 4i Hi Id 4< * 


Two original compositions on 
one program headlined a recent 
Santa Barbara Federal Music Proj- 
ect concert. 

"Sketches from Fairyland", 
by district supervisor Antonl 
vanderVoort, who conducted the 
orchestra, and a stirring mai'ch, 
"Gibraltar", by James Camplglla, 
assistant musical director, were 
well received and from all In- 
dications will feature another 
performance soon. Mr. Camplglla 
conducted his composition. 

There are five sketches In 
Mr. vander Voi.rt's suite: "The 
Queen and the Mirror", "Dream- 
ing Trees", "Rumpelstlltskln", 
"Prince Charml.ig", and "Snow 
White's Wedding". 

It is a work which will de- 
light lovers of program MSlc 
and Intrigue the Interest of 
students of music. 

"Gibraltar" Is a peppy, snlna- 
Ing march whose tunefulness ap- 
pealed to a large throng. 

The Santa Barbara Project's 
string quartet gave Its Initial 
performance last month, playing 
Haydn's gay Marc la and Rondo 
movements In the local Plaza del 
mar Shell. It was so enthusias- 
tically received that concerts 
will continue through July, and 
now may extend throughout the 

Negotiations are under way 
for securing a permanent place 
sufficiently adequate for re- 
hearsals of the large concert 
orchestra and the Spanish Tlplca 
Orchestra, with adequate library 
and office space. When this has 
been attained — and there are now 
three buildings under consider- 
ation — Santa Barbara's present 
major problem will have been 



(All i/agnerian, presented at 
Scottish Rite Huiitori'um, 
Oahlani, by the Oakland Proj- 
ect Synphony Orchestra, Osigli 


("Lohengrin" ) 

("Tristan und Isolde") 

("Die Kalkure") 

("Die Valkure") 

Guest Artist 


8 th 
Los Angeles (2) , Clzkovsky 

Oakland Reiser 

Los Angeles (1) . Uslgll (UCLA) 

15 th 
Los Angeles ( 1) . Uslgll 

Los Angeles (1) . Samossoud 

24 th 
San Francisco . . Uslgll 

29 th 
Los A.ngeles (1) . Reiser 

(Subject to change) 


The San Diego district has 
covered itself with glory during 
the last few months, with seven 
performances of "Cavallerla Rus- 
tlcana", two perfonnances of 
"The Gondolier", band concerts 
sponsored by the city of San 
Diego In beautiful Balboa Park, 
symphony concerts and choral 

Approximately sixteen thou- 
sand people saw the local pro- 
duction of "Cavallerla". 

The operagroup was the recip- 
ient of an editorial commendation 
In the San Diego Union, largest 
local paper, praising the Federal 
Music Project for presenting op- 
eras with local talent. 

San Diego's Project consists 
of the following units: a sym- 
phony orchestra, light concert 
orchestra, four dance orchestras, 
two bands, one choral group, and 
a group of Jubilee singers. 

Under the direction of Julius 
Lelb,. Internationally known con- 
ductor, the symphony nunbers 
fifty pieces. 

CharlesMarsh,dlstrlct super- 
visor, directs the chorus of 
fifty voices in oratorio work. 
There Is a forty-piece concert 
band which will present a series 
of summer programs at local music 

Thirty musicians comprise the 
Escondldo band unit of the San 
Diego Project who play regular 
Sunday afternoon concerts In Es- 
condldo Park and regular Satur- 
day afternoon concerts on the 
beach at Oceanslde. This group 
Is conducted by L. F. Stoddard. 

Ellwand Wheeler supervises the 
activities of the four dance or- 
chestras, and the Negro Jubilee 
Singers are directed by Lillian 

Page 6 



A reflection of the efforts 
of the Stoclcton Federal Music 
Project musicians anj the Di- 
rector, Grattan Guerln, to maKe 
this organization the outstand- 
ing musical group in the San 
Joaquin Valley Is noted In the 
reception given recent recitals 
, by the Federal Music Project 
Symphony Orchestra of Stockton. 

These recitals, given at the 
State Hospital, have resulted 
In many letters of approval from 
the local Soroptomlst Club and 
other organizations. 

Maria Pecorarl, known pro- 
fesslonalU' asMary Roland, lyr- 
ic soprano, has Deen given star 
billing as soloist on several 
siTnphonlc cccaslons. Born In 
Italy, Miss Roland sang In 
Italian opera before coming to 
San Francisco to sing at the ex- 
position. Later she sang In a 
concert with Enrico Caruso. 

A suite by Mr. Hoyle Carpen- 
ter, obce player In the Project 
orchestra, has received several 
auditions, being featured both 
with the Stockton Project orch- 
estra and the Oakland Project 
orchestra. Mr. Carpenter, who 
Is only twenty-six, has entitled 
his suite "The Ancient Mariner". 
It is founded on the poera by 
Coleridge Taylor. Mr. Carpenter 
studied composition at the East- 
man School of Music In New York. 

Arrangerat;nts are being made 
for the suite to be performed 
In San Francisco. 

The Stockton Project has 
thirty-one menbers. Being one 
of the newer organizations. Its 
present activities are confined 
to the syr.phony rroup, aitho 
arrangemer.ts are Seln^ made for 
additional units. 

Meanwhile the Stockton Sym- 
phor.j' concerts, wUn Mr. Ouerln 
wielding the baton, continue to 
r>,celve wide icclalm. 


(Continued from page 2) 

others of the great orchestra, 
Dr. Sokoloff has appeared In 170 
cities In the United States and 
C?nada, Europe and Russia. 

V'istcrn Reserve University 
conferred the degiee of Doctor 
of Music cnhln, "In recognition 
of hi- efforts for th-: cultural 
enrichment of the .=:tate of Ohio. " 

Followlnchls retlreii;;nt from 
the Cleveland Crct.estra he or- 
ganized and directed tl e Nsti York 
Orchestra which gave a notable 
series of outdoor concerts at 
his country home In Connoctlcut. 
Both In Cleveland and In Corji- 
ectlcut Dr. Sokoloff organized 
ind directed rany choral groups 
for the presentation of the great 
symphonic-choral works. 


An Inter-exchange music li- 
brary which lists mualeal selec- 
tions and orchestrations for the 
entire State Project Is now In 
operation In Los Angeles. This 
music clearing house contains 
centralized lists of all music 
possesslcns for each of the six- 
teen projects In the twelve dis- 
tricts of California. The li- 
brary, under the supervision of 
Mr, Cecil S. Copping of Los 
Angeles, win make available to 
any project In the state any se- 
lection now In the library of 
any other project. If more than 
one copy of any selection or orch- 
estration Is required at any 
time, a photo process allows for 
the making of extra copies, copy- 
righted selections excepted. 
This centralized card Index 
started only six weeks ago, and 
already fifteen hundred and sev- 
enty-five selections have been 

These include coaplate orch- 
estrations for symphony and con- 
cert orchestras, and arrange- 
ments for dance bands, soloists, 
choruses, Mexican, Hawaiian, and 
colored groups. This Index list- 
ing all the music of the Federal 
Music Project of California Is 
thought to be the first of Its 
kind In the United States. With 
this library It can be ascer- 
tained Just what district Is In 
possession of any given selec- 
tion and It can be nade Immedi- 
ately available for any other 
district. The manifold advan- 
tages of this library are ob- 

Among others of Dr. Sokclofl's 
guest appearances are those with 
the New York Philharmonic Stadi- 
um Concerts, with the Phll.'.del- 
Phla Crchestra In 1926 and 1929, 
with the San Francisco Phli.iar- 
monlc Orchestra, In June and 
July, 1926 and 1927, for tae San 
Mateo Philharmonic Society, 
the Chicago and Detroli Siinpucny 
and the New York Phil^^rp.ojilc 
Symphoni' and the Rochester Phll- 
hanncnlc Orchestra. 

Last July, when the Federal 
Music ^oject was created under 
the Works Progress Adnln'stra- 
tJo.- H'.rry L. Hopivlns, 4Smlnl3- 
trator, called Dr. Sovjloff to 
formulate and direct tte Project. 

The project new has on Its 
rolls 15,700 Individuals In ap- 
proximately 500 music organi- 
zation or units In forty-three 
states and the District of Col- 

(Sext Month: Dr. Bssher) 


Under the direction of Mr. 
Erich Weller, The San Rafael 
(Marin County) Project Is busy 
prepiring concerts of chamber 
music and music playable by small 
orchestral combinations. 

The Bach double concerto for 
two violins was recently pre- 
sented with considerable suc- 
cess, as was the Mozart bassoon 
concerto, the Schubert octet for 
strings, clarinet, bassoon and 
horn, the Beethoven septet, the 
Wolf-Ferrari Chamber Symphony 
(which adds piano, oboe and flute 
to this combination), a Schubert 
Symphony (Bk-major), and Haydn's 
Farewell Symphony. 

These selections were played 
by the salon orch^stri unit zl 
the Danish Home Auditorium In 
San Rafael, and »t the Outdoor 
Art Club In Mill Valley, and 
featured Winifred Cameron as 
flute soloist. 

The most recent concert was 
presented at the Meadow Club 
Auditorium near San Rafael. 
This concert was under the capa- 
ble sponsorship of Mrs. Syming- 
ton, an enthusiastic local sup- 
porter of this project, and was 
a repetition of a previous re- 
cital. It was given at Mrs. 
Symington's request before a 
select music committee of San 

On July 9th an open air con- 
cert will be given In Corte 
Madeia, and shortly thereafter 
3 s-^co" ! cohcert featuring the 
strrn," ?nups will be plaj'ad In 
Mill ■'•illey. Ha>-dr's Quartet 
In ") -i-i »- ; 0." , a ?rour of Woodwind 
6ns>;r.j\:; numbers, anc Schubert's 
SyniPii.-riy In B flat Major win 
be ic-hiarai. This concert will 
be rti.-itid In San Rafael. 

This project recently moved 
Into ;ift-v o/iiiters; and with the 
units wM settled In a very de- 
slriblo )oca~.lon. Marln County 
Is iXuvoLP.'; to become one of the 
leadir..JC cnamler music centers In 
the state. 


A serlis of open-air concerts 
Is being presented by the Los 
Angeles F.-oJtct at old San Gab- 
riel Mission, to lar^e crowds. 

These outdoor concerts have 
featured tho Los Aneele.> Project 
band conducted by Den Fhlllpplnl, 
and tl.e Los /ji?eles Project £X,tc- 
phony Orchestra. 

Reccr.t f.u«st speakers have In- 
cluded Fel!x Borcvskl, famous 
coni'>osfT . hajor Johnson of San 
Gabri3l, ind Merle Arnltar;e, Los 
Angeles 'i:i,i"essarlo. 

rralcinE the setting, meptp- 
per trees, the mission arches, 
the herUape of California from 
Spain, Mr. Arr.ltage said, 'Holly- 
wood Bowl started with less than 
you have here. " 

TH6 e)W©(>)" 

Page 7 



The Sacramento Band Unit Is 
the most active In the Capitol 
,Clty Project. Under the capable 
conducting ot Mr. Albert H. Ber- 
gen, the band has been t'lvlng 
three concerts each week In the 
Sacramento Public ParJu. Two 
evening concerts are given In 
Soutfcslde Park and McClatchey 
Park. These are well attended 
but an unusual bit tf news Is 
the fact that the noon-day con- 
certs In the City Plaza Park at- 
tract nearly twice as many peo- 
ple as the evening concerts. 

The programs are excellent 
and Include such numbers as II 
Guarnay, William Tell, Die Frel- 
schutz, Tannhauser and Rlenzl. 
Selections from "Faust" recently 
played by this organization have 
proved successful. Works have 
also been played by such compo- 
sers as Wagner, Lehar and Weber . 

This band la coBpcsed of 28 

Other units in this project 
Include a concert orchestra of 
20 and a dance band of 12, 

The conductor of the concert 
band, Mr. Albert H. Bergen, who 
Is also Supervisor for this pro- 
ject, has an interesting back- 
ground. He was born In a small 
suburb of Hanover, Germany. The 
son of the trumpeter In the town 
ba.nd, he had a natural Inclina- 
tion toward music. The young 
Mr. Bergen started his studies 
at the age of 12, graduated from 
the Municipal Conservatory of 
Music In Hanover at the age of 
18, having completed courses In 
harmony, composition, violin and 
trumpet. Later he changed over 
to the deeper toned Instruments, 
specifically the string bass and 
the tuba. 

Mr. Bergen came to America In 
1923 and settled In San Francis- 
co. Five years later foundhlmat 
the Alhambra Theatre In Sacra- 
mento. His past record lead to 
his present appointment, 

Many communications have cone 
Into the Sacramento Bee regarding 
the fine work that this organiza- 
tion Is doing for the community. 
One correspondent says "To those 
who have not been present In the 
past, I personally request that 
you come out and hear what this 
organization baa ca offer. 

"I feel sure that you will 
not only enjoy these programs, 
but will be agreeably surprised." 

The Sacramento District Is 
expected to start Us program 
of Instructing school children 
at an early date. 


Perhaps the bls^gest single 
movement undertaken by the Fed- 
eral Music Project of California 
to date has recently t;en Inau- 
gur=.ted at San Jose by District 
Supervisor Joseph Clzkovsky. 
Nine hundred children In the San 
Jose schools have been notified 
that free classes covering In- 
struction In all Instruments ;ind 
types of music theory will be 
conducted during the summer. 

Since the children have never 
received lessons before and do 
not possess Instruments, the San 
Jose Board of Eaucatlon bss do- 
nated the use of Instruments and 
public schools for the children. 
The Federal Music Project of San 
Jose nas cooperated to the ex- 
tent or provldlnir all their mu- 
sicians to teach these classes. 

Here Is one of the finest In- 
stances of cooperation between 
a local board of education, a 
local recreation department, and 
the Federal Music Project. 

The teachlnj will be done in 
classes, and since the children 
have never before received In- 
structions this will not prove 
competition for the local teaci/- 
ers, but on the contrary will 
provide new material for their 
classes In the Fall. 

As soon as sufficient enroll- 
ment demands, classes for begin- 
ners. Intermediate, and advanced 
pupils will be formed In orches- 
tras, violin Choir, string quar- 
tet and ensemble, band (begln- 
nln.T and advanced), brass quar- 
tet and ensemble, wood wind en- 
semble, klnderband, harmonica 
band, German band, uepular or 
dance band, drum majoring, glee 
clubs for both boys and girls, 
mixed chorus, A Cappella, vocal 
ensembles, quartets, and sextets. 

These Music Project classes 
will be discontinued with the 
opening of the schools In Sep- 

Immediately after the San Jose 
Music Project announced the In- 
auguration of these classes, 
nearly every district In the 
state began making like plane. 
The movement has already gained 
state wide proportions, and by 
the first of August It Is expect- 
ed that nearly ten thousand Cal- 
ifornia children will be receiv- 
ing some form of musical Instruc- 
tion. The value of the musical 
training given this vast number 
of young people is incalculable; 
It not only stimulates Interest 
In music for the Individual, but 
prepares him to become a part of 
a trained and appreciative audi- 


Appointment of Mr. Alexander 
Stew?Tt, well known musical au- 
thority, as District Supervisor 
of the Los Anjeles Federal Mu- 
sic Project was announced re- 
cently by Dr. Bruno David Ussher, 
Assistant tc the National Di- 
rector, In charge cf project ac- 
tivities In eleven Western States. 

"Mr. Stewart's appointment 
has been under consideration for 
some time in view of the extra- 
ordinary amount of work which has 
developed alonx musical and ad- 
ministrative lines, and while in 
full ch?-rge, Mr. Stewart will 
share responsibilities with Mr, 
James G. McGarrljle, whose spe- 
cial asslgrjiient as Administra- 
tive Supervisor wui leave Mr. 
Stewart free to devote his wide 
experience tc musical matters of 
a project covering the entire 
county and provldlns-; employment 
to approximately fourteen hun- 
dred musicians, " Dr. Ussher sta- 
teu, upon receiving confirmation 
of the appointment from Dr. 
Nikolai Sokoloff, National Di- 
rector of the FederalMuslc Proj- 

Mr. Stewdrt has a distinguish- 
ed musical background as an or- 
chestral and choral conductor In 
oratorio and church music. At 
the present time, he is musical 
director of the First Baptist 
Church of Los Angeles, director 
of the orchestra and mixed chor- 
us of the University of Sout;;ern 
California as well as lecturer on 
orchestral ind choral conducting 
and church music. 

During the war, he was spe- 
cial supervisor of music for the 
War Camp Community Service In 
the Pacific Coast Area. In 1915, 
a chorus directed by Mr. Stewart 
divided with the Chicago Welsh 
Choir a $10,000 first prize of- 
fered In the International Eis- 
teddfod Choral Contest of the 
Panama-Pacific Exposition In San 

Mr. Stewart Is best remember- 
ed locally for his direction of 
the festival performance cf Eli- 
jah, with Lawrence Tlbbett In the 
title role, at the Shrine Audi- 
torium, as part of the oeml-Cen- 
tennlal Anniversary of the Uni- 
versity of Southern California. 

Mr. McGarrlgle's position, 
hereafter, will be Administra- 
tive Supervisor over the Los An- 
geles Area. 

Increasing responsibilities 
In the Southern California Proj- 
ect, which Is the largest In 
the state, necessitated an add- 
itional supervisor. 

Page 8 

Th)e P,!-^Tu)'V 

^ould you produce a pla>- ■■•Tltc=n by a Comnnuilst?" 
Krs. Hallle'.a.i, '.:atlonal Director of the 
Fcaeral Theatre Project, asksd. 
"If It vjas a bood play," she iir.swired, smllliis;, 
"we would produce one v.rltten by a Republican." 


VPi Foreman; Uliat kind 0} inork can ■you do? 
Aptlicait: tiolhin^. 

foreiriar.: Cood! A'o'u I 'xon't have to lose aiy time 
breaking you in. 


Outside or Kussininl with rils moutr. clos'id, there's 
nothing harder to luaf-liie llian .-lussollnl Itolcliig 
as though his mind w>is ope;i. 

Ted Cock 

Fred: Jihat a' s/ifme that 
Sv& wasn't created first 
karilyn: ilhat difference 
mould thi^t hiiiic naUe? 
Fred: ive could have 
bossei the job of ^.akinq 
Adjn 'ind Aen man KOiild 
havs been perfect. 


Fror. scraewhere corr.;:s 
tnls tale of a benocr'it 
with a scnsai'uina. 

After ten minutes of 
violent bcrb^rdliig iT 
the Republican party, t^e 
speaker stopped to drink 
some water. From a back 
row, a till ranglUig miin 
stood up. 

"before you proceed, 
sir, could y-u Ir.fcrri rae 
as t-: Just .vhy you pro- 
clalFi allegiance to the 
Democratic party?" 

"Certiilnly," enjoined 
the speaker. "My fa'„her 
ana grand father were rien- 

"Well, sir," edged 
the tall one, "what If 
your rather and grand- 
father had been norse- 

"Why," quipped the 
speaker, "thun of course 
I'd be a Republican." 



Septef-ber, 18''S, QuDte from /'illiiM ff. 
stone, inir'.zr'A's illustrious statesman: 

"The nncricn Ccnstitution is, so /it as I en 
see, the most ixnderjul ucrt ever struck off at o 
given tir.e by tfte brain ind purpose of nan. ' 

SepteKber, 1876, Adverti silent in the "London 

"To be only 'it their manufactory. Long Acre, 
London, Sorp an an! Conpany' s i'atent Cee-Sprin.: Car- 
riages, dispensing with the old perch jnd heavy 
iron tixyrk, Qctenouttdj'e'i to be the final perftiction 
in transportation." 


Servant and Kastcr an I; servant of those 
dead, and Master of those living, Tiirough me 
spirits iTTnortal speak the message that ..lakes 
the world weep, and laugh, and wonder, and wor- 

I tell the story of love, the story of hate, 
thL story that saves, and the story that ddTins. 
I an tne Incense upon v.'hlc^. priyers float to 
heaven. I a,ii ti.e snoke which palls over the 
field of battle .vtiere men lie di'lng with no on 
their ilps. 

I ara close to the marriage altar, a-id when 
the grave opens I stand near by. I call th; 
wanderer home, I rescue t,ie soul fror; the depths, 
I op-5n t;-ie lips of lovers, and throughi rao the 
dead whisper to the living. 

One I serve as I serve all; and the kin? I 
r.ake my slave as easily as I subject his slave. 
I speak through the birds or the air, the In- 
sects of the field, the crash of waters on 
rock-ribbed shores, the sighing or wind In the 
trees, and I am even heard by the soul that 
knows me In the clatter of wheels oi. city 

I know no brother, yet all men are raj' bro- 
thers; I am the Father of th , best that Is In 
then, and they are fathers of the best that Is 
In rae; I am of them and they are of ne. For I 
am the Instrument of God. 


"The work being done by the Federal Music Proj- 
ect Is certainly commendable. 

Albert Van Aiduerp, 

3ec. N.-'r. 
Long Boach Jr. 
Chaaber of Comv.trce," 


"Please convey to iner.bers of this organization 
ind their director our appreciation for so fine 
an entjrtalnrr.cut. 

Fro;rair,s of tnls nature provide very definite- 
ly a cultural uplift for the coi.Bnurilty .ind we hope 
the others wo have .-.sked for tnsy be sent. 

Foshay Junior Bifh School, Los Angt-les 

Helen Jotson Pierce 



..."It Is rerioctlng credit upoi. ereryoDe con- 

: . cernecl,..By offering em- 

i ployiuer.t at minimum wages 
I to local r.uslclans It 
helps uncover any latent 
talent that nay be avail- 
able locally. And It 
cannot fill to stimulate 
tne stage and screen..." 
San r'iefo Union 



"I hope tnat more 
sci.ooli. mai' find It pos- 
sible to use this con- 
cert band, ti'.ereby serv- 
ing a distinct need as 
far as the Federal Music 
Project Is conceiT.ed. It 
also makes It possible 
for schools to e ijoy 
class musical entertain- 
ment with no cost to the 

*•. :. Stockton 

Polytechnic Hieh School 

Los Angeles" 


"I have been closely 
In touch with the Music 
Project of Saji Francisco. 
I have a great admiration 
for t;ie work that has 
been accomplished and for 
the high minded spirit 
which Is belhf, carried 
on througii difficulties. 
Professor Al^.ert I. Slkus 
I'niversi Jj of California" 


"I was thrlllaa when I listened to the local 
{San Diego) orchestra, under the direction of Mr, 
Llfcb, give a storllni program or syaphoiilc works. 
It ha3'b';en ^ ^reat godsend to the musicians, and 
their "only wa^' out," and the Joy and pleasure was 
self-evident. I do not think the fa payers or 
the public realise What this project has rai,ant to 
them and I slncereU' hope It will be continued In- 

Charl-^s Uakefield Cadnan" 





VOL. I NO. 2 

AUGUST, 1936 





State Director 

One of our workers, after re- 
maining In his orrice long after 
hours on an Interesting tack, 
said r.o me , "This work gets under 
my skin! There's something about 
It that won't let me stop. I 
have no regard tor curfews!" 

And It's true! Our work In 
California Is of such vast mag- 
nitude, of such tremendous Im- 
portance to this and future gene- 
rations, and at the same time Is 
so completely engrossing, that 
we find ourselves absorbed by 
the one Idea of "putting It over." 

To do this we must continue 
to train musicians to a high 
rate of musical skill, we must 
determine the musical needs of 
every community In every dis- 
trict, and then we must be pre- 
pared to meet these needs with 
excellent music presented by 
properly trained musicians. 

The many activities now be- 
ing carried on — the training of 
school children, the serving of 
all suburban communities, the 
rehabilitation of over three 
thousand musicians In Califor- 
nia, the establishment of over 
two hundred and twenty music 
units In the sixteen state pro- 
jects — all are steps leading to- 
ward the fulfillment of our goal. 

It Is more difficult to fin- 
ish a Job than to start one. We 
can look back over our owi lives 
and see the great number of tasks 
we have started, and the few we 
nave actually finished. But we 
must achieve this goal. 

Every organization, every 
club,' every factory or store 
must serve a function or manu- 
facture a useful product. Or It 
will not r«maln In existence. 

Music Is our function and our 

We Who produce It must see 
tJiat It wears forever. 


Extension of all Project ac- 
tivities to Include outlying 
cormunltles and rural districts, 
as well as cities, is now under 
way, following recent sugges- 
tions from Miss Harle Jervls, 
State Director of the Federal 
Music Project of California. 

Careful surveys of all dis- 
tricts are being made by the 
district supervisors. Musical 
people In each section are being 
contacted. Subsidiary advisory 
boards are being assembled In 
every community In California, 
where there Is the slightest 
possibility that any function of 
the Project Is necessary and win 
be supported. Musical super- 
vision for layman groups is be- 
ing considered. 

These subsldlajy advisory 
boards will establish necessary 
contacts and publicity, so that 
good audiences will be assured 
for the fall season. Central 
cflncert halls and theatres are 
being chosen and publicized. 

Music Appreciation classes 
for adults In all communities 
are being organized, to be start- 
ed next month. 

In cooperation with the Emer- 
gency Education Program, the 
Oakland Project win offer sev- 
eral lecture series, utUUlni 
the most competent members of 
their personnel for lecturing 
and deit>onstratlcn on various 
Instruments. This Instruction 
will educate the public and fur- 
ther popularize concert offer- 
ings. Concerts have been plan- 
ned for Hayward, Berkeley, Rich- 
mond, and other communities near 

In Orange County, the study 
sections of women's clubs are 
being contacted, as well as the 
evening high school classes. 
Anaheim, t'\illerton, and the smal- 
ler beach towns will be the scene 
of fall concerts and classes. 

Other districts are rspldlj' 
completing surveys tc determine 
the musical needs of every com- 
munity In the state. 


The first of a series of ex- 
change concerts between neigh- 
boring units of the Federal Mu- 
sic Project was prestnteo last 
week In San Francisco by the 
Oakland String Quartet. 

Presented In the Central 
Court of the San Franolsco Mu- 
seum of Art, which has betn the 
scene of previous rocltals by 
San Francisco units, the concert 
was presented through the cour- 
tesy of the Oakland Project, and 
by Invitation of the San Fran- 
cisco Project. 

The booking of this program 
was made possible partly through 
the ccoperatica of the San fran- 
olsco 'luseum of Art, whl:'', 's 
sponsored by the San Francisco 
Artist's Association, and which, 
with the M. H. defoung Mud°ura 
and Palace of Legion of Honor, 
h&s announced these fortnightly 
chamber concerts over the radio, 
arranged :'or the niraeograohlng 
or printing of programs, and co- 
operated In having their staff 
advise and direct the audle,.ces 
to the concert roons. 

The Oaklano String Ense.nble 
played Haj'dn's Quartet f:o. a, 
Opus 7fi, Mozart's Quartet l.i F- 
Major for oboe, violin, viola, 
and cello, and Beethoven's Quar- 
tet Ho. 4, Opus 18. 

Winifred Connolly, flrstvlo- 
lln with the Oakland group. Is 
Assistant Concert Master of the 
Oakland Project Symphony Orch- 
estra. The other members of the 
String Quartet are Rivka Iven- 
tosch, second violin, Ellsa Mad- 
sen, viola, and Mary Hughson, 
cells. Merrill Remington, oboe, 
played In the Mozart Quartet. 

This program marks the begin- 
ning of a series of exchange con- 
certs between neighboring Fed- 
eral Music Project units. 

If present plans materialize, 
the Chamber Orchestra of the San 
Rafael Project will present a 
concert In San Francisco. 

-Page 2 

TH6 &ftTO(>) 

^ ^ e 


Publ isheo Every Month 


State Heaoquarters 



«35 So. Manhattan Place 

Los Angeles 

RAY P, DAVIS, Effitor 


Oastone Uslgll, OaUand Sup- 
ervisor, Is responsible for the 
discovery and public presenta- 
tion of Mary Hughson, who is now 
Principal ot the 'cello section 
In the sjinphony. Her recent 
solo work with the orchestra has 
received much commendation. 

Miss Hughson has Just cele- 
brated her twenty-first birth- 

* * * « * 

Eleanor Maegle and Jack Blren- 
baun, both violinists, have been 
"discovered" by Mr. Vernon Rob- 
inson of the San Bernardino 
Project. Mis Maegle Is appear- 
ing In tne Lark Ellen Echo Bowl 
concert series, and also In Riv- 
erside with the Project symphony 


George Fish, clarinetist of 
the San Diego Project Symphony 
Orchestra, recently had the hon- 
or of being featured soloist at 
a California-Pacific Interna- 
tional Exposition concert In the 
Ford Bowl. 


Ernst Bacon, San Francisco 
Supervisor, discovered a con- 
ductor In the principal of his 
Second violin section. 

The result of Mr. Bacon's 
•talent scouting" Is that Ben 
Bauer is now Assistant Conductor 
to Ernst Bacon! 


Perhaps y«uhdVB wondered who 
writes the descriptive comments 
about the numbers on symphony 
programs, comntnly called "pro- 
gran notes*. 

In Los Angeles It's Mr. Howard 
Williamson who, since the Federal 
Music Project began, has written 
over one hundred prcgram notes. 
These cover every selection play- 
61 by the two Los Angeles Project 
Symphony Orchestras. 

For symwioaiaa preaontad for 


As the highlight of a series 
of outdoor concerts presented 
by the San Bernardino Project 
during July, and continuing 
through August, a light ipera 
program was given recently In 
tne San Bernardino Junlpr Col- 
lege Greek Theatre. 

This concert presented the 
symphony under Mr. Vernon Rob- 
inson, the dance band under Geo. 
Crjit, a chorus ef fcrij voices 
!i: ijer WaiT»n Lewis, cii sU solo- 
ists. T:,e concert was unier t: e 
geieral dlrectlci of "-'r. Robin- 
son, San 'joniardlno Supervisor. 

A unique feature of the even- 
ing was supplied by combining 
the symphony orchestra and dance 
band In selections from "The 
Desert Song". Sixty members 
from the symphony and twelve 
players from the dance band 
formed this combination. 

Mr. Robinson made the musi- 
cal arrangements and orchestra- 
tions for the presentation. 
which culminated In the rousing 
"Riff Song", with both orches- 
tra and chorus. 

This was one of a series of 
summer concerts presented on the 
Junior college campus. 

Other outdoor concerts are 
presented regularly throughout 
the summer at Ellen Beach-Yaw's 
Lark Ellen Bowl In Covlna. Ma- 
dame Ellen Beach-Yaw, Interna- 
tionally famous opera star of 
yester-year, appeared as solo- 
ist In one of the concerts. 
Eleanor Maegle, a young violin- 
ist discovered on the project, 
will make her debut as soloist 
with the orchestra In the Lark 
Ellen Bowl on August 3rd. Miss 
Maegle will play the Mendelssohn 
Concerto In E-nlnor. 

Tentative arrangements have 
been made for the symphony orch- 
estra to play In the Raraona 
Bowl In Hemet, California, on 
Sunday afternoon, August 9th. 

The summer series at the San 
Bernardino Junior College Is 
being sponsored by the mayor 
and city council, the chamber 
of commerce, the San Bernardino 
Music Teachers Association, and 
the MacDowell Club. 

The Lark Ellen Bowl concerts 
are sponsored by Madame Ellen 
Beach-Yaw, while a series of 
outdoor concerts being present- 
ed In the Riverside Junior Col- 
lege open air theatre are spon- 
sored by the Riverside Community 
Music Association. 

the first time, Mr. Williamson 
obtains his Impressions from 
listening to rehearsals. Some- 
times, however, he Is able to 
talk to 'the composer. 

These program notes, on file 
In Los Angeles, are available to 
all state projects. 




J r- 






This is the second of a ser- 
ies of intinate biographies on 
project Personalities. 

Mr. Alexander Stewart, native 
son of the Golden West, was bom 
In Sacramento, California, of a 
pioneer mother who crossed the 
plains via 'prairie schooner" 
In 1849, and of a father who was 
a merchant and city auditor In 
the Capital City. 

Mr. Stewart began his mu»>- 
cal studies at an early age in 
San Francisco and Oakland. He 
studied violin with Herman Brandt 
and Slgraund Beel, theory and 
conducting with the late Dr. 
Humphrey J. Stewart. Later he 
had a year of study In Chicago: 
Viol In with Max Bendlx, oratorio 
and choral conducting with Wil- 
liam L. Tomllns, and theory 
and Instrumentation with Henry 
Schoenfeld. Mr. Stewart later 
conducted choruses and orches- 
tras In Oakland and San Fran- 
cisco, Including the Stewart 
Orchestral Society, the Alameda 
County Chorus of 300 voices, and 
the special chorus of 135 se- 
lected voices »4ilch competed 
with the Chicago Eisteddfod 
chorus for the $10,000 prize 
offered by the Panama Pacific 
International Exposition held 
In San Francisco In 1915. The 
contest was Judged a tie and 
each chorus received $5,000. 

During the world War he gave 
up all musical activities to 
accept service with the war 
Camp Community Service, the gov- 
ernment agency which supeiTflsed 
recreational activities for ser- 
vice men In communities adjacent 
to army and navy camps. 

During the demobollMtlon of 
the American armed forces, Mr. 
Stewart was supervisor of the 
post-war musical activities Of 
the War Camp Community Service. 
In this capacity he organized 
cimmnlty choruses and orches- 
tras for music contests and music 
weeks In San Francisco, Port- 
land, Seattle, Los Angeles, Long 
Beach, San Diego, Oxnard, Visa* 
11a, and other coast cities. 

Since 1924, the present LOS 
Angeles District Supervisor for 
the Federal Music Project ha» 
lectured In choral and orches- 
tral conducting, and directed 
the University orchestra ard 
Trojan mixed chorus at the Uni- 
versity of Southern CallXomla. 

(Continuei on page 3) 

THe BftTO(\) 




Enlightening and encouraging 
are the dirricultles encountered 
and overcome by Mr. Jacques Nelll 
in establishing a band unit at 
the Fresno Project, Mr. Nelll 
had surriclent material for a 
brass band, except for the ab- 
sence of one E»flat alto horn. 
The Idea: of making use of an 
accordlofa was conceived. Now 
the middle harmony usually plai'- 
ed by herns Is successfully hand- 
led by an accordion. 

The use of the accordion gives 
an opportunity for unsMlled E- 
flat alto horn plaj'ers on the 
project to "find themselves." 

The Instrumentation of the 
Fresno Band Unit now comprises 
two S0I9 trumpets, one first 
trumpet, two second and two third 
trumpets, three trombones, three 
B-fiat clarinets, twa baritones, 
one E-riat alto horn, an accord- 
ion, two tubas, two drums, asd 
two xylophonesr 

The xyloSione,- Is a useful' 
substitute for the .flute and 
piccolo of the usual band. The 
oboe part Is used. .The pet-ous- 
slve quality of the xylophone' 
Imparts rhythm, the volume; Is 
ample, and the nlclcel-plated 
tone quality adds brilliance 
and zest to the ensemble. The 
smaller, portable variety pro- 
vides sufficient volume for 
practical purposes, and It Is 
not difficult to write parts In 
the i'dlom of this Instrument, 
since flute patterns arepract- 
Ical. The small xj'lophone had 
enough volume , and was portable. 

Mr. Nelll has also recently 
organized a string quartet which, 
with the concert orchestra', gives 
Fresno three units. 

W H 0"' rS WHO 

(Continued front pffge 2) 

In 1986 Mr, Stewart, while 
continuing his activities at 
U.S.C., was appointed musical 
director for the First Baptist 
Cnurcii of Los Angeles, conduct- 
ing a choir of 85 voices. 

Mr. Stewart directed the fes- 
tival performance of "Elijah" 
at the Shrine Auditorium, Los 
Angeles, in connection with 
K.e seral-oentennlal anniversary 
celebration of the university, 
with a chorus of 350 voices and 
an orchestra of 65 players. Law- 
rence Tlbbett and Madame Schu- 
mann-He Ink were among the solo- 

On June ISth of this year, 
Mr. Stewart's appointment as 
District Supervisor for the Los 
Angeles area of the Federal Mu- 
sic Project was confirmed Ly Dr. 
Nikolai Sokoloff, National Di- 




(Educational Dept., 
Los Ani5Sle8 Project) 

■ (THE BATON presents. In out- 
line form, the first Instal- 
ment of a series of Jir'l-^les 
trearlna briefly wlthtl'.i his- 
tory of muolc, beginning; •vlth 
the prlmU.l' e tribes ind c -rl; 
church muilc, sind culmlnti-lnj 
with the modLrn "swing" rhyUjus. 
Save t!;ese and put them In 
your scrap book.) 

•It takes three to make jw- 
_ sic; one to create, one tc per- 
toiyn, and one to appreciate." 
— Schauffler 

TRINITY // V^. -^■ 

(1) / ■ ■■'^■- ',;■.,. 

In the early Church ,' 1 1 was 
considered tixat only In pulsa- 
tions j/f/ three could praise 
be ornparli! > renrtered \o the 
Trinity. Mbst ['ot., the •e.arly- 
music v/as written Ih triple, 
met'^e aiid was rf.oressntr-d by' 
a circle. As the Trinity als6' 
mean? Infinity, the circle was 
chosen because It has neither 
beginning nor ending: 



As time went on, the church 
broadened Its views on musical 
usage, so that the later music 
was written In duple mjtre. 
This duyle in^^tre was represent- 
ed by a cut- 'circle, which has 
come downtouS as "Cut Time", 
Alia Breve; 'twtf; befits to the 
measure : , ' ' 



The half circle, without 
the line drawn throu©i, repre- 
sents four b'jats to the meas- 
ure, or 4/4 time. Because the 
half circle resembles the cap- 
ital letter C, It ha.s been 
called "Common Time", 

()lext month: The Three Com- 
ponents of Music, and their 




A paireant based on the fairy 
scenes from Shakespeare's "Mid- 
summer Nlglit's Dream", Is sched- 
uled for early production by the 
Orovllle Project, which Is under 
the supervision of Ada Jordan 

Mendelssohn's music, played 
by the Orovllle Project orches- 
tr.i, will accompany the product- 
Ion, which will be presented on 
the banks of the Feather River, 
near Orovllle. The parts will 
be taken entirely by the child- 
ren who have been In summer class- 
es conducted by the Teaching 
Unit, ar.d the production will 
:;erve as a culmination of the 
summer teaching schedule. These 
cl.isses, now being held. Include 
In.structlon In string Instru- 
ments, piano, rhythm, singing 
for children, and more recently 
wcrk In three part songs. Mrs. 
Helen Onyett and Mrs. Edna Scott 
are the teachers, with Mrs. Kazel 
Anderson acting as accompanist. 

A group of local women have 
established a sewing department 
on the project, and will design 
and make the costumes for the 

Several members of this proj- 
ect recently assisted the Chlco 
Recreation Department with a 
chlldr^'s circus, which was 
presented on the grounds of the 
ChlCG/Hlgh School...... 

- A ncoa-day concert;^jas given 
by the. orchestra at the OrSvllle, ..\ 
Inn last week with considerable) , ■ 
success, and open-air (Jbncert^ T; 
are being arranged for Chlco and '• 

The orovllle Inn concert was 
the second In a series being 
presented there, as a result of 
the reception accorded the orch- 
estra's first concert given on 
Jub' 16 th. 


Because several workers on ■ 
the Sacramento Project belong 
"'Ho; .the field artillery and In- 
" tanfrj" regiments of. the-Natlonil 
Guafd, arid desired to atvend the 
annual encaropraent.-,held at ?an 
Luis Obispo, the 6a,{.ram'wito Proj- 
ect discontinued th'eir. .concerts 
for a two week period, . frdm- 'July 
l£th to August 1st. 

Activities and rehearsals 
were resumed last week, with the 
Band Unit presenting an outdoor 
concert In McClatchy Park, Sac 
raraento, on August 6th. 

This concert was one of a 
series of open-air progr-ims being 
presented throughout the summer 
by the Band Unit In three Sac- 
r-jnento p.arks. 


THe feftTOc^ 



The sunmer season Is proving 
a busy one for the Santa Barbara 

For the past throe months, 
activities have been confined 
to Incidental engacements and 
weekly concerts of the different 
units In Santa Barbar?.. Activ- 
ities are now being extented to 
include various outlylnij local- 
ities Ir. the district. 

WeeUy concerts, sponsored 
by the Lions' Club, v/ere given 
on i,he beach at Carpentaria dur- 
ing Julj , aiid will extent; through 
August. The ooncjrt ar.d dance 
orchestras alternate perfom- 

Weekly cor.ccrts ire being 
plaied by different units at Los 
Prlctos CCC camp. From reports, 
the boy^ are thorougnly enjoy- 
ing them. They are being held 
so close to camp during this 
period of forest flris that they 
doubly appreciate the muolcal 

Solvanx, California, has en- 
gaged the quartet, with a view 
toward using the concert orch- 
estra later on. The concerts 
are sponsored by the school 
beard, which Is planning a com- 
munity course In appreciation 
of music to start In the fall. 
The different units of the proj- 
ect will be used In connection 
with this course. 

The Ventura 80-30 Club Is 
arranging to sponsor concerts 
In Ventura. Local Ventura art- 
ists will be guest soloists at 
these concerts. Sponsors are 
also arranging for orchestral 
concerts In Santa Maria and 
Santa Paula. 


The Kale Chorus ef the Los 
Angeles Project Choral Divi- 
sion has a rather enviable 
record, Inasmuch as seven of 
Its members are now directing 
units of their own or teach- 

Harry Boucher Is now Di- 
rector and Production Manager 
of the Opera Unit, Charles de 
la Plate IsChoral Supervisor, 
Rouben Rlcketts is Director 
of the A Cappella Choir, War- 
ren Peterson Is Assistant Di- 
rector of the Light Opera 
Unit, while Frederick Stone 
and Frederick Scholl are now 
on the teaching unit. 

The Los Angeles Choral Div- 
ision Is anxious to hear from 
other choral units on the 
above subject, that they may 
have a basis of comparison. 


Local educators of the Oak- 
land District are enthusiastic 
regarding a serlts of music ap- 
preciation and history classes 
InawiMrated last week by the 
Oakland Project, 

These courses. Intended prl- 
r.arlly for the Oakland school 
children, are being presented 
In cooperation with ti,o IccaI 
Emergency Education Program 
(Board of Education). 

The first series of lectures, 
held on July 22nd, demonstrated 
each major form of musical ex- 
pression, with historical dev- 
elopment. The finest soloists 
and units of the Music Project 
illustrated the principles con- 

The Initial enrollment was 
near the seven-hundrea mark, 
:.nd an average attendance of 
five hundred Is anticipated. 

Oakland follows closely on 
the heels of San Jose and other 
districts In this state-wide 
movement to teach children In- 
strumentation and music appre- 
ciation during the suraner vaca- 
tion period. 

Besides activities of the 
Teaching Unit, the Symphony 
Orchestra of the Oakland Dis- 
trict Is planning three concerts 
during the month. The first 
villi be under the dlrectlor. of 
Mr. Oastone Uslgll, and will be 
presented at the Oakland Audi- 
torium on August 4th. This con- 
cert will be noteworthy for the 
first Eastbay presentation of 
Rlch.ard Strauss's "Don Juan". 
Other numbers will beMartuccl 's 
"Noveletto", Brann's First Sym- 
phony, and the conductor's own 
"Poem" . 

The second concert will alao 
be at the Oakland Auditorium, 
and will present Mr. Modest 
Altschuler as guest conductor. 
The date Is August Uth. 

The third offering Is tenta- 
tively scheduled for the new 
Mens' Gymnasium on the Univer- 
sity of California Campus In 
Berkeley on August 28th. Mr. 
Uslgll will conduct this con- 

Other activities are being 
planned by the Choral Ensemble, 
the Colored Chorus, and tne 
String Quartet. 

Following the success of a 
similar offering in June, the 
Colored Chorus and the Choral 
Ensemble will present a Joint 
concert at the Oakland Audito- 
rium on August 21. These units 
are under the direction of Elmer 
Keeton and Rlvka Iventosch, re- 


A schedule Of regular monthly 
concerts has recently been ar- 
ranged for eight cities of Orange 
County. Approximately seven- 
teen concerts will be given dur- 
ing the month of August by the 
four units of the music project. 
A series of Wednesday evening 
out-of-door programs during 
August Is being presented In the 
Greek Theatre In Aiiahelm. All 
of these concerts are drawing 
ever-Increasing audiences. 

The Symphony, under the di- 
rection of Leon Eckles, project 
supervisor, has been playing 
regular monthly concerts In six 
Or-j,-,ge county communities for 
the past three or four months 
and Is received with enthusiasm 
wherever it appears. The orch- 
estra had the pleasure of pre- 
senting Mr. Julius Lelb, of the 
San Diego Symphony, as guest 
conductor In two concerts, one 
at Santa Ana July 28, and at 
Anaheim July 29. 

It Is the custom of the orch- 
estra to present soloists. Mr. 
Edward Burns, first cellist, and 
soloist with the orchestra, re- 
cently played the "Kol Nedrel" 
by Max Bruch. Georgia Belle 
Walton, violinist, also was fea- 
tured during the month of July. 

For the August series of con- 
certs Mr. Earl Fraser, promi- 
nent pianist of Southern Callf- Is arranging seme of hl» 
compositions for soloists and 
orchestra. Of special interest 
In this group Is a Fantasy for 
pUno and strings whlc. Mr. 
Fraser has written especially 
for these occasions. Sadie 
Greei'.e, Soprano, and Everard 
Stovail, pianist, will be fea- 
tured m this group. > 


Not to be outdone by the 
Monterey Project, wnlch boast- 
ed. In the July BATON, seven 
distinct units from a total 
enrollment of forty-one mara- 
bors, the San Jose Project, 
under Mr. Joseph Clzkovsky, 
announces the organization of 
seven separate units from a 
total enrollment of forty-six 

The units are: a Little 
Symphony, a Teaching unit of 
twenty men, a Piano Quintet, 
a String Quartet, a Bohemian 
Band, a Tlplca Orchestra, and 
a Dance Orchestra. 

The Teaching Unit Is now 
giving Instruction to school 
children In music appreciation 
and Instrumentation. 



Page 5 


Page 6 



San Bernard^o Guthrie 

Los Angeles . . . , . Clzkovsky 

Oakland Reiser 

Los Angeles (1) .. (UCLA) Uslgll 

Los Angeles (1) ^ . . , Uslgll 

Los Angeles (1) ... Samossoud 

24 th 
San n-anclsco Uslgll 

Santa Ana Lelb 

Los Angeles (1) .... Reiser 
Anaheim Lelb 

San Francisco . . H. Arthur Brown 


How would you llltetobe con- 
fined to a hospital, and have a 
symphony play at your doorstep? 

That is what the shut-Ins at 
Stockton are eiperlenolng. And 
Grattan Guerln, Supervisor of 
the Stockton Project, Is respon- 
sible for supplying orchestral 
iruslc to the ailing Stockton- 

Weekly engagements are play- 
ed for the patients at the Stats. 
Hospital, and due to the suc- 
cess and reception accorded by 
the patients and Dr. Sniythe, 
head of the hospital staff, ar- 
rangements are being made to 
have the orchestra play at Bret 
Harte, California, In the Bret 
Harte Sanltorlum, and at the 
Llvermore Soldiers' Hospital in 
Llvermore, California. 

These engagements of the 
Stockton group follow the alms 
or the Project, for they supply 
inislc to those unable to hear 
It otherwise, and they serve 
groups In smaller communities. 

"Of all the places our orch- 
estra plays," states Mr, Guerln, 
•we get most satisfaction in 
Playing for shut-Ins and people 
1*10 are confined to hospitals. 
Some of them, as In the Sol- 
diers' Hospital, are there year 
In and year out. To see the 
sparkle In their eyes and their 
keen happiness <ind appreciation 
for having music cone to their 
doors Is Indeed a pleasure." 

The Stockton Orchestra also 
gives concerts In Oak Park, In 
Louis Park, and at the Project 
headquarters, all In Stockton. 

Manllo SUva, who Is Direct- 
or of the Stockton Symphony Or- 
chestra, and a member of the 
Project Advisory and Audition 
Boards, has shown keen Interest 
In this group. Many ofMr. .111- 
va'6 recent suggestions have 
proved helpful. 


Mr. Erich Weller, In his con- 
cern for the Improvement of mu- 
sicians on his project In Marin 
County, and In his desire to 
show the people of his oomnunlty 
what the Federal Government Is 
accomplishing with Its music 
projects, has overcome many 
small problems that beset the 
organizer of a musical group. 
Here are some of his problems 
and how he overcame them: 

There are twenty-one musi- 
cians on the ttarln County Proj- 
ect. Mr. Weller divided these 
Into a symphony orchestra of 
chamber music proportions, and 
a dance band. Later he formed 
a salon orchestra. Special re- 
hearsal times were set aside 
for each group. Strings and 
wind Instruments rehearsed ds a 
string quartet and as a woodwind 
ensemble. Members of the proj- 
ect not Included In these groups, 
or the dance band, were set to 
work copying parts from scores, 
and ananglng numbers for con- 
certs. During a four hour per- 
iod, two hours were used for 
orchestra practice, one hour 
was set aside for quartet and 
woodwind ensemble practice, and 
the last hour was given over to 
rehearsing the salon orchestra. 

For music the San Francisco 
Public Library was drawn upon. 
Early symphonies of Moz-irl, 
Haydn, and Schubert were found 
the most suitable material for 
the orchestra. Since all of 
these works were not obtainable, 
all parts had to be copied 
from score, this work being dene 
personally by Mr. WeJJer. A 
Septet by Salnt-Saens, the Bee- 
thoven Septet, and a Schubert 
Octet were found suitable, and 
are soon to be performed. 

Mr. Weller builds ell con- 
certs with a view to variety. A 
chamber music work u.'sualiy opens 
his programs. It is played by 
a quartet or quintet. A wood- 
wind enseraUle or a sclo for vio- 
lin, horn, bassoon, or flute, 
accompanied by the orchestra, 
usually follows. Finally the 
whole chamber orchestra con- 
cludes with a siTiphony or work 
using a maximum number of In- 

This order makes a more In- 
teresting program, and keeps the 
audience interest on a higher 
level than would be possible with 
a program played by the whcle 
group during the entire concert. 

This orchestra, following 
the Project's policy of serving 
smaller communities as well as 
cities, has arranged concerts 
for Sausallto, Fairfax, Kent- 
field, and Santa Rosa. . 



Oakland Uslgll 

5 th 

Los Angeles (1) Reiser 

San Francisco .... Altschuler 

12 th 
Los Angeles (1) . K. Arthur Brown 

14 th 
Oakland Altschuler 

19 th 
Los Angeles (1) Usjgll 

San Francisco EJJpis 

28 th 
Los Angeles (1) . . . Altscbvier 

(Subject to change] 


Two Important aroouncements 
were recently »i4fl» bj' Miss Harle 
Jer/ls, Slate Director, con- 
cerning a n«» project it Escon- 
dldo, «nd a new Supervisor at 
Ban Kateo. 

Mr. L. F. Stoddard, formerly 
Director of the Esconcldo Band 
wnen It was under the San Diego 
Project, has been appointed •'^»p- 
ervlsor of the latest project 
at Escondldo, which numbers for- 
ty members. 

Arthur Ounderson, of Menlo 
Park, near San Mateo, has been 
named Supervisor of the San 
Mateo County Project. 

Mr. Gunderson is a native 
son, having been born lo the Bay 
area. He is a graduate of the 
University cf Callfornl-''., and 
produced a season of ■'■lliifirt iind 
Sullivan operas for the Monterey 
Peninsula Opera Association at 
Carmel. Lately, Mr. Ounderson 
has been Assistant Director un- 
der Ernst Bacon, San Francisco 
Supervisor, and played 1st vio- 
lin In the San Francisco Proj- 
ect orchestra. 

He also composed the music 
and staged the Junlpera Serra 
Pageant In Carmel Mission last 

Mr. Stoddard, a well-knovm 
band leader, has forty musi- 
cians In his present band unit. 
The group will continue plai'lng 
regular Sunday afternoon con- 
certs In the City Park at Es- 
condldo, and regular Saturday 
afternoon concerts on the beach 
at Oceanslde, California. 

Due to the success scored 
by this band, a new band-stand 
Is now being erected for the 
group by the city Park Depart- 
ment of Escondldo. 

The establishment of the Es- 
condldo Project now gives Cal- 
ifornia a total of sixteen proj- 
ects. In twelve districts. 




During the sumife'- aeason, the 
various unl'G of the FRderal 
Music Hrojt'-t In San I'lr.go have 
cooperated with practically all 
olasse:; of puhllc acMvltles: 
schools, gcvornmentil riep£.rt- 
nents.-lnoluflUig feJ-ral, muni- 
cipal and county, -pbbi'.n acti- 
vities or Che Horics Fr'r;re£s Ad- 
mlnl'itratlon, civic c-ruos, or- 
ganli'-'lons, and hospitals. 

The project's succuis In co- 
operation with local school sys- 
tems WiS so pronounced that re- 
quests have alreadj' been re- 
ceived for heavier pe.- forms nee 
schedules, starting with the 
fall season. The proj3Ci,'s co- 
operatloi with the rls/fround 
and reCi'eatlon departr^.nt of 
the school system Is cor:lnulng 
through the sumner vacation per- 
iod. Many summer dai;ces and 
concerts are being presented 
under the sponsorship of the 
Parent-Teachers' Association. 

The Concert Band of the San 
Diego Project Is steadily win- 
ning new friends and regular 
patrons; their Sunday concerts 
are now attracting an average 
attendance of 400 people, In- 
stead of approximately 250 as 
of sixty days ago. rive regu- 
lar concerts are given weeKly. 

Recent public concerts by 
the project's Symphony Orches- 
tic* and Chamber Music group 
showed a marked improvement In 
attendance, and won favorable 
conments from the press. 

The Increased Interest and 
attendance cas be attributed to 
the cooperation of city and 
county authorities, the local 
school board, the administrative 
staff of the Worlts Progress Ad- 
ministration, and the Federal 
Theatre Project, in distributing 
programs and publicity notices 
pertaining to future perform- 
ances. Much of this Interest is 
also due to the cooperation of 
local newspapers and to public- 
spirited merchants In permitting 
posters and bulletins to be 
placed In their wlndovt-dlsplay 

Joseph Clzltovslcy, the first 
guest conductor for San Diego, 
gave two public concerts recent- 
ly, one with the band and the 
other with the symphony orches- 
tra, both of which were well re- 

James B. Larkln, formerly 
director of the Band Unit, has 
been appointed Promotional Di- 
rector for the music project In 
this district. 

Karl Kuehne, of the Los Ange- 
les Project, has been assigned 
to direct the Band Unit. 

Mr. Kuehne had formerly serv- 
ed as guest conductor of the 
San Diego band. 


If anyone has In his posses- 
sion authentic airs of t^e '70' a 
and the days of old ;lcncerey, 
when Gensrjl '£\ei',ii\ r^.'e so 
proudl:' up jiif". luA.i tat tovr. 
and the ■.i.^ond of tne "oijeriaan 
P.ose'^ st.'iTed the l:aagJntii.;ons 
of a Pen....iU\a, v.l..-.;; the l.f^!:ln 
House was the seat of .7x-.tiers 
of state, — h". ohruld senc r^em 
to D^ine ;je;;v. S'.p'^i-vlst/r cf the 
Monterey Cc-ir.ry Jrlt, wi.o \s 
planning ': pi-opram cf the Span- 
ish and Mexican ilrs of that 
early perl-jd. 

If research yields iiuffl- 
clent material. It wl'.l la ar- 
ranged for voice and ci'chestra 
of fiddles, guitars, maianlins, 
castanets, cirabonba, pan'U^ret, 
gourds, and such native instru- 
ments as can be found or made. 
The Monterey Peninsula is es- 
pecially adapted to such a pro- 
gram, for descendants of the 
early settlers still live In 
old adobes, and Spaniards and 
Mexicans are a large part of 
the population. 

Civic bodies of Monterey and 
Pacific Orove have recently re- 
quested weeKly concerts featur- 
ing the band and Tlplca orcnes- 
tra. Bernard Callery, assist- 
ant-supervisor of the project. 
Is kept busy preparing new pro- 

Regular programs are given 
by the band on Thursdays In Car- 
mel, and on Saturday afternoons 
at Monterey, while the Tiplca 
orchestra plays on the b9a,oh at 
pacific Grove every Wednesday 

That the Federal Music Proj- 
ect of California employs thirty- 
three hundred people? 

That the Oakland Project 
dance bands have entertained, 
during 150 engagements, a total 
of 60,000 people? 

That A. L. Washington, a mem- 
ber of Carlyle Scott's Negro 
Chorus of the los Angeles Proj- 
ect, has sung command perform- 
ances before King George of 
England and King Alfonso of 
Spain? tSee story this page) 

That the Los Angeles Project 
averages twenty-two musical e- 
vepts each week? 

Ttiat Robert Hester, an oboe 
player with the San Diego Proj- 
ect orchestra, was guest soloist 
at the Ford Bowl concert In Bal-» 
boa Park, San Diego, recently? 


From the nucleus of a male 
quartet under the old SERA, 
Carlyle Scott, Director of the 
Negro Chorus of the Los Angeles 
Project, has developed a mixed 
chorus of seventy-five voices 
that contains the cream of the 
Southland's colored singers, 
many of cjlebracrd reputation. 

The chorus Is the largest 
group of Its kind In California, 
and does not limit its work to 
characteristic southern songs. 
It has become widely known as 
the only Negro chorus In the 
United States to produce Han- 
del's famous oratorio, "The 

While most of the spirituals 
sung by the group are genuine, so many know 
the original versions that con- 
troversies often occur. Each 
singer Interprets It different- 
ly and each claims that his In- 
terpretation Is according to 
the way his mother sang It. 
This Is explained by the fact 
that the same song Is sung dif- 
ferently in different regions, 
and most of them have been hand- 
ed down without having been 
written. Very often a new spir- 
itual IS compiled from the var- 
ious versions of an old one. 

A. L. Washington, featured 
tenor and guitarist, has sung 
command performances before 
crowned heads of Europe, includ- 
ing the late King George of Eng- 
land and former King Alfonso of 
Spain, while a newer member of 
the organization is Daniel Haynes 
of the original cast of Marc 
Connelly's "Green Pastures." 

Other members of this unit 
have had numerous European aud- 
iences, while In more prosperous 
times many brcwght delight to 
thousands In the United States. 

Mr. Scott is noted for his 
arrangements of Negro spirit- 
uals. wJilchhehas sung In hand- 
ed down versions sjnee cradle 
days. Coming to California ten 
years ago, he played In "Hearts 
In Dixie", featuring Clarence 
Muse, and Immediately achieved 
success. Leading his own "Crln- 
olln Choir", and using his own 
song arrangements, he has ap- 
peared on broadcasts with Bing 
Crosby and David Broekman. 

Slowly, but with a definite 
objective, Mr. Scott has sur- 
mounted obstacles which confront 
the organizer of a new group, 
and has molded a unit that bids 
for considerable recognition. 

Director Scott and his chorus 
are now appearing In the play 
"Noah", In Los Angeles, a pre- 
sentation of the Federal Theatre 
Project. Future plans Include 
productions of "Emperor Jones" 
and "Aida". 


Pigs are good nuslc critics! A pair of them. 
In a physiological experlnsnt announced recently 
at Corr.eH University, were placed m a room with 
a phonograph playing the Brandenburg Concerto No. 

They uncurled their tails and walked round and 
round, waving them in fairly good time to the mu- 
sic. But v(hen Th6 Kuslc Goes Round and Round was 
played, the pigs curled up their tails and walked 

« * « * * 

Heard ot o park in Monterey, during a recent 
Project concert! 

*It's the first tine I've teioan a vsa for this 
f>ark. ..This thing mist go on.,. I" 

* * * « « 

i Buslc teacher somewhere In the hinterland re- 
cently entered Into cor- 
raspondence with the pub- 
lishing rirni of Simon & 
Schuster about the Artur 
Schnabel edition of the 
thirty-two Beethoven pi- 
ano sonatas. They quot- 
ed hln prices, and he 
wrote back saying that 
he guessed he'd take 
Cben. His letter con- 
cluded: "I would inquire 
If It would be possible 
for you to furnish me 
with these especially 
written In a trio ar- 
rangeraant for the clari- 
net, bazooka, and Span- 
ish guitar, with the gui- 
tar arrangeaent In the 
key of G." 

— The New Yorker 

4c * * * * 

Then there was the man 
tiho thought a scherzo 
Idas a uoKcn tJio sewed 

* « * * * 

Hr. Venjon Robinson, 
supervisor at San Bernar- 
dino, tells of an Inci- 
dent representing m\»sl» 
cal calisthenics ~ when 
no calisthenics were In- 

In the middle of a 
fast and furious selec- 
tion the ball on the timpani stick flew off, sail- 
ed far over the heads of Innocent raislclans, and 
disappeared down a tuba! 

Of course. It was only a rehearsal, but anyway 
there's nothing like scoring a bull's eye! 

* 4: « 4> * 

B^T G/tO or THI HOItH 

Heard at the Hollytiood Bowl: 

"Hyl Vagner' s lusic is so much better thai 
it aoundsl" 


"...And yet, as we listened to this (Stockton) 
orchestra play Monday morning, we could not help 
but feel an increased admiration for President 
Roosevelt and his broad, helpful policies. That 
the busy Government at Washington could reach out 
to Stockton, California, and provide modest sal- 
aried jots tor specific, unonployed musicians, was 
something for us to think about and tor the play- 
ers to be thankful for..." 

Stockton Record 


"I have heard ir^inj' corcerts of the local nuslc 
project and can endorse them most heartily. I 
feel that Bacon and Uslgll were tne Ideal choice 
for their positions since they both h?vt inaglna- 
tlon, taste and sincere accomplished rauslclaiishlp. 
Their programs have r,een excellent and their rela- 
tions with the rriss and the general putllc have 
been all that one itjlghc desire." 

San Francisco Chronicle. 


stones and • 

Therefore the poet 
Did feign that Orpheus drew trees, 

Since naught so stocklsh, hard, and full of 

But music for the time doth change his nature. 
The man that hath no music In himself. 
Nor Is not moved with concord of sweat sounds'. 
Is fit for treasons, stratagems, and spoils; 
The motions of his spirit are dull as night 
Ana his affections dark as Erebus; 
Let no such man be trusted, 


("Kerchtmt of 7enice"l 



"Community interest 
displayed by the people 
of AlaiTieda County Is more 
than gratifying. li dem- 
onstrates that people do 
enjoy good music and are 
heartily in accord with 
tne efforts of the WPA 
Music Project." 

Htisicians Onion 
American federation 

of Musicians 
Paklani, California 


■I have attended sev- 
eral of the concerts and 
find the work of high 
ordef and efficiency. 
The programs are well 
chosen and suslclaniy 
presented. The audiences 
are both appreciative and 
enthusiastic. It Is a 
great pleasure to me to 
serve In the capacity 
that 1 do on the Advisory 
Board and I have often 
wished that I night be 
more closely associated 
with the real organisa- 
tion work of this fine 

George G. Davis, 

Shemcn-Clay Music Co. 


"These projects are serving a fine purpose and 
the people in charge are doing an excellent piece 
of work. Every coranunlty needs Just the fine mu- 
sic that these organizations are presenting. 

"May my enthusiasms render some encouragement 
to the continuation of this program work." 
Glen H , ¥oois 
Supervisor of Music 
Oakland PubUc Schools 

. ***** 










DR. NIKOLAI SOKOLOFF, Nitioml Director 

DR. BRUNO DAVID USSHER, AssisWnt to National Director 

HARRy HOPKINS, National Administrator 
ELLEN S. WOODWARD, Assistant Administrator 

Vol. I 

September, 1936 

No. 3 



State Director 

The thought recently came to me 
plished by the Federol Music Project, we 
begin to judge our musical activities by 
than by that of quality. Know- 
ing, however, that we can steer 
clear of the shoals if we see them 
in good time, I pass this thought 
on to you. 

Let us guard against the 
tendency to give quantity first 
place in our evaluation of Fed- 
eral Music Project work. The 
biggest unit is not the best nor 
the most important because of 
its size, but only from the stand- 
point of its musical accom- 
plishments. There are small 
units which are doing signifi- 
cant work because of their high 
musical standards. There may 
be — among the three thousand 
musicians on the Music Project 
in California — one musician in 
a small community whose work 
under the guidance of the Proj- 
ect will make musical history. 
Meanwhile, let each group, of 
whatever size, learn to function 
as one man. 

Let us determine that our 
ambition shall leod us to a high 
level of musical accomplish- 
ment. To do this we must judge 
our worth by what we actually 
achieve day by day, rather than 
by what might make a good 
showing in a brief limelight. Let 
us write into the art history of 
California, a record of three 
thousand musicians who have 
worked persistently for the 
achievement of these ideals. 

that with the increasing amount of work being accom- 
may be in danger of losing our sense of perspective, and 
the standards of size, volume, and showmanship, rather 


Here is a new, enlarged, re- 
vised Baton for your perusal. 

What do you think of it? 

The Baton was made possible 
through your cooperation and 
interest in what has been called 
"the biggest movement of this 
generation"; and it can only 
grow and assist you if you assist 
it, and what it represents. 

There is no end to the possi- 
bilities with which we are sur- 
rounded, since culture, as a 
branch of ethics, knows no satu- 
ration point. With this in view, 
the Federal Music Project is 
scheduling and booking events 
under the leadership of world 
famous musicians that will prove 
of lasting significance, and that 
would have been impossible 
without government support. 

Your Baton will attempt to 
keep you informed of these 
events throughout the nation, 
and will let you know what au- 
thoritative music critics think 
of our productions. For, even if 
the criticisms are adverse, you 
can use them as a bosis for fu- 
ture action. 

Articles will also appear by 
leading musicians and music 

Continued^cm Page 8 




Jehanne Bietry-Saunger | 

Associate Editor 



Conductor's Stand . . . 


By Harle Jervis 

Will the FMP Be Permanent 


By Albert Frankenstein 

Oakland Plans Symphonies 


History of Music . . . 
By Frederic SchoU 


San Bernardino Men Form 

Executive Committee . 


My Music 

By E. Y. Lansing, Jr. 


Marin County News . 


San Mateo News . . . 


Dance Band Projects and 
Their Value .... 


By Raisch Stoll 

Monterey News . . . 


Does the FMP Recognize 
American Composers? 


California Supervisors 


San Diego, Los Angeles 
Get "Mikado" . . . 


Fresno News .... 


Conductor's Schedule 


San Francisco News . . 


Music Festival For 



By Ernst Bacon 

Sharps and Flats . . . 


We Quote ..... 


This magazine was primed through the courtesy of a private organization which contributed its equipment 
for the furtherance of Federal Music Project activities. 


Page 3 

Will the 

Federal Music Project 

Be Permanent? 


Mr. Albert Frankenstein, music editor of the San Francisco Chronicle, -was 
asked the following questions: Shpuld the Federal Music Project encourage new 
musicians and play new works? Will the Federal Music Project be a' peitmanent 

Here are his answer f: 

As to the first question, let me quote 
briefly from the August issue of the 
Musical Courier. "Three hundred and 
ninety-two compositions have been 
played by the W.P.A. symphony or- 
chestras in New York during the past 
season, of which eighty-two were by 
Americans . . . world premiers of ten 
compositions were given. . . . The 
W.P.A. orchestras thus are tilling a field 
in American musical life that has hither- 
to been much less ardendy cultivated. 
It is to be hoped that the efforts of this 
project, including its composers' labora- 
tory try-outs, will be continued and ex- 
tended by others. There is a definite 
need for encouragement of this sort, if 
American musicians are not to be given 
a tremendous inferiority complex. In a 
day of professional music-making and 
keen competition from the most highly 
trained craftsmen of Europe, the na- 
tive score has a difficult road to travel 
until it reaches acceptance and perform- 
ance. Even if such a subjection to a 
critical hearing only serves to indicate 
the defects in the composer's equipment, 
it is invaluable in showing him how 
some of these imperfections may be 

This is what they have done in New 
York, where, of course, the community 
is infinitely larger than that in any Pa- 
cific Coast city. The Coast orchestras 
are doing their part in this work, and 
should continue along this line. W.P.A. 
effort on the part of the American com- 
poser need not be stricdy parochial, but 
the local man should be permitted to 
feel that his work has a chance in his 
own community. 

But the whole matter of new music 
should not be confined to American 
creators or to works for orchestra. Nor, 
indeed, should it be confined to "new" 
music, stricdy speaking. The revival 
of old music, the introduction of master- 
pieces that have never been heard in a 
given community, the exercise of daring 
and imagination in the making of pro- 
grams for choral units, orchestras and 
chamber groups, even excursions into 
opera and ballet, are not impossible, and 
they are highly desirable. They are not 
advised because the public demands 
them, but precisely because the public 
doesn't demand them. It will learn to 
demand them in time if a subsidized 
agency that does not have to worry 
about the box office will cram new 
music down the public's throat in suf- 
ficient profusion and with sufficient 

As to the permanency of the Federal 
Music Project, there has been a good 
deal of talk to the effect that the estab- 
lishment of the projects points a way 
to goverimient subsidy of the arts such 
as exists in many European countries. 
Perhaps it does, but it probably does 
not. The project was not brought into 
being by a demand for music, but by 
an urgent necessity for relief. In Eu- 
ropean countries where music and the 
theatre are supported by the govern- 
ment, a preponderance of the general 
public demands that subsidy in order 
that it may patronize the thing sub- 
sidized — not in order that the perform- 
ers may make a living. A much higher 
level of general culture must be estab- 

blished here before government support 
for music can be justified. 

The W.P.A. can play a very signifi- 
cant part in establishing that higher 

WPA Digs Up a Young 
Musical Genius 

TULSA, Okla. — A musical prodigy 
who, with no formal instruction, writes 
symphonies and other musical compo- 
sitions of a high order, has been dis- 
covered by the WPA symphony or- 
chestra here. 

He is Robert Wolfe, 21, formerly of 
Topeka, Kansas, who until four years 
ago was a student in the Topeka high 
school preparing for a career as a chemi- 
cal engineer. 

Wolfe's first composition, entided, 
"Andante Doloroso," was written while 
he still was a high school student. It 
was played at a public concert by the 
WPA orchestra and was pronounced 
by critics as music of a high order. Be- 
sides several voice compositions and 
piano selections, Wolfe also has written 
two symphonies, entided simply "C 
Minor" and "G Minor." 

Six months ago Wolfe's people moved 
to Tulsa from Topeka and he joined the 
WPA symphony here as a viola player. 
He showed his compositions to George 
C. Baum, director of the orchestra, who 
at once became enthusiastic. 

"Wolfe is just the type of person 
for whom the WPA orchestra pro- 
gram was originated," Baum said. 
"The whole idea was to attempt to 
discover and aid persons who have 
talent, and possibly genius, in music. 




The first of four concerts arranged by 
the Oakland Project for September pre- 
sented a distinguished guest conductor, 
Mr. Alexander Stewart, District Super- 
visor of the Los Angeles Project and a 
member of the University of Southern 
California faculty. This concert was 
given at the Oakland Auditorium Thea- 
tre, Friday evening, September 11. 

The second concert was presented in 
San Francisco at the Veterans' Audito- 
rium, Tuesday evening, September 15, 
under the auspices of the Federal Music 
Project of that city, Maestro Gastone 
Usigli conducted a notable program; 
Brahm's First Symphony, Strauss' 'Don 
Juan," Wagner's 'Tristan and Isolde" 
Prelude, and Smetana's "Batered Bride" 

The third offering is scheduled for 
the Oakland Auditorium Theatre, Fri- 
day evening, September 18, with Mr. 
Usigli conducting. The program will in- 
clude Beethoven's Fifth Symphony and 
Smetana's "Bartered Bride" Overture; 
and will feature the appearance of a tal- 
ented guest soloist, Miss Annalee Camp, 
'cellist, who will play the Henry Had- 
ley Konzertsluck for 'cello and orches- 

The final symphonic offering of the 
month, to be given at the Oakland Au- 
ditorium Theatre, Thursday evening, 
September 24, will include the sixty- 
voice Chorus and vocal soloists as well 
as the eighty-piece Symphony Orchestra. 
This will be an all-Wagnerian program, 
featuring the solo work of Mr. LeRoy 
Burge, baritone. Mr. Usigli will conduct. 

Admission day, September 9, was ob- 
served by the presentation of a gala 
dance and entertainment at the Oakland 
Auditorium Arena for the benefit of 
WPA workers, SRA clients, EEP classes, 
their families and friends. Music and 
specialties were provided by the three 
Federal Music Dance Orchestras under 
the direction of Jimmie Thompson. 
While two such dances have been given, 
this was the first occasion on an admis- 
sion charge basis. 

The fine Colored Chorus of twenty- 
five, under the leadership of Elmer 
Keeton, gave a recital in the Project 
Auditorium (1608 Webster Street) 
Tuesday evening, September 8. This 
well-trained group, specializing in 
spirituals, has developed an appreciative 

of the 



Frederic Burr Scholl 

(Educational Department, Los Angeles Project) 

( Continued) 

The three components of Music are: 

(1) . . 

Rhythm is innate. The primitive races express it by dancing, clapping 

of hands or by beating a drum. It has been observed that the Africans are 
so adept at creating intricate rhythms that the white man has considerable 
difficulty in imitating them. Many of their crude songs are sung in duple 
rhythm against the triple rhythm of the drums. 

Time (tempo) has often been mistaken for rhythm. Tempo repre- 
sents the value of the measure. Rhythm divides the measure up into 
pulsating divisions. Rhythm is the framework upon which melody is 

Melody. In the utterances of the primitive races, melody was discovered 
by prolonging the pitches of the voice. The voice was probably the first 
musical instrument; the first form of music was melody. Music consist- 
ing of melody only is called Homophony. After Homophony we have 
Polyphony, which consists of two or more melodies, which, when sung 
together form a pleasing combination. 
Derivation of the word "Homophony": 

Homo — man 

Phon — sound 
Derivation of the word "Polyphony": 

Poly — many 

Phon — sound 
Examples of Homophony are found in the plain song (chants) of the 
Examples of Polyphony are found in the choruses of Handel's "Messiah." 

Harmony developed after the polyphonic period which reached its height 
of development during the time of Bach. There are practically no traces 
of the use of harmony in ancient music. They only sang in unison and 
in octaves. For a time they made use of the interval of a fifth from which 
a new style of music was developed, called "Organum." The effect of 
singing a group of consecutive fifths is not pleasant to our ears. Through 
the slow process of evolution, harmony has grown steadily through ex- 
perimendng with the consonants. It wasn't until about the tenth cen- 
tury that the intervals of the third and the sixth came into common usage. 
In our modern era we are experimenting still further by making use of 
the dissonances. 
Three ways to produce musical tones: 

(1) Air forced through a tube. (Horns-Flutes-Reeds-Pipes). 

(2) Plucking, bowing or striking a tightened string. (Guitar-Violin- 

(3) Striking a resonant body- (Bells-Chimes-Xylophone). 
The three components of sound are: 

For example: 

In the piano, the power is represented by the force of the blow of 
the hammer against the string. The pitch is represented by the length of 
string. The timbre (piano tone) is created by the hammer striking the 
Continued on Page 7 


P«se 5 

Prominent: Business Men of San Bernardino 
Form Group to Back Federal Music Project 

What is thought to be one of the most important announcements of recent 
months concerning the Federal Music Project was made this week by Vemoa 
Robinson, supervisor of the San Bernardino project. At the suggestion of Leslie 
Harris of San Bernardino, Who is vitally interested in the music project work in 
this state, Mr. Robinson has organized an Executive Committee, composed of 
prominent business and professional men of San Bernardino, whose duty it will 
be to sponsor and publicize local project presentations and to further the aims and 
activities of the Federal Music Project. 

This new Executive Committee held its first meeting this week at a local 
hotel, and is composed of Leslie Harris, president of the Harris Department Store; 
Gene Lee, owner and manager of Radio Station KFXM; J. K.. Guthrie, editor 
of the San Bernardino Sun; Dr. Nicholas Ricciardi, president of the San Bernardino 
Valley Junior College; Everett Stidham of the Pioneer Trust Company, and five 
other prominent local men who will represent service clubs »nd professional groups 
of San Bernardino. 

The committee was formed at the suggestion of Mr. Harris, who, because 
of his interest in what the Federal Music Project is doing, wanted to have a definite 
part in furthering its activities. When approached by Mr. Harris and Vernon 
Robinson regarding their serving on the committee, other prominent local men 
appeared eager to have a hand in the promotion of what they called "one of the 
biggest movements of this generation." 

The Executive Committee will in no way interfere with the Advisory and 
Subsidiary Advisory Boards, since these previously appointed groups, composed 
of musicians, advise the San Bernardino project in a musical capacity. 




The Marin County Music Project is 
busy preparing a series of concerts of 
chamber music to be presented in San 
Rafael and in Santa Rosa, after the 
schools open this week. Several concerts 
are also to be given in San Francisco. 

Erich Weiler, district supervisor, is 
planning concerts which show to ad- 
vantage the various individual instru- 
ments in the chamber music group. One 
number on each program features one 
particular instrument. The first instru- 
ment so featured was the trumpet, 
played by Willmeyer Wright in the 
brilliant septet for trumpet, strings and 
piano, by Saint-Saens. Another concert 
presented Mr. Pierre Lambert playing 
French horn in Mozart's Rondo for 
French horn and orchestra. The most 
recent feature was the appearance of 
Mr. Ernest Kubitschek as soloist in the 
Mozart concerto for bassoon and or- 
chestra. Miss Daisy Satille will appear 
as soloist in the Uardini concerto in E 
minor for violin and orchestra this 
month, and a future concert will present 
the Chaminade Concertino for flute and 
orchestra with Miss Winifred Cameron, 

Marin County music lovers are enthu- 
siastic over these chamber music con- 
certs and there has been much favorable 
"word of mouth" advertising by those 
in attendance. 

For the second concert by the San 
Mateo Federal Symphony Orchestra, 
presented at the San Mateo Junior Col- 
lege recently, Arthur Gimdersen, Di- 
rector, chose a varied program which 
appealed to music lovers. 

Luis Pamies, pianist, performed 
Liszt's Phapsody No. 14; and Derrel 
Rexford, baritone, sang "Invictus," by 
Kuhn, and the "Osra," by Rubcnstein. 

An added attraction was a violin solo 
by Emil Rossett, who played the "An- 
dante," from the Concerto in E Minor, 
by Mendelssohn. 

These soloists, together with the 
String Quartet and the full orchestra 
sections, made up a program that was 
well received by music lovers. 

The concert was sponsored by the San 
Mateo Recreation Department. 

As an indication of the work per- 
formed by Mr. Monte Carter, Director 
of Public Relations, and his department 
in Los Angeles during the month of 
June, 255 newspaper clippings totaling 
1318 inches of publicity, appeared in 
local newspapers. In July, this amount 
was increased to 353 clippings, covering 
a total of 1971 inches of free publicity. 

By E. y. Lansing, ]r. 

Frankly, I am beginning to imder- 
stand music. 

A year ago, music was a sound that 
pleased me or didn't please me and I 
felt as if I had been cheated if I had 
paid a lordly sum (for me) to listen to 
a series of sounds that did not bring 
an agreeable reaction. 

When I read the announcements of a 
federal sponsored concert without 
charge, it seemed to me a strange de- 
parture from the ordinary channels 
such events should take. 

Could a free concert be worth listen- 
ing to? What sort of artists would be 
presented ? Would anyone go ? 1 went to 
satisfy my curiosity more than my ap- 
petite for music, coming to the conclu- 
sion that if cities could provide free 
outdoor band concerts, it might be pos- 
sible for a federal sponsored concert to 
have some merit. 

I went, and that started my real ap- 
preciation of music as music, and not as 
a passing melody. I watched for these 
federal sponsored concerts and sym- 
phonies, and at each I picked up a litde 
more knowledge of music, and of the 
voices, and of the instruments until 1 
caught the plaintive note of the flute or 
the varied tones of the violin. I learned 
the difference between a soprano and a 
contralto. Gradually I reached the point 
where I found myself whisding an aria 
or a lovely melody which had become 
fixed in my mind. Through close asso- 
ciadon, I am acquiring the fundamentals 
of taste and appreciation and becoming 
music conscious. 

I found the performances excellent, 
to be worthily classed with concerts I 
had paid two dollars or more to hear. 

And I think that thousands of other 
Americans have had the same experi- 
ence, and are now enjoying music for 
its basic worth. The money element 
has disappeared because, when the con- 
certs were no» free, the nominal charge 
of a dime or quarter does not rip at my 
purse strings. I could go as often as 1 
pleased, and I did. 

Now that I can recognize the melodies 
which have won my attention, I realize 
that I have made new friends which 
should have been friends long ago — 
for they bring a mental satisfaction I 
had failed to recognize. 

The Federal Music Project gives an 
opportunity for a realization of music 
to all who will follow it, as I do. 

Page 6 


Danee Band Projects and 
Their Value 

By Raisck Stall 

Dance Band Projects contribute to the 
community three values of no mean 
importance. These values derive from 
the functions of the projects as part of 
the general scheme of work relief for 
professional musicians and other cul- 
tural artists. 

The first function is the employment 
and rehabilitation of musicians of suf- 
ficient talent and ability, actual or po- 
tential, to place them in the professional 
class, musicians who, in normally pros- 
perous times, would be employed by 
private e^iterprise. 

Since the depression, dance band mu- 
sicians have suffered keenly. In the 
days of 1929, money flowed freely and 
hotels, theatres, cafes, dance halls, and 
private citizens giving parties, presented 
a demand for dance music which en- 
couraged many young musicians to 
train themselves for this branch of their 
profession. With the depression and the 
resulting lack of spending power, pro- 
prietors of amusement enterprises cut 
orchestras down to skeletons and in 
many cases substituted phonographs and 
other mechanical music makers. Almost 
stranded, these young men found the 
only source of income left in casual jobs 
— one-night engagements which became 
scarcer and scarcer. 

They felt that with recovery they 
might again expect security, a living 
wage and permanent jobs, but in the 
meanwhile what to do? Some aban- 
doned music, some struggled on. 

Those with the courage to hang on 
found the long waits between casual 
jobs discouraging and the conditions of 
this occasional work tended to lower 
their morale still further. There is litde 
Ci.rouraijement to practice, to retain or 
Uiij uve technique, when jobs are scarce 
and th- only ones av;:ilable were played 
in a m Jiocre style which disregarded 
cljan L. ccution, variety of dynamics, 
precise attack and the other essentials 
of good dance music. 

This u .!<; the situation up to the estal> 
lishment of Dance Band Projects by the 
Federal Works Progress Administration. 
Under the new dispensation these dis- 
couraged musicians began to regain their 
skill and courage at the regular and fre- 

Mr. Stall, a composer and lyric 
writer of note, is at present Dance 
Band Supervisor for the San Fran- 
cisco District of the Federal Mus- 
ic Project. 

quent rehearsals. They received a wage 
which though modest meant security. 
The directors of the units demanded 
the cleanness of execution characteristic 
of the best dance orchestras. An esprit 
de corps gradually developed, a spirit 
peculiarly necessary to dance bands, as 
they are often called upon to improvise 
as an ensemble much as the Hungarian 
Gypsy Orchestras. Special arrangements 
of new and old melodies were provided 
which demanded more facility than the 
standard printed orchestrations em- 
ployed on casual jobs. Soloists were 
encouraged to practice at home and 
were featured in public performances. 

In short, the routme followed by the 
best bands employed by private enter- 
prise was introduced with the result 
that excellent units have been and are 
being produced and individual mem- 
bers are recovering and even improving 
the ability they possessed prior to the 
demoralizing period of unemployment. 
That this is not mere wishful enthu- 
siasm is proved by the fact that many 
ha\e left the projeas, rehabilitated and 

In a sense the work of the musical 
directors is like that of doctors. The 
more completely successful they are the 
more they will remove the conditions 
making their work necessary. 

The second function of Dance Band 
Projects is to employ musicians in such 
a way as to benefit their communities. 
Many have not only physical but mental 
needs as well. Pleasurable relaxation is 
not only pleasurable but an absolute 
necessity for mental health. Dancing and 
listening to rythmically exciting music 
are excellent means of procuring relaxa- 
tion from the pressing problems and 
cares of the day. 

Dance Band Projects have furnished 
music for dances and concerts to thou- 

sands in hospitals, community centers, 
high schools, setdement houses, for all 
worthy groups unable to employ local 
musicians due to lack of adequate funds 
for recreation and entertainment. 

One of the best uses to which Federal 
Dance Bands could be put, in the writer's 
opinion, is at dances organized for our 
large unemployed population. If dances 
were given at which the only admission 
ticket needed was a WPA card, pleas- 
ureable relaxation would be provided 
for a large class most in need of it. 

The third function of Dance Band 
Projects is one common to all other 
music projects: the increase of our cul- 
tural assets by encouragement offered 
to young and old unknown composers. 
It is a well known fact that the young 
or unknown composer finds it difficult 
if not almost impossible to get public 
performance of his compositions. Worse, 
he often does not even have the chance 
to hear his number performed at all. 
This lack of opportunity for self criti- 
cism, change and actual instead of 
imaginary hearing of the actual sounds 
has undoubtedly hindered or at least 
retarded the growth of many of our 
composers. Those who have been over- 
dosed with radio may feel that in the 
case of the composer of popular or dance 
music the tragedy is negligible. But 
therein lies the point. What you have 
heard has been what has been accepted, 
in other words that calculated to please 
the lowest common denominator of mu- 
sical taste, even that of the musically 
illiterate. The music which is more orig- 
inal and of a higher type, that which 
departs from the standard demanded 
brarid remains in manuscript. Thus the 
new, the strange, the interesting remains 
unheard when a few performances 
woiJd often be enough to make it ac- 

At the risk of appearing dogmatic 
the writer wishes to go on record as 
believing that what is currendy called 
"swing" music, and which is just this 
year's style of something that has been 
called variously, ragtime, jazz, hot mu- 

Continu£d on Page 10 


P«9t 7 


Does the Federal Music Project 

Recognize American 


The Monterey Unit of the Federal 
Music Project is busy working out its 
fall program. With the exodus of sum- 
mer visitors, the summer open air con- 
certs have been discontinued, coming 
to a colorful close with Band and Tipi- 
cas playing for the Forest Theatre Car- 
nival over the Labor Day week-end. 

Concert Orchestra, Chorus and Trio 
are working overtime, combining forces 
to give a program in the Pacific Grove 
Auditorium on the seventeenth of 

Meanwhile, the supervisor, Dene 
Denny, and her assistant, Bernard Cal- 
lery, have planned programs for the 
rural districts, which will send the tal- 
ent of the Federal Music Project far 
afield. Monterey County is larger than 
many states in its distances. Down the 
coast for sixty-two miles it stretches, 
ending in a litde school near San Sim- 
eon, while South to San Miguel and be- 
yond, ninety-two miles from Salinas, 
it projects into mountain fastnesses 
where a remnant of America's earliest 
sctders preserves its pure strain, and an 
earlier world of Missions and Ranches 
still colors the foothills with their dose- 

A report upon performances of Amer- 
ican work in each locality of the Cali- 
fornia Federal Music Project was re- 
cently requested by the state office. 

The result of the query brings out the 
fact that the local man is not being 
forgotten in California by WPA Sym- 
phony Orchestras, nor are the significant 
names of contemporary American music. 

San Francisco and Los Angeles lead 
in the report of performances of Ameri- 
can work. Modest Altschulcr, conductor 
of the No. 1 Symphony Orchestra of the 
Los Angeles Federal Music Project, and 
Ernst Bacon, district supervisor in San 
Francisco, have introduced many Amer- 

ly knit districts. 

Small ensembles are being prepared 
to carry programs to these schools and 
to those less remote, beginning with a 
concert in Castroville on September 22 
by the Tipicas. To make the proposed 
schedule more practical, combinations 
of two and three violins with 'cello and 
piano, of saxophone trios, and various 
small reed and bass ensembles are be- 
ing worked out. 

Continued from Page 5 

string at a given point which divides the fundamental vibration of the 
string into upper partials. (Harmonics). 

In the violin, the power is represented by the cohesive resistance 
between the horsehair bow and the string. The length of the string de- 
termine the pitch. The timbre (violin tone) is caused by the scraping 
resistance which divides the fundamental vibration of the string into 
the various upper partials. 

In the human voice, the power is represented by the air pressure 
from the lungs. The pitch is represented by the contraction and relaxa- 
tion of the vocal cords, thereby regulating their lengths. Timbre is con- 
tained in the thickness of the vocal cords, their edges and other structural 

Violinists often play harmonics on the violin. When playing har- 
monics, the fundamental vibration is eliminated. 

The falsetto voice is produced by singing the harmonics of the vocal 

Without Power, Pitch and Timbre there could be no sound. 

"Timbre" means quality of sound, such as that which distinguishes 
the voice from the piano, the flute from the violin or the trumpet from the 
oboe, etc. 

Musical sound consists of regular vibrations. 

Noise consists of irregular vibrations. 

The pitches which vibrate with the fundamental have three names: 



Upper Partials 

(Next month: The three forms of music which have come to us through 

the process of evolution). 

ican compositions of worth to concert 

In Los Angeles more than twenty 
American compositions have been per- 
formed during the last six months, man^ 
of these for the first time anywhere. 
They are: 

GARDEN," by Cameron O'Day Mac- 
Pherson (a resident of Santa Monica, 
California. Born in New York City). 

"RHAPSODY" Suite for piano and 
orchestra, by Ralston. 

ICA" Suite for orchestra, by Anthony 
Maggio. (A bass player in the Los An- 
geles Project Orchestra). 

symphonic suite: "A COMMUTER 
SINGS," by Mahlon Merrick (born in 
Iowa in 1900, now living in Holly- 

Samuel Scheer, (a former student of 
the Naval School of Norfolk, Virginia; 
he studied violin with Naoum Blinder). 

ED," symphonic Suite, by Ernst Bacon 
(District Supervisor of San Francisco 

Second Movement from "SYM- 
PHONY IN D MINOR," by Ernst 

"TANGO PAMPLONA," by Arthur 
J. Babich (conductor of concert band 
of the Los Angeles Federal Music Proj- 

"SEQUOIA GIGAN-nA," by Felix 

Harlow Mills (a member of Whittier 
College in Whittier). 

Symphony No. 2, by Felix Borowski 
(formerly head of Chicago Music Col- 
lege, professor of Theory and Counter- 
point, musical history and music critic 
for several leading national newspapers). 

"SEMIRAMIS," Tone Poem, by Felix 

Mary Carr Moore (bom in Memphis, 
Tennessee; lives nov/ in Los Angeles. 
Has written ten operatic works, many of 
which have been performed on the Pa- 
cific Coast). 

Heinz Roemheld (born in Milwaukee, 
now living in Hollywood, where he 
Continued on Page 1 1 

Page 8 



Borowski's Second Symphony Given 

By Federal Forces — Composers 

In Alliance 

{Reprinted from Muscat America) 
Los Angeles, Aug. 10 — Concerts of 
the Federal Music Projects are fast being 
made an integral part of the Commu- 
nity's musical life. Especially noteworthy 
have been programs of the symphony 
which has moved into the newly 
refurnished Trinity Auditorium for its 
Wednesday night concerts. Jacques 
Samassoud, conductor on July 22, intro- 
duced Felix Borowski's Second Sym- 
phony, which proved a work of distinc- 
tion. The premiere of this work by a proj- 
ect symphony is a fulfillment of the 
promise to American Composers that 
works by native talent would be played. 
The composer, who is a Coast visitor 
this summer, was introduced by Alex- 
ander Stewart, district supervisor. 

Dr. Alois Reiser, conductor of the 
succeeding Wednesday night, led the 
orchestra in music of his native Bo- 
hemia. Mr. Reiser is a favorite with 
symphony audiences and won acclaim 
in works by Smetana, EKorak and 
others. American Composers, resid- 
ing in Los Angeles, have affiliated 
themselves together for mutual bene- 
fit, the prime object being to further 
presentation of works in the larger 
forms. The organization is the out- 
growth of a discussion, conducted at 
the recent meeting of the California 
State Music Teachers Association. 
Through the efforts of Homer Grunn, 
Mary Carr Moore and Guy Bevier 
Williams, symphonic works, light operas 
and choruses will be presented by va- 
rious divisions of the music project. A 
name has not yet been chosen for the 
group, but many prominent composers 
in the Southland arc already members. 



Continued from Page 2 

critics, that you may have the 
advantage of their viewpoints 
on contemporary, significant 

Speal<ing of music critics, 
read Albert Frankenstein's ar- 
ticle in this issue, and see if you 
agree with him. Then let us 
know. We MIGHT have some 
extra space next month! 

— R. P. D. 

Following is a list of supervisors 
for all California districts. If you 
are not a Project worker, contact 
the nearest district office for in- 
formation regarding concerts and 
activities, and become acquainted 
with the functions of the Federal 
Music Project: 

Phyllis Ashman 
Moose Hall 

Grattan Guerin 
110 N. Hunter St. 

Jacques Neill 
1851 Fulton St. 

Vernon C. Robinson 
580— 6th St. 

Erich Weiler 
231 San Rafael Ave. 
Ernst Bacon 
678 Turk St. 
Gaston Usigli 
1608 Webster St. 
Joseph Cizkovsky 
261 North 2nd. St. 
Arthur Gunderson 

1300 Howard St. 

Antoni van der Voort 
Frances Crowl, Asst. Supv. 

701'/2 Anacapa St. 


Dene Denny 


Alexander Stewart 

Dist. Supv. 

James G. McGarrigle 

Administrative Supv. 


Chas. H. Marsh 

Room 16, Broadway Pier 


Leon Eckles 

306"/2 4th St. 


Mr. Lynn Stoddard 

2nd & Quince Streets 


Mr. Harry Hopkins, National Ad- 
ministrator of the Works Progress 
Administration, was an honored visitor 
in California last week. 

Mr. Hopkins visited the San Fran- 
cisco project at some length, but a num- 
ber of engagements and a great deal of 
work prevented his visiting the Los 
Angeles project. However, a luncheon 
was given in his honor at a large Los 
Angeles hotel which Miss Harle Jervis, 
state director, and a number of Works 
Progress Administration officials at- 

We regret that we cannot give a more 
complete report of Mr. Hopkins' visit, 
due to the fact that he arrived in Los 
Angeles as the Baton was going to press. 


That the Federal Music Project Sym- 
phony Orchestra of San Bernardino 
played ten concerts during the month 
of August.'' 

That the Oakland Project District 
Supervisor, Gastone Usigli, was the re- 
cipient of the Ricordi international 
award for symphonic poems at Milan 
in 1924, with his tone poem "Don 

Gastone Usigli, Oakland supervisor, 
has had the satisfaction of discovering 
and developing the voice of LeRoy 
Burge, talented young baritone. Mr. 
Burge took a solo role in the May Music 
Festival Wagnerian oflering and is 
scheduled to appear in many future 

To someone who told Gounod that 
his "Romeo et Juliette" had a great 
number of Mozartean elements, the 
French composer replied with suavity: 
"I am glad to hear you say that. Few 
of us fail to delight in the retrospect of 
that master." 

Brahms, on meeting Goldmark one 
day before one of the many "historical" 
abodes of Beethoven, remarked pleas- 
antly to the latter, who was examining 
the bronze plaque mounted in the wall: 
"There'll be one such tablet on your 
house some day." Goldmark rubbed his 
hands with pleasure, exclaiming: "And 
what will it say Meister Brahms.''" — 
Brahms turned to him with a candid 
face: 'Torrent." 


Page 9 

^^Mikado'^ Scores in San Diego; 
Los Angeles Production Ready 

One of the outstanding productions of The Federal 
Music Project during August was the San Diego District's 
elaborate presentation of Gilbert and Sullivan's famous 

Instead of assigning a reporter to cover this story it was 
only necessary to clip, at random, 
reportorial comments which appeared 
in San Diego papers. 
Read on: 

"Taken as a whole, the excellence 
of the performance was a glowing 
satisfaction of the government's plan to 
put to work unemployed musicians. 
The enthusiastic reception given by the 
capacity audience left no question of 
the public's approval. If you can go, do 
not miss this show. Many of us who 
saw the opening performance will need 
no urging to see such an excellent pro- 
duction once or twice again." 

— San Diego Sun. 


"The Ocean Beach News reporter 
enjoyed the performance to the fullest 
extent on the premiere showing, others 
in the crowded house being wholly 
pleased and joining in many encores 
that greeted the players. Charles H. 
Marsh, choral director, and those con- 
nected with the presentation of this 
fine opera, are to be congratulated upon 
the success they are achieving." 

"Roy Dunn, manager of the Savoy 
Theatre, said that the sale of tickets 
to the Mikado has surpassed the great- 
est record ever set by any classical or 
semi-classical performance in San 
Diego. All tickets to every show except 
a few center seats for Saturday matinee 
and night were sold." 

— San Diego Union 

"Gorgeously costumed and sumptu- 
ously mounted, this Mikado production 
by the W. P. A. Federal Music Proj- 
ect is as noteworthy for its elaborate 
and convincing singing as for the beauty 
of the principals' voices and perfection 
of the ensemble of the sixty professional 

— Southern Cross, San Diego 

"The opening presentation of the 
Mikado, the three act musical comedy, 
last night was greeted with a round of 
applause and a gale of laughter by a 
large audience which packed the 
Savoy Theatre in San Diego. 

— Blade-Tribune, Oceanside 

Through the efforts of Mr. Lenel 
Shuck, Director of Music for the Fresno 
public school, and Mr. O. S. Hubbard, 
City Superintendent of Schools in Fres- 
no, several units of the local Music 
Project under direction of Mr. Jacques 
Neill will be used in music appreciation 
classes in the schools this fall. 

Both Mr. Hubbard and Mr. Shuck 
have attended several concerts present- 
ed by the Fresno Project, and this an- 
noucement comes as a result of their 

After weeks of intensive rehearsal, Gilbert and Sullivan's 
colorful operetta, "The Mikado" is scheduled to open at a 
downtown theatre in Los Angeles the middle of October, as 
the first of a series of big-time fall productions by the Los 
Angeles Project. "The Mikado" will open in Bell, California, 

for a run of two nights previous to its 

Los Angeles opening. 

The entire production is under the 
direction of John R. Britz, Director of 
the Light Opera Unit of the Los An- 
geles Project. This unit consists of 
twenty principals, and a chorus of forty. 
Arrangements have been made for a 
special orchestra of thirty pieces re- 
cruited from the best and most expe- 
rienced musicians on the project. This 
same orchestra will play in other light 
opera productions which are scheduled 
to follow "The Mikado," among them 
being Homer Gruim's "Isle of Coo Coo. " 


During a rest period of the Federal 
Music Project in Sacramento recendy 
a very creditable double quartet was 
discovered softly singing "Till We Meet 
Again" in a corner. Music is being or- 
dered for this quartet and they will be 
featured on the concert series this fall. 

Conductor's Schedule 

Los Angeles Jacques Samossoud 

Los Angeles Adolf Tandler 

Oakland Alexander Stewart 

Oakland Gastone Usigli 

Los Angeles Dr. Richard Lert 

Los Angeles Modest Altschuler 

Los Angeles Tord Benner 

Harry Boucher has organized a pro- 
duction department in the Music Proj- 
ect, where all scenery and costumes have 
been created. The Music Project will 
also have its own stage hands, electri- 
cians, and prop men. 

The dances in this best-known Gil- 
bert and Sullivan operetta will be staged 
by Miss Flora Norris, for many years 
a well-known dance director, both in 
legitimate productions and in the mov- 
ies. Orchestras arrangements have been 
made by Dan Michaud. 

The cast includes many names fa- 
mous for previous interpretations, both 
vocally and dramatically. Among the 
principals are Allan Rogers, Charles 
King, James Grahnney, Jack Hender- 
son, Rena Case, Georgia Carroll, Minka 
Badanova, and many others. 

Charles Cannon, who recendy cre- 
ated a sensation in the San Diego pro- 
duction as "Ko Ko," will appear for 
several performances in Los Angeles in 
the same role. 

After the closing of "The Mikado," 
other famous operettas will follow. 

Pase 10 





It was Robert Henri, the great Amer- 
ican painter, who once said: "We must 
realize that artists are not in competi- 
tion with each other." This fact, not 
always fully appreciated, seems to be a 
matter of daily thinking in the Federal 
Music Project in Cahfornia, where su- 
pervisors and musicians engaged in mu- 
sical work under the WPA program 
make it a practice to exchange services 
and courtesies as part of their musical 

Tuesday, September 15, the San 
Francisco Federal Music Project 
brought to the Veterans' Auditorium in 
San Francisco the full personnel of the 
WPA Oakland Symphony Orchestra 
and its supervisor-conductor, Gastone 
Usigli. The program on that occasion 
was one which the Oakland WPA or- 
chestra had already played with much 
success to its East Bay audience, and 
was comprised of Brahms' First Sym- 
phony, Love Scene and Prelude from 
"Tristan and Isolde," by Wagner, and 
the Richard Strauss tone poem, "Don 

The Oakland Federal Music Project 
will return the compliment to the WPA 
San Francisco Orchestra when it will 
play host in the Oakland Auditorium 
on Thursday, October 1st. 

Very shortly the San Francisco WPA 
Symphony will start a scries of out-of- 
town concerts. Small communiries, 
rural districts, will be visited in turn by 
small musical groups and the orchestra 
of the Federal Music Project in San 
Francisco, a part of a state-wide pro- 
gram of musical expansion to the out- 
lying communiries. 

On Tuesday evening, September 8, 
the last of a series of WPA Chamber 
Music Concerts was given at the San 
Francisco Museum when David 
Schneider, WPA violinist, and Douglas 
Thompson, pianist, presented a violin 
and piano sonata recital under the au- 
spices of the Museum. Beethoven's So- 
nata No. 10 (Op. 96), Mozart's Sonata 
in E Minor (K 304) and Richard 
Strauss' Sonata in E flat. Op. 18 made 
up the program. 

A new series of weekly concerts will 
start on Tuesday evening, September 
22, in the lecture room of the Museum, 
featuring vocal artists in recitals of 
songs by composers of all nations, includ- 
ing modern Americans. France Wood- 
mansee will comment on each program, 

Continued from Page 6 
sic, jig and a hundred other terms — is 
the only music truly expressive of cer- 
tain peculiarly American characterisucs 
never fully expressed by any other 
American music and characterisucs 
moreover fundamental to American 
people. It is the folk music of our city 
masses if folk music means music pro- 
duced by the folk for the folk. Other 
types of music, other idioms have their 
small clientele (happily growing larger 
all the rime) but popular dance music, 
both swing and sweet, is the only music 
commonly, spontaneously and complete- 
ly accepted by our contemporary masses. 
Some of our conservative critics prefer 
as explanarion of this undeniable fact 
that our masses are abysmally ignorant. 
Might it not be, perhaps, more likely 
that this love of our popular music by 
our people may be due to the fact that 
its tremendous energy and vitality, 
amounting at times to violence, is typical 
of our country. 

Although the sweet and melancholy 
mood of 19th Century European Music 
and its less emorional echo, 20th Cen- 
tury American Romandc music, finds 
an echo of an echo in our excessively 
syrupy "Sweet" popular dance music, 
this mood is less truly American than 
the bouncing, rude, wisecracking humor 
of Jazz, as full of exaggeration and the 
unexpected as an O. Henry story. The 
asymmetrical lurch of Jazz is as truly 
American as the smooth regular glide 
of the Waltz is European. If any proof 

and will also participate in the series in 
the capacity of pianist. 

The first series of exchange chamber 
music concerts to be given under the 
auspices of the San Francisco Federal 
Music Project staned Monday evening, 
Sept. 14, and will take place on alter- 
nate Mondays throughout the next two 
months at the California Club Audito- 
rium. An admission charge will be made 
for these concerts. The first chamber 
group to be heard on this paid admission 
series brought a fine program by the 
San Rafael WPA Federal Music Proj- 
ect, under the direcuon of Erich Weiler, 
San Rafael District Supervisor. 



There are only three operatic plots. 
The lady is wronged — Gounod wrote 
it and called it 'Faust;' the gentleman 
is wronged — Bizet wrote it and called 
it 'Carmen;' both the lady and gende- 
man are wronged — Puccini wrote it and 
called it 'Tosca.' 

— Musical America 

The Concert Orchestra unit of the 
Sacramento Project is busily engaged 
in rehearsing in preparation for their 
Fall Concert Series. 

The season will open with the first 
concert to be held in the Oak Park 
Clubhouse in Sacramento, the 30th of 
September, with a guest soloist. There- 
after concerts will be played monthly in 

The cities of Woodland, Marysville, 
Roseville, Auburn, Placerville and Davis 
have been contacted, and concerts will 
be played in these communities after 
the opening concert in Sacramento. Ad- 
visory Boards have already been ap- 
pointed in some of these commimiries 
and full cooperation has been offered 
to assure their success. 

were needed of the peculiarly American 
spirit of Jazz it could be found in the 
fact that while our dance music becomes 
increasingly popular across the Adanric, 
few over there can play it as we do. In 
their hands it becomes something else 

Pre-Jazz is typical of contemporary 
American culture in another important 
respect: its possibilities are greater than 
its performances. Its limitations are 
many and serious but its characteristic 
rythyms and phrasing if applied to mu- 
sic possessing the wider harmonic range 
and larger forms of "classical" music, 
will result in new and valuable Ameri- 
can music. At least such is the opinion 
and hope of many. 

The beginnings of this new music 
have been made and it is a fact that 
they can only be played to their best 
advantage by musicians possessing 
dance band experience. Our Dance Band 
Projects provide the orchestras and op- 
portunities of performance for manv 
young composers experimenting along 
the lines indicated above, in fact, the 
projects provide the only opportunity 
on a large scale for this type of Ameri- 
can music and not a few interesting 
performances may be expected. 

For this work in advancing one of the 
branches of American composition, for 
the pleasurable relaxation and enter- 
tainment given to thousands of people 
in their communities, and for the re- 
habilitarion and security provided mu- 
sicians of talent and ability, the Dance 
Band Projects have justified their exist- 
ence and will continue to return value 
in direct ratio to the support accorded 


Page 11 

Should the FMP Sponsor a 
Summer Music Festival? 

By Ernst Bacon 


— Ernst Bacon. 


W. R. Bagley of Muncie, Ind., claims 
to have set a new endurance record on 
the piano by playing continously for 
fifty hours and five minutes. 

— Musical America 


Players of wind instruments are ex- 

ceptionaly long lived. Cornet players 

average 69.1 years; clarinet players, 64.4 

years; oboe and basoon players, 63 years. 

— Musical America 

Continued from Page 7 
writes musical settings for motion pic- 

TONE PICTURES— excerpts from 
cinematic scores — Max Steiner (was for 
many years a conductor of Broadway 
musical shows. Has been in Hollywood 
since 1929, where he is at present mu- 
sical director for Selznick International). 

Charles Wakefield Cadman. 

Haubiel (professor of theory and com- 
position at New York university). 

Ellis Levy, inspired by a motor trip 
across the Mojave desert and describejs 
a perilous night of driving with its at- 
tendant fears. (This violinist composer 
now lives in St. Louis, his native city). 

"I NT ANT SUITE," by Radie Brit- 
ain (now living in Chicago, she is also 
a member of the McDowell colony). 

"SYMPHONY NO. 2," by Howard 
Hanson (director of the Eastman School 
of Music), 

That the Federal Music Project should 
undertake a Summer Festival in Cali- 
fornia seems logical enough. Most of the 
Country looks for some excuse to come 
out here vacationing, and yet, nowhere 
does CaUfornia ofier any kind of cul- 
tural festival during the summer, of a 
nature and quality commensurate with 
those famous festivals given in Europe 
— in Salzburg, Bayreuth and Munich. 

Of course, there are the Hollywood 
Bowl and the Hillsboro concerts, but 
these do not center around any one par- 
ticular phase or personality of music. 
Neither are they located in communi- 
ties whose major preoccupations they 
can become for the course of a season. 

Indeed, it requires a small commu- 
nity to stage a festival properly; one 
which devotes its entire attention and 
enthusiasm to such an event. A com- 
munity, also, which is so situated that 
travelers can enjoy the approximate 

There are a few communities in Cal- 
ifornia so beautifully situated as to be a 
temptation for such a festival— notably, 
Santa Barbara, Carmel, Monterey, and 
a cluster of towns in Marin County near 
San Francisco. Carmel has already had 
two annual Bach Festivals of consider- 
able success, availing itself of talent in 
the Bay Region and the Monterey Pen- 

The Federal Music Projett could best 
carry out such a festival plan, what with 
its orchestras, choruses and already func- 
tioning opera companies, chamber mu- 
sic groups, etc. Why should it not at- 
tempt a Festival of American music.'' 
Not in a series of concerts made up of 
the austere productions of our compos- 
ing musical intellectuals, but rather in 
a diverse program of stage and concert 
music, adhering not too closely to any 
one period of our own musical life, but 
taking in portions of our antique folk 
music, the gallant music of the Revolu- 
tion, the early minstrels, the music of 
the backwoods and laborers, the stirring 
music of the Civil War, the productions 
of the modern symphonists, and some- 
thing, even, of Broadway and Holly- 
wood. Best of all would be to produce 
work especially written for the occa- 

sion — something of a gamble, perhaps, 
but a worthwhile one. 

If on the other hand, a Festival of 
American music would seem to be pre- 
mature, it might be centered around 
any one of the great masters of the past, 
such as Bach, Beethoven, Schubert or 
Mozart. In conjunction with the music 
of one such master, a few American 
works could be introduced. 

Such a festival would at least offer 
an interesting oudet to the performer 
and would be something of a vacation 
for him, too, since the Federal Music 
Project members have, everywhere, been 
accustomed to a rigid schedule and 
routine. Certain it is that the various 
projects of California would vie with 
each other for the opportunity. 


Mr. Clifford Lott, Assistant Direc- 
tor of the Choral Division under Miss 
Brand, is one of the most active mem- 
bers of this group of the Los Angeles 
unit. He is in demand as a voice 
teacher, director of chorus, assistant 
supervisor of voice teachers, and as a 
baritone soloist. 

Besides directing the Male Chorus, 
Mr. Lott teaches six classes of voice 
students, coaches a colored quart- 
ette, and supervises the Vocal Teach- 
ers Department of the Educational 
Center under Mr. Arthur Perry. 

Students who have longed for 
vocal instructions but have been denied 
this priTilege because of finances, are 
availing themselves of this opportunity. 
In one week Mr. Lett's department gave 
1200 lessons in voice, sight-singing 
and music appreciation. Mr. Lott 
has nine teachers who are kept busy 
in his department. Each teacher has 
an enrollment of thirty-five students 
who are entided to class instructions 
twice a week. These instructions are 
all given outside of working hours 
on the students' own time. 

Mr. Lott is an honorary member of 
the American Academy of Singing 

Pase 12 


An' English Duke, well known in musical circles for his 
ambition, which was excelled only by his lack of skill as a 
violinist, used to pay the famous Joachim and two members 
of his great Quartet to play at his home with himself as the 
fourth player. One day Joachim ventured to whisper into 
his ear that he was six bars behind. 

"Never mind!" exclaimed the Duke. "I'll catch up before 
the end of the movement!" 

• • • 

A lady staying in a German hotel was greatly annoyed 
by the persistent playing, one day, in the room adjoining 
hers. Finally she wrote on a card that she could stand the 
racket no longer and begged the pianist to stop. The maid 
who delivered the card came back with another, on which 
was written: 

"Very sorry to have aiuioyed you. Your request is granted. 
— Anton Rubinstein." 

One day, while conducting a 
concert, Hans Richter was an- 
noyed by a man who persisted 
in tapping on the floor. Richter 
stood it patiently for a time, 
but at last he turned sharply 
on the offender and remarked: 
"I am sorry to trouble you, 
but I caimot always keep time 
with your foot." 

Pierre Wold, the five-year- 
old sou of the former French 
conductor at the MetropoUtan 
Opera House, was playing un- 
der the piano one day. Sud- 
denly he exclaimed: 

"Mamal How foolish to have 
three pedals! Nobody has 
three feet I" 

The story goes that the Utde 
daughter of a certain American 
composer who had won a JIO,- 
000 prize for an opera, ex- 
claimed when she heard of tliis: 

"But papa, how bad the other 
ones must have been!" 

Music Has Ch 

arms . . 

Music has charms to soothe 
a savage breast, 

To soften rocks, or bend a 
knotted oak. 

I've read that things in- 
animate have moved; 

And, as with living souls, 
have been injorm'd. 

By magic numbers and 
persuasive sound. 

{"Mourning Bride") 


A famous conductor had conducted several numbers on a 
Hollywood Bowl program rcctndy, after which a composer 
came out to conduct his own composition. A man in the back 
row was heard to say, "Oh, gonna use the same orchestra, 

"Greater public attention should be directed toward the 
Federal Music Project. It may be that the government is 
establishing a permanent policy of sponsorship of music. At 
least many people are wondering whether this is not to be 
the result of the program that had its beginning in the move- 
ment to provide work for unemployed musicians. The pro- 
gram is departing in a measure from the poli(;y of employing 
musicians only from the ranks of the unemployed. The im- 
portant test is whether the people desire such community 
musical organizations under Federal support. As far as San 
Bernardino valley is concerned there is little likelihood that 
we can have a fine symphony orchestra without Federal sup- 
port. It would seem that there should be greater interest by 
those citizens who approve and desire good music." 

— San Bernardino Sun. 

"These fine orchestras are 
an asset to any community and 
deserve the encouragement 
and hearty support of the lis- 
tener who, whether he realizes 
it or not, contributes a big 
share toward the growth of 
music in his or her commu- 

Jessie B. Riddett. 

South Coast Netvs. 
"Of the various relief proj- 
ects, ranging up the scale from 
the pick-and-shovel jobs de- 
signed to give employment to 
unskilled workers to the va- 
rious programs to fit the tal- 
ents of white-collar workers, 
the Federal Music Project 
seems to recommend itself par- 
ticularly for public approval. 

On the whole, the highest 
objectives of work-relief seem 
to be realized in the Music 
Project . . . hope has been kept 
alive in the hearts of the work- 
ers; their skill is being increas- 
ed along the lines of their 
greatest native abihty; good 
work habits are being instilled 
through disciplined application 
to a definite routine; basic se- 
curity is provided. Most im- 
portant of all, the worker is 
sustained with self-respect, 
through the conviction that he 
is contributing something for 
which society has a need." 

Thelma B. Miller. 

Carmel Pine Cone. 
. . . "To judge by applause, Usigli's forces are a welcome ad- 
dition to Oakland's cultural life, and will be heard again 
with pleasure whenever they choose to play ..." 

Paul Nathan, 
Oakland Post-Enquirer. 










ll /" 




DR NIKOLAI SOKOLOFF, National Director 

DR. BRUNO DAVID USSHER, Assistant to Nationol Director 

HARRY HOPKINS, Notional Administrator 
ELLEN S. WOODWARD, Assistont Administrotof 

Vol. I 

October, 1936 

No. 4 



State Director 

This month marks the first anniver- 
sary of the Federal Music Project in 

A year ago there was no Federal Mu- 
sic Project in the State, and I cannot 
help but reflect on the long way we 
have come in just one year. When we 
began, all we knew was that there were 
approximately four thousand musicians 
who were eligible for employment in 
California. We had only the vision of a 
wonderful ideal and the determination 
to carry it to fulfillment There were 
no offices, typewriters, desks — no re- 
hearsal halls, supervisors or conductors. 
We had to enroll the musicians, classify 
them, assemble audition boards, ap- 
point advisory committees, locate re- 
hearsal halls, furniture, typewriters, 
learn Works Progress Administration 
procedure — and we had to do this 
quickly, for these people were in need; 
they wanted to work — not in labor jobs 
— but in music. 

We began with Los Angeles where 
there were two thousand musicians 
clamoring to go to work and no place 
to put them. The Swimming Stadium 
served as quarters for the timekeepers. 
All available auditoriums, churches and 
empty stores were used for rehearsal 
halls so that musicians could start work. 
Our homes were our offices and these 
were practically public places until an 
office building was secured. The Los 
Angeles Music Project seemed to spring 
into existence over night. But there was 
no time to stop too long in one place. 
There were hundreds of other musi- 
cians in the same plight throughout the 
State. In the hectic weeks that followed, 
projects were established in San Fran- 
cisco, Oakland, San Rafael, San Mateo, 
San Jose, Sacramento, Stockton, Santa 
Barbara, San Diego, Santa Ana, San 
Bernardino, Escondido, Carmel, Fresno 
and Oroville. 

When there were about thirty-five 
hundred musicians at work in the State, 

The problem was how to build a pro- 
gram in California that would not only 
provide jobs and a means of livelihood 
for thirty-five hundred people, but which 
would provide means of retraining them, 
rehabilitating them, restoring their con- 
fidence and assurance. We wished to 
build a program of musical activities 
that would benefit not only the musi- 
cians but which would contribute to the 
cultural life of California. This was the 
task we had set for ourselves. In the 
past twelve months we have traveled far 
toward the fulfillment of that first ideal. 
The following is a brief summary of 
our accomplishments: 
Advisory Boards of representative 
musicians, patrons and business 
people have been established in 
every community. 
The State has been searched to find 




635 So. Manhattan Place 

Los Angeles, Calif. 


Conductor's Stand ... 2 

By Harle Jervis 

What Will Become of the 

Federal Music Project? . 3 

By Isabel Morse Jones 

Project Opera Season Opens . 4 

"Take Your 'Choice" Due 

in San Francisco ... 4 
Competition or Cooperation? 5 

By Alfred Metzger 
National Music Project News 6-7 
California Supervisors . . 8 
What I Think of the Federal 
Music Project .... 9 
By Charles Wakefield Cadman 
History of Music (continued) 10 

By Frederic SchoU 

Have We the Courage? . . 11 

By Warren Lewis 

Cover by George Binnington 

the best conductors and leaders, 
and all who were available have 
accepted positions wtih the Music 

Musicians on every project best 
qualified to teach have been as- 
signed to conducting an intensive 
teaching program for the benefit of 
other members of their group. 
Every form of music is offered for 
their education and advancement. 
At first the projects resembled con- 
servatories with litde groups in 
every available corner working on 
their particular problem. Gradu- 
ally skill was re-acquired, men and 
women began to look healthier and 
happier, they gained enthusiasm 
and interest and had a desire for 
accomplishment, all of which were 
lacking when they entered the proj- 

Orchestras were assembled and re- 
hearsals began in earnest. After a 
few months the first performances 
were offered the public. People 
came skeptically and a bit condes- 
cendingly to hear these relief musi- 
cians play. The audiences were 
small at first but after the symphonic 
groups improved in quality and 
offered more varied programs, they 
developed in numbers and enthu- 
siasm. Now there are eleven sym- 
phony orchestras in the State with 
a personnel ranging from fifty-five 
to one hundred musicians, and thir- 
teen concert orchestras of smaller 
proportions. In September 582 per- 
formances were given by Califor- 
nia Music Project units to over half 
a million people (543,454). 
An exchange library has been or- 
ganized in Los Angeles where lists 
of all music in the possession of 
projects throughout the State are 
assembled and music of one project 
is made available to all others. 
Recreation Departments in each 
community have been making use 
Continued on Page Eight 

we had to plan a program for them 
which would justify their employment. 
This magazine tvas printed through the courtesy of a private organization whiclk contributed its equipment 
for the furtherance of Federal Music Project activities. 


Pag* 3 

What WiU Become 

Of The 

Federal Music Project? 

Last month Mr. Alfred Frankenstein, music critic of the San Franciico 
Chronicle, discussed the permanency of the Federal Music Project. This month 
Miss Isabel Morse Jones, music critic of the Los Angeles Times, gives us her opinion. 

By Isabel Morse Jones 

The answer depends, of course, on 
the projertors themselves. As the need 
for relief grows less they will go out to 
cam their way with music in a world 
only slighdy different from the world 
they dropped from. Will they take with 
them the experience of varied human 
contacts and reactions from music by 
the enormous new public? If they know 
the value, spiritual and intellectual, of 
what they have discovered in the proj- 
ect work, certainly they will help to 
perpetuate the project for others. 

In a htde more than a year, the Amer- 
ican people as a whole have been awak- 
ening to music. Thousands have listened 
to good music for the first time; have 
liked it. They feel, many of them, that 
music must never go out of their lives. 
Whatever the political party in power, 
government subsidy of the arts is in- 
evitable. The people know its value now 
and will work to continue it in some 

Music belongs to the man with ears 
to hear. No government can take it 
away. It is known to be a part of happi- 
ness, one of the greatest contributions. 
A goverrunent is dedicated to the pur- 
suit of happiness just as much as to the 
preservation of life and liberty. 

There may be powerful protests to 
the continuation of concerts at a low 
price. But, because of the educational 
and pleasurable benefits to the nation, 
some method will be devised for giving 
these people musical performances, 
teaching, and laboratories for creative 

Probably the general scale will be 
much smaller because the need will be 
less. The emergency of want impelled 
quick action. As the nationally-guided 

department of the living arts is devel- 
oped in the future, the music project 
will be spread much thinner but there 
will be more time for consideration. The 
action will be slower, but the results 
of deeper significance. The Federal 
Music Project has only started the work, 
started it so effectively that it must con- 
tinue. This adventure is truly "one that 
will never know completion." 

Today's newspapers contain more 
news of the people's social development 
than they ever did before. It is because 
the readers demand this news, not be- 
cause publishers are personally inter- 
ested. Because of the music project's 
impersonalisation of the performers, 
tomorrow's headlines will speak of the 
people's concert halls and theaters and 
the music and plays therein. There 
will be fewer screamlines about virtuosi. 
There may even be better reviews, too, 
because of the different attitude of the 

The average man is intolerant of the 
mystery and "hocus pocus" which sur- 
rounds musicians. The Federal Music 
Project has taught him that this can be 
dispensed with. Through familiarity 
and continued listening, the musician 
will be better understood. The value 
placed upon his work will be higher. 
The leaders in national life cannot now 
fail to recognize the power of great 
music in emotional control of a people 
harassed by world-rocking political con- 
flict. What would be more natural, there- 
fore, than to continue its development? 

In a letter to the "Times" a corre- 
spondent made this perceiving comment: 
"The generation that passed and had 
the power when the present generation 
was still in school, developed a very 

artificial scheme of education and con- 
trol. Stability was looked upon as the 
goal, and stability meant private pos- 
sessions. Today, with the increase of 
traveling facilities, radio and motion 
pictures, life is built on a far more flex- 
ible plan. The motto is 'keep improv- 
ing.' The result is that wealth is only 
possible through the chaimel of the cre- 
ative mind . . . through the artist, de- 
signer and scientist." 

The project for music in America 
has brought into being a practical school 
for artists and creative workers not du- 
plicated in size or in its broadest re- 
sults, any place in Europe. This appeals 
to the democratic American and, after 
all, he is in the majority. Isn't it to be 
expeaed that he will demand its con- 
tinuance along the general lines laid 
down? These students of the project 
teachers are better rounded human be- 
ings than those who come out of the 
European conservatories. Talent which 
rubs elbows with every variety of au- 
dience comes out with a hard-wearing 
polish and fewer mannerisms gener- 
ated by showmanship. The project has 
proven that it is better to expose a com- 
poser to the warmth of friction than to 
let him shiver his life away in an "ivory 

These, and many more achievements, 
point the way for the Federal Music 
Project. Music has been discovered as a 
natural American resource in time of 
trouble. It will go on healing thousands 
of the shock of depression, go on raising 
the standards and the morale of Ameri- 
can musicians, and nothing will be per- 
mitted to stop it. Not even the election 
of a political leader opposed to it. 

Poge 4 


Project Opera Season Opens 

"Traviata" in rehearsal in Los Angeles; "Mikado" now on tour; San Ber- 
nardino preparing *^Faust"; San Francisco rehearsing "Pirates of Penzance,** 
and planning "Tidelio" and "Don Pasquale"; San Diego follon^s "Mikado" suc- 
cess with "Gondoliers." 

What promises to be the biggest 
opera season in California's history is 
discloicd in announcements from va- 
rious projccu pcruining to opera pro- 
ductions for the fall and early winter. 

In Los Angeles, Verdi's "Traviau" 
is now m rehearsal and will be given 
two pcrtormanccs, October 27 and 30, 
at the Philharmonic Auditorium, by the 
Los Angeles Project. "Traviata'' is 
under the direction ot Max Rabinofi 
about whom the Town & Country Re- 
view of August, lyifa says: "It would 
be impossible to overstress the debt 
which the united arts of drama and 
music in America, and in the world in 
general, owes to Max Rabinoil, to whose 
eiicigy and vcrsaule genius is direcdy 
uuc me discovery ot some ot the great- 
t>i ai lists on tiic operatic stage and the 
staging ot such scnsauons as the per- 
toi iiiaiwes ot Pavlova, Mordkin and 
Itie Russian ballet; AndreyeHs Bala- 
laika Orchestra, Alexander Koshetz' 
Ukrainian National Chorus, and many 
other similar artistic units. . . . The 
Chicago Grand Opera Company and 
the boston Grand Opera Company are 
two of Rabinofi's many successful or- 
ganizations." . . . 

In San Bernardino excitement is be- 
ing created with the recent annoimce- 
mcnt ot a production of Gounod's 
"Faust" on November 18. Under the 
direction of Warren Lewis, a new trans- 
lation has been made, and costumes, 
scenery and action created to heighten 
the emotional and dramatic action. In- 
terest in this production by the San 
Bernardino Project, of which Vernon 
Robinson is District Supervisor, has 
been displayed by major opera groups 
in the country as well as several movie 
studios. Julia Robinson has been en- 
gaged as co-director, and Brahm van 
den Berg is creating the ballets. 

The San Francisco Project, which 
is under the supervision of Ernst Bacon, 

is planning Beethoven's "Fidel io" and 
Donizetti's "Don Pasquale." 

Various light opera groups through- 
out the state arc also busy with produc- 
tions. The San Diego Projert recendy 
created a place in the Southern Califor- 
nia sun with the production of Gilbert 
and Sullivan's "Mikado." After a very 
successful run in San Diego, this pro- 
duction is now touring smaller Southern 
California cities. A convincing per- 
formance of "The Gondoliers" followed 
San Diego's "Mikado," and is now on 

1 he Los Angeles production of the 
"Mikado" opened in Bell, California, 
last week and will subsequendy play 
in Pasadena and other communities be- 
fore opening at the Figuero Playhouse 
in Los Angeles on November 7. 

In San Francisco, Gilbert and Sulli- 
van's "Pirates of Penzance" is in re- 

The Oakland Project is contemplat- 
ing an opera production. 

Smaller state projects which do not 
have the facilities for major opera pro- 
ductions, will be visited by operas pre- 
sented by neighboring projects. 

With four major operas in prepara- 
tion, three light operas already pre- 
sented and at least two others antici- 
pated at an early date, it may be said 
that the Federal Music Project will this 
season write a new page in the history 
of California opera. 


















San Francisco 

Dr. Lert 









Altschuler | 

On November 24th the San Francis- 
co Project will produce a musical satire 
intided "Take Your Choice," or "Meta- 
morphosis of Eustace Jones," with a cast 
of eight principals, a chorus of 30, and 
a fifty-piece orchestra, comprising a sym- 
phonic ensemble and a swing dance 
band. The score includes symphonic or- 
chestral numbers and 20 songs. The play 
was collectively written, composed and 
directed by Ernst Bacon, Phil Mathias 
and Raisch StoU. Mr. Bacon, conductor 
of the San Francisco orchestra and com- 
poser of many symphonic works, sacri- 
ficed a traveling fellowship in Europe 
this summer to collaborate with Mr. 
Mathias, who was formerly director of 
the Pine Street Players, actor, play- 
wright and producer, and Mr. Stoll, 
composer of lyrics and music, whose 
article appeared in The Baton last 

Right and left extremists, fanatics and 
cultists of all kinds, political, social and 
intellectual, are taken for a wild musical 
and satirical ride. In many animated 
stage cartoons business leaders fire clerks 
in operatic arias, advocates of govern- 
ment (by rubber truncheons) beat their 
victims while dancing, and conspirators 
unite on a common front to swing music. 
All the propagandists who sell by high- 
pressure on the air, in the press and every 
where, will be seen in the full glory of 
their absurdity in rhyme, rhythm, and 
music that will expose their follies. 

"Take Your Choice" is booked into 
San Francisco at the Columbia Theatre 
for a limited engagement and promises 
a new kind of treat in libretto and music. 

There were 15,102 persons on the 
Works Progress Administration Fed- 
eral Music Project rolls on September 1st. 

THE tATOH ^09* 5 





Page 6 



The Grand Rapids W. P. A. Orches- 
tra in collaboration with the Grand 
Rapids Symphony Orchestra, has ao- 
nouoccd a series of six subscription 
concerts at which well known soloists 
will be featured. There also will be 
twenty children's concerts in the public 
and parochial schools. With the Civic 
Festival Chorus, an organization of 300 
voices, there will be performances of a 
Mahler choral symphony and William 
Walton's "BeUhazzer's Feast." 

A feature of the season will be the 
organization of an all-state W. P. A. 
Symphony Orchestra of 100 players, to 
be recruited from the most talented 
performers of the twelve units in Michi- 
gan. The orchestra will be uken on a 
concert tour to the larger cities of the 


Philadelphia concluded its Summer 
outdoor season last Wednesday with a 
performance of Tschaikowsky's Over- 
ture "1812" in the Grand Court of the 
Museum of Art on the Parkway. The 


full orchestra of 100 men and the con- 
cert band of ninety will be augmented 
by a unit of artillery. The overture 
calls for cannon as percussion instru- 

According to figures recently tabulated in Washingt( 
of the Federal Music Project, concerts and performance 
than 32,000,000 people between January 1st and Septem 
concerts to be performed in the fall and early winter by 1 
grams will bring opera, operettas and the great music o 
vast audience. Popular approval of opera as it has been re 
expansion in this field for the coming season. 

Below is a resume of the current activities of various 


The Illinois Symphony Orchestra 
and the American Concert Orchestra, 
principal Federal Music instrumental 
units in Chicago, will again emphasize 
the presence of American compositions 
in the three series of programs sched- 
uled for the Fall. 

The Symphony Orchestra will open 
a series at Loyola University October 
18 with concerts on succeeding Sunday 
afternoons. The American Concert 
Orchestra will begin a series of Tues- 
day afternoon concerts at the Univer- 
sity of Chicago on October 13. The 
third series will be given in Winnetka, 
a North Shore suburb. 


The W. P. A. music forces in Cleve- 
land which have already experienced 
popular success in presentations of the 
Savoy operas and the "Chimes of Nor- 
mandy" are intensively rehearsing for 
more ambitious operatic offerings. The 
first opera will be Verdi's "11 Trova- 
tore" for early Fall performance to be 
fallowed by Bizet's "Carmen," and from 
the chamber opera repertoire, Mozart's 
"Bastien-Bastienne" and Haydn's "Der 
Apotheker." On September 15 the 
Cincinnati units presented "Pinafore" 
on a stage constructed in the form of a 
ship on the surface of Burnett Woods 
Park Lake, and this will be repeated 
during the Fall. 


At Mission Grove, Medicine Lake, in 
Minnesota, the Twin Cities Civic Or- 
chestra, the W. P. A. symphonic unit 
of Minneapolis and St. Paul, the Twin 
Cities Band and the Twin Cities Jubilee 
singers have just taken part in a Har- 
vest Festival, occupying a week. 


Plans for the coming season are many 
and varied. The Virginia Federal 
Music Project hopes to conduct a Com- 
poser's Forum Laboratory centered at 
Richmond which will be of inestimable 
value, especially to the younger com- 
posers. Chamber music groups will 
feature rarely heard compositions and 
unusual instrumental compositions. 
Among major plans is the produrtion of 
the opera "The Marriage of Figaro" 
early in the spring. It is possible a 
choral festival, similar to the one pre- 
sented last May which received wide 
attention, will be given. This festival 
will again employ musicians from all 
districts in the state. 

N A 


Page 7 

t'ased last week by Dr. Nikolai Sokoloff , National Director 
id by the Federal Music Project were attended by more 
Dr. Sokoloff also made public a partial list of the major 
1 Music Projects throughout the United States. These pro- 
honic Uterature, famous oratorios and choral works to a 
erformances by the WPA music forces has led to a large 

)jects throughout the nation : 


The W. P. A. music forces in Bos- 
ton have five operas ready for the Fall 
season which include "Mam'selle Fi- 
garo," by Paul Hastings Allen, which 
had its American premiere late this 
month although it has been heard in 
Italy, and d'Albert's "Die Toten Au- 
gen" (The Unseeing Eyes), and Wag- 
ner's "The Flying Dutchman." The 
other operas are Puccini's "Madame 
Butterfly" and Humperdinck's "Hansel 
and Gretel." The last two were per- 
formed in August to audiences of 14,000 
in the famous old Boston Opera House. 
Boston's Federally sponsored opera 
started its Autumn season September 


In Omaha where Mozart's "Don Gio- 
vanni" and Beethoven's "Fidelio" were 
presented in concert form as music ap- 
preciation studies last Spring, the W. 
P. A. Orchestra with established choral 
groups in the city will present the 
"Mikado" on October 15 as its first stage 
production of the new music season. 



Newark concert goers will hear a 
Brahms Cycle in which the four sym- 
phonies and the piano and violin con- 
certi will be played by the W. P. A. 
Civic Symphony Orchestra. The deci- 
sion to present these programs is a re- 
sult of the success of the Beethoven 
Cycle of last Spring. At other pro- 
grams Schumann's Rhenish, Schu- 
bert's C major and the Second Sibelius 
Symphonies will be heard. The Bee- 
thoven Ninth (choral) Symphony will 
be presented during the Winter. 


In Florida where performances of 
grand opera have been presented with 
success in Jacksonville, Miami and 
Tampa, plans for the Fall and Winter 
call for a state-wide tour. Besides 
"Aida" and "Rigoletto," with which the 
W. P. A. orchestras, choruses and prin- 
cipals are familiar, the list of operas 
under consideration includes "Madame 
Butterfly," "Pagliacci," "Carmen," 
"Hansel and Gretel," "The Bartered 
Bride," "II Trovatore' and "Martha." 
Three Gilbert and Sullivan operettas 
and three musical comedies are also 
scheduled for performance. In co- 
operation with the Theater Project the 
Spanish operetta "Los Gavilanes" (The 
Hawk) was presented September 9, U, 
12 and 13. 


The Tulsa W. P. A. Symphony Or- 
chestra will appear late this month in 
the Indian Exposition in the pageant 
"The Trail of Tears," when the Indian 
music of the program will be accom- 


panied with dramatic interpretations 
by Indian dancers, singers and a nar- 
rator. This work deals principally with 
the removal of the Five Civihzed Tribes 
into Oklahoma. 


A series of seven programs to start the 
first week in October in colleges, uni- 
versities and senior high schools will be 
given by Milwaukee's W. P. A. Sym- 
phony Orchestra. These concerts will 
present a comprehensive review of 
symphonic music from Bach to present 
day Americans. Short talks will be 
incorporated in the programs outlining 
the lives of the composers and their 
place and importance in musical his- 
tory. This will be in addition to the 
regular program of classical and popu- 
lar concerts. Composers to be repre- 
sented on the American program are 
Carl Eppert, Ferde Grofe, MacDowell 
and Dett. 

Pd^c 8 



The Orange County Project Sym- 
phony Orchestra, under the convincing 
direction of Leon Eckles, presented a 
concert at the Willard Auditorium at 
Santa Ana on September 29. 

The concert featured Dorothy Judy 
Klein, pianist, who played Mendels- 
sohn's "Capriccio BriUante" with deft- 
ness of skill. Miss Klein is a local 
pianist who should go far. 


Continued from Page Two 
of our forty-nine dance bands and 
specialty groups. Twenty-one choral 
groups have been developed to per- 
form all types of choral works. Fif- 
teen concert bands have been play- 
ing in public parks and Recreation 
Centers. Twenty chamber music 
groups have been introducing to 
the public fine music that is rarely 
played. Seven units of Grand 
Opera and Light Opera have given 
fifty-five performances through- 
out the State with great success. 
Orchestras have been assigned to 
play at performances for the Fed- 
eral Theatre productions. 
Symphony orchestras of the Federal 
Music Project have been made avail- 
able to rural communities where 
this music is seldom heard. 
Presentations of symphonic music 
have been offered to Boards of Edu- 
cation, and concerts are being given 
in all schools where they are re- 
quested. Music appreciation classes 
are being given by teachers in the 
schools before concerts are per- 
formed. Classes in music have been 
opened to children of families on 
relief. Music leadership has been 
supplied those communities where 
it is needed. 

Young people graduated from 
school who have played in school 
orchestras have been provided 
trained leaders so they may continue 
their music education. 
Eighty new compositions have been 
submitted by American composers 
and have been presented by our 
orchestras. Certain time has been 
assigned symphony orchestras for 
playing of new works before com- 
petent judges to offer an opportu- 
nity for composers to hear their 
works played and to benefit by ex- 
pert counsel and discussion. All 
new compositions have been as- 
sembled in Los Angeles and have 



Below is a list of supervisors for 
all districts in California. To 
obtain information about Federal 
Music Project activities, contact 
your nearest district office. 


Phyllis Ashmun 

Leslie Hodge 

2223 Y Street 

Grattan Guerin 

HON. Hunter St. 

Jacques Neill 

1851 Fulton St. 

Vernon C. Robinson 

580 6th St. 

Erich Weiler 

231 San Rafael Ave. 

Ernst Bacon 

678 Turk St. 

Gastone Usigli 

1608 Webster St. 

Joseph Cizkovsky 

261 N. Second St. 

.\rthur Gunderson 

Elsworth & Tilton Sts. 

Antoni van der Voort 

701 '/2 Anacapa St. 

Dene Denny 

Alexander Stewart 

635 So. Manhattan PI. 

Chas. H. Marsh 

Room 16, Broadway Pier 

Leon Eckles 

306 '/2 4th St. 

Lynn Stoddard 
2nd 8t Quince Sts. 


been routed throughout the State 
for performance. 

Judges have been selected to audi- 
tion young artists who wish a 
chance to perform. These audi- 
tions are held regularly so that new 
talent may be uncovered. 
Outstanding conductors from va- 
rious communities have been ap- 
pearing as guest conductors. Within 
projects conductors have been ex- 
changed from one district to an- 

In keeping with the general plan out- 
hned by the State Office of the Federal 
Music Project in Los Angeles, and 
through the cooperation of Mr. J. H. 
Wade, District Director of the W.PJV., 
the Stockton Project will coTer consid- 
erable mileage in giving concerts this 
winter to many of the smaller towns in 
its district. The symphony orchestra 
will play in Lodi, which is 14 miles from 
Stockton. In Tracy, 20 miles distant, 
an Advisory Board is being formed and 
plans are being made to present regular 
concerts there throughout the winter. 
Livermore, 32 miles away, will also 
come in for some concerts to be played 
in the auditorium of the Soldiers' Hos- 

Not satisfied with these distances, 
however, the Stockton orchestra will 
give a number of concerts in Sonora, 
which is 60 miles from headquarters, 
and at least one concert at Brete Hartc 
Sanitarium, which is 85 miles from 

other. Young conductors have been 
given an opportunity to develop 
their talent under the guidance of 
those more experienced. 
In the past three months all musi- 
cians have been re-auditioned so 
that only those best qualified are 
now employed on every project. 
The result is fine music performed 
by trained musicians under experienced 
conductors, concerts excellently pro- 
grammed and professionally presented. 
The difficult task of organization has 
long since been completed. The achieve- 
ment of our goal seems nearer now. 

The Federal Music Project is on every 
tongue, and why shouldn't it be? 
Through its activities, music has become 
a vital factor in community life and mu- 
sicians are once more alive. Out of the 
chaos of last year, we have an efficient 
organization of skilled musicians with 
something important to offer the public. 
Concert halls are filled to overflowing 
and hundreds turned away from the 
box offices throughout the State. Peo- 
ple must want music or they wouldn't 
come in such numbers to these concerts. 
The result is that musicians have not 
merely been given employment and 
subsistence but they have been given an 
opportunity to establish themselves as 
useful members of their communities. 
There can be no end to this great 
music work now that it has gathered 
such momentum. A new era of music 
has begun in America I 


Page 9 

Is The Federal Music Project 

Charles Wakefield Cadman, prominent American composer, needs no in- 
troduction to American audiences. He wrote the well known "By the Waters of 
Minnetonka," "At Dawning," the Indian opera "Shanewis," "Thunderbird Suite," 
and many other v^orks of significance. 

Theatre and Music 
Projects Cooperate 

"It Can't Happen Here," Sinclair 
Lewis' novel which created a sensa- 
tion, has been dramatized by John C. 
Moffitt, Kansas City drama critic, in 
collaboration with Mr. Lewis, and will 
be presented by the Los Angeles Fed- 
eral Theater Project at the Hollywood 
Playhouse on October 27. Aftei a 
popular run at the Hollywood Play- 
house the play will move to the down- 
town Mayan Theater. 

The Theater Project opened the Fall 
season at the Hollywood Playhouse on 
October 7 with a presentation of "The 
Warrior's Husband." Other current 
showings of the Federal Theater Project 
productions include "The Devil Passes" 
(now touring Southern California), 
"John Henry" at the Mayan Theater, 
and "Three Wise Fools" at the Mason 
Theater, to be followed there by "The 
Greatest Find Since Garbo." 

Carlyle Scott's colored chorus of 85 
voices, a unit of the Los Angeles Fed- 
eral Music Project, will sing in the 
production of "John Henry." 

Haiiie Flanagan 

Coming to L. A. 

Hallic Flanagan, National Director of 
the Federal Theatre Project, will be a 
visitor in California in November. Mrs. 
Flanagan is scheduled to arrive in Los 
Angeles on November 10th on a field 
supervision trip, which, before comple- 
tion, will have carried her over a large 
portion of the United States. 

Mrs. Flanagan will naturally be oc- 
cupied with Theatre Project business, 
but it is hoped that she will find time to 
attend concerts presented by the Federal 
Music Project. 

By Charles Wakefield Cadman 

The Federal Music Project is the fin- 
est constructive force that has ever come 
into American musical life. 

Aside from the great and needed ben- 
efit to thousands of able musicians who 
would not otherwise have had employ- 
ment, there is tliis important factor to 
be considered. Music gradually atrophies 
when it no longer becomes a means of 
livelihood to those musicians who sup- 
ply it. The Federal Music Project is 
serving as a vital stimulating factor, 
not only in the immediate rehabilitation 
of musicians, but in the perpetuation 
and furtherance of a high type of mu- 
sic, which is so important to any na- 
tion's cultural and ethical progress. 
Cities and towns that have been de- 
prived of music now are regaled and 
favored with a varied musical fare of 
operas, operettas, symphonic music, 
choral music, string symphonettes, 
bands and Tipica orchestras. 

The project is now completing its 
lirst year of operation. In that time 
there has been a definite attempt to 
weed out the weaknesses, and to add 
new strength. Since its inception a vital 
musical evolution has taken place in 
every community it has reached. 

Nothing since the work the Ameri- 
can Federation of Music Clubs (the 
women of America) started many years 
ago for American composers, has ap- 
proached this work being done by the 
United States Government. More than 
forty new American compositions have 
been played in Federal Music Project 
symphony orchestras in California. 
Many of these have been presented for 
the first time anywhere. They have been 
works by eminent contemporary com- 
posers, conducted by trained orchestra 

What a pity if all this were aban- 

What a pity if those in the Project 
should not be cognizant of its meaning, 
or loyal to those who keep it going. I 
am for the Federal Music Project with 
all my heart and soul. 

Phyllis Ashmun New 
Sacramento Supervisor 

Phyllis Ashmun, former Assistant 
Supervisor of the Sacramento Music 
Project, has recendy been elevated to 
the position of Supertisor by Harle 
Jervis, State Director. 

Leslie Hodge, pianist-conductor, has 
been appointed conductor of the Sac- 
ramento Project Symphony Orchestra. 

Hodge, a protege of Dr. Alfred Hertz, 
has a record of achievement in musical 
circles reaching halfway around the 
earth. Hodge was born in Australia 
and studied under his mother's tutelage 
until he was 15 years old. At that 
time he took competitive examinations 
for a scholarship to the Melbourne Uni- 
versity Conservatorium and won with 
ease. After three years he graduated 
with highest honors and later became 
widely known as a pianist. 

Hodge appeared with the San Fran- 
cisco Symphony Orchestra during a 
two week's engagement in the Ford 
Bowl at the San Diego Exposition. He 
will conduct the second of a series of 
concerts platmed by the Sacramento 
Music Project Symphony Orchestra. 

Usigli's New Work 
Played in Oakland 

Gastone Usigli, District Supervisor of 
the Oakland Federal Music Project, pre- 
sented what was considered by local 
critics to be one of the outstanding sym- 
phonic works written in the last year 
by Federal Music Project composers, at 
the Oakland Auditorium on Friday, Oc- 
tober 9th. 

The work is a symphonic poem, en- 
tided "Humanitas," and was presented 
for the first dme last Friday under the 
composer's baton. 

Pogc 10 





An important announcement of state- 
wide concern was recently made by the 
Sanu iiarbara Project. A umt under 
the duecuon of Madame Katharine 
Ward Kupelian has been orgamzed to 
teach those who are hard of hearing to 
sing. The foundation worlc for this 
umt will be laid by giving instruction 
in lip-reading. Members of this class 
report that the training aids them in 
regaining a normal tone quality to their 
speaking voices. This lip-reading class 
is under the direction of the tduca- 
tional Department, which also offers 
classes in voice, piano, theory and ap- 
preciation. A women's chorus has also 
been formed and a similar group for 
men is being organized. 

The newly organized string quartet 
of the Santa Barbara Project made its 
debut before an enthusiastic audience 
in the Faulkner Memorial Gallery late 
in September. 

Details are being completed whereby 
the Project concert orchestra will pre- 
sent a concert this months which will 
feature Roderick White, internationally 
known violinist. In keeping with the 
plan of expansion to rural communities 
being followed by other projects in the 
state, the concert orchestra has booked 
engagements in Lompoc, Solvang and 
Santa Paula. The Santa Paula concert 
will feature as soloist, Bradford Tozier, 
first violinist of the orchestra, whose 
home was formerly in Santa Paula. 

San Mateo Books 

Weekly Concerts 

During the fall and winter season the 
San Mateo Project, under the direction 
of Arthur Gunderson, plans to present 
a Chamber Symphony Concert every 
two weeks, and a Chamber Music Re- 
cital on alternate weeks. Mr. Gunderson 
will take his musical units to various 
cities in his territory. 



"My guests last night were so im- 
pressed, first with the concert and sec- 
ondly with the audience. 

It is a marvelous audience, and it is 
so nice to be one of them. 

Thank you again, and every good 

Most sincerely, 

Plans have been completed whereby 
auditions will be given young artists 
who live in the territory comprising 
the Los Angeles Music Project. 

Monday afternoons will be devoted 
to the hearing of pianists, Tuesday aft- 
ernoons to vocalists, and Wednesday 
afternoons to violinists and other instru- 

Heretofore it has been the inclina- 
tion to relegate youthful musicians to 
the background, due perhaps to their 
inexperience as well as to the fact that 
positions in the musical world were al- 
ready occupied by those who were older 
and more experienced. 

Holding regular auditions for young 
artists will henceforth be a prominent 
and regular part of the activities of 
the California Federal Music Project. 

Dr. Nikolai Sokoloff, National Di- 
rector of the Federal Music Project, 
will appear as guest conductor with 
several of the Works Progress Admin- 
istration Symphony orchestras during 
October. On October 7, he was at the 
desk of The Twin Cities Symphony Or- 
chestra in St. Paul; he will conduct the 
Illinois Symphony Orchestra on Oc- 
tober 11 in Chicago; the Syracuse Sym- 
phony Orchestra on October 23, and 
the three massed W. P. A. symphonic 
units in Boston on November 1. 

Works Progress Administration Or- 
chestras, bands and choral groups in 
Chicago presented 522 compositions by 
114 American composers in programs 
between January 1 and September 10. 


By Frederic Burr Scholl 
The three forms of music which came to us through the process of 
evolutionary development are: 

Homophony was the first form of musical utterance. It consisted of 
melody only. In the primitive races its accompaniment consists of some 
sort of percussion instrument such as the drum or the tom-tom. 
Derivation of the word "Homophony": 
Homo — ^man 
Phon — sound 
The early Assyrians, Egyptians, Hebrews and Greeks used homo- 
phony with their poetry. The Bible mentions the use of the harp in 
connection with the singing of the Psalms. The harp is the oldest form 
of string instrument. The Greeks made considerable use of poetry with 
musical accompaniment, — especially in the drama. This coupling of 
music and drama was the forerunner of opera. It is possible that they 
had no conception of harmony. Their songs were accompanied by the 
harp played in unison with the voice. 

It is an interesting fact that all the early races made use of the 
Pentatonic scale. Apparently it came naturally and spontaneously, be- 
cause all the savage races, no matter how far separated and without mu- 
tual influence, sang this scale. This scale which avoids the half steps, 
corresponds with the black keys of the piano. Many early melodies 
handed down to us arc sung in the Pentatonic scale. 
Derivation of the word "Pentatonic": 
Penta — five 
Tonic — tone 
Pattern of the Pentatonic scale: 

Do Re Mi Sol La 
1 — 2 — 3— 5— 6 
The well-known "Auld Lang Syne" is perhaps the best example. 
Many of the Scotch, Irish and English folk songs are based on this scale. 
"The Campbells are Coming" is another good example. 

The Pentatonic Scale has a sort of minor scale, the best example of 
which may be found in the old Scotch song, "Barb'ra Ellen," written in 
irregular metre, — 5-4 and 4-4. 
Next Month — "Ancient Modes and Sccdes." 


Page 11 


A Plea For a State Production Unit to Produce 
Atneriean Musicai^Drantas 

By Warren Lewis 

The popular conception is that Opera 
is a dead language, a thing of the past. 
Is this true, or has it been that Opera 
in its true sense as Musical-Drama has 
suffered deplorably from superficial in- 
terpretation? The thousands that throng 
to see a low- priced Opera prove its pop- 
ular appear even considering the lud- 
icrous presentations. The singing voice 
and the human body as media for ex- 
pression have been, and always will be 
the greatest of box-office magnets. 
With that knowledge, there is no limit 
to the future from either an artistic or 
practical standpoint. All that is needed 
is a true and profound conception o£ this 
most powerful and vital of theatrical 
form, the realization that its greatness 
lies in a glorious combination of all 
the arts I 

Now is the time for American Musi- 
cal Drama. No more weak and ridiculous 
plots built around singers' vanities; no 
more singing in foreign tongues which 
force the audience to depend upon the 
program notes and hastily whispered 
explanations; no illogical lavishness of 
scenery, costumes or ballets. All this 
deals with an Opera created in Europe 
and for the past century performed in 
America by Europeans. 

How unique in all the world is our 
splendid back ground! The American 
genius need not envy the folk-lore of 
Europe and Asia. The roots of his art 
are not those of a primitive people with 
an elemental mythology, but a cru- 
cible of civilized peoples. It is in this 
melting pot that the equivalent to a 
"basic element" or folkology will be 
found, the foundation on which Amer- 
ican culture has already begun its art 

For years American literature, legend, 
and history, (the most dramatic history 
the world has produced) have cried out 
for expression in musical form, and 
now Motion Picture, the one time mor- 
tal enemy of the stage, has shown the 
way toward the new music-drama — 
limited by nothing, free to draw upon 

all other arts in order to increase and 
clarify the action; utilizing pantomine, 
symphonic interludes superimposed by 
stylized poetic dialogue (IN ENG- 
LISH) stylized action, ballet, pictorial 
and dramatic figure groupings, sym- 
bolic choruses, motion picture and other 
projection devices, mechanical sound, 


The San Francisco Music Project, 
a pioneer in many project activities, is 
now booking Symphony concerts in the 
smaller inland cities. 

The first of these concerts was played 
last Friday, October 9th, at the Stock- 
ton High School Auditorium in Stock- 
ton, when the seventy-five piece Sym- 
phony Orchestra presented a concert 
under the baton of Ernst Bacon. Manlio 
Silva appeared as guest conductor in the 
opening number. 

On October 14th, the San Francisco 
Symphony Orchestra will appear in San 
Jose. Other California cities which arc 
now being contacted for concerts in- 
clude Modesto, Palo Alto, San Rafael 
and Santa Rosa. 

Regarding these concerts, Marjorie 
Fisher writes in the San Francisco News 
of October 5th: 

"An announcement which qualifies 
for the heading 'best news of the week' 
comes from the office of the Federal 
Music Project. The Bay Region WPA 
orchestras are going into the hinterland, 
taking symphony music into towns 
rarely visited by major symphony or- 
chestras. Any music-expansion program 
necessitates just that action, and the 
WPA Music Projact is most certainly 
a place for music-expansion. 

Unless new territory is won by this 
array of musicians and new music cen- 
ters established as a result of popular 
demands arising from this WPA work, 
one shudders to think what may happen 
should the nation's present activities in 
behalf of musicians be suddenly cur- 

the new art of light, etc. This new art 
demands expression on the living stage. 
There is no room on the mechanical 
screen for such experimentation or inter- 
play of audience and performers. 

We of the Federal Music Project have 
today one of the greatest opportunities 
to venture into paths where (because of 
existing economic difficulties) commer- 
cial music does not dare tread, and in so 
doing lead the way to an Americaniza- 
tion of the Musical Stage. In view of this, 
UNI'T, composed of: 

1. A Production Clearance Depart- 
ment to facilitate Inter-Prc^ect coopera- 
tion and slice production costs over one- 
half without limiting expression. 

2. A creative Experimental Board 
composed of talented directors and cre- 
ators recruited from the ranks of State- 
wide projects. 

One of their first tasks would be 
procuring and making new English 
translations. Lawrence Tibbett stated, 
"If they do nothing more than make 
some singable translations of the exist- 
ing Opera repertoire, they will have 
done work of historical significance." 

The Federal Music Projects of Cali- 
fornia are already taking important steps 
in that direction. San Diego is encour- 
aging inter- project Opera bookings. 
In San Francisco, three talented young 
men have written a modern satirical 
operetta. Los Angeles is producing a 
'new' Mikado," and plans "Traviata." 
San Bernardino has made a revised 
translation of "Faust" and is experi- 
menting with additional action to 
clarify philosophical confUct. The 
State Production Unit would in no way 
limit or standardize these or other 
creations and conceptions but would 
assist in a broader research and ap- 
proach. The Motion picture director, 
Rouben Mamoulian who, with Robert 
Edmund Jones, wais once connected 
with an Opera group of this nature at 
Eastman Conservatory, New York, 
claims that the future of American Art 
depends on just such intelligent experi- 

Have we the courage? 

Page 12 


The hornists in a symphony orchestra once played a 
trick on a famous German conductor. The conductor made 
the hornists repeat a certain passage over and over again, 
each lime hedging them to play "just a litde more softly." 
Finally the first horn whispered something to the others and 
the next time they put their lips to their instruments but 
did not play at all. 

"Splendid," exclaimed the conductor, "now just one 
wee bit softer, and you will have iti" 

During one of the rehearsals of "Gotterdammerung" at 
Bayreuth, in 1776, a terrific thunder storm battered upon the 
theatre. When Wagner, who was conducting, heard the roll- 
ing of the thunder, he thought it came from the stage and 
at the wrong time. With angry mien he hurried across his 
litde bridge to the stage and 
shouted, "There it is again! 
Who is responsible for this 
thunder in the wrong place?" 

Mother (to daughter at the 
piano): "That's wrong, what 
you are playing, child." 

Daughter: "Mama, I am 
playing 'Tannhauser'." 

Mother: "Ah! That's differ- 

It is said that Liszt made 
one trip to Russia. He gave 
a concert in St. Petersburg 
which was attended by the 
Czar and his entourage. Dur- 
ing the concert the conversa- 
tion in the royal box became 
decidedly animated. Liszt sud- 
denly stopped playing and the 
entire audience held its breath. 
Presently those near the stage 
heard Liszt remark, "While 
the lord speaks, the servants 
remain silent." 

The next morning the chief 
of police presented Liszt with 
his passport and a railroad 
ticket to Poland. 


The Common Denominator 

Paraphrasing John Masefield, who describes 
beauty so well, I should call music, "herself, 
the universal mind, eternal April wandering 
alone." Wherever you find a living creature, 
you also find melody — a snatch of song, a for- 
est murmur, the deep organ chant of the sea. 
Wars may rage, cataclysms descend upon the 
world, yet in the very midst of them you w^ill 
hear music. Although mankind rarely under- 
stands its own queer complexities and futilely 
bashes its thick skull against walls of its own 
making, it manages somehow to understand 
the mysterious language ^^hich all may hear 
who will. 

Perhaps it is because music is an inspired 
form of religion. The spiritual tug that grips 
all people of whatever race or creed, finds 
music its common denominator. Fierce hatreds 
and petty jealousies can melt into nothingness 
before the magic power which the queen of 
the highest art wields with w^isdom. 

It may even be that -with music we shall 
break through the seeming fog of distrust 
which permeates the world. 

"Surely this is a land of surprises. The Federal Music 
Project concert in Pacific Grove High School Auditorium 
last night turned out to be one of the best performed pro- 
grams I have ever heard by local talent. Bernard Gallery is 
a conductor who has a future. 

No local concert in many moons has offered such excellent 
conducting and choral leadership (under Dene Denny. — Ed.), 
and such accurate performance on the part of the individual 
players. We look forward eagerly to Dene Denny's next 
offering and predict the hall will be packed, for good news 
travels fast." — Hal Garrott, 

Monterey Peninsula Herald. 

"Last night, in its first Savoy 
Theatre concert, the Federsd 
Symphony responded well to 
pleasant surroundings and to 
the stimulation of the large 
audience that was also atten- 
tive and appreciative. Julius 
Leib is a conductor who gets 
results by efficient and intelli- 
gent methods. His abilities as 
a musician and director were 
apparent in an effective pro- 

— Constance Herreshoff, 
San Diego Sun. 

-Tommy CyNeil. 

"Gastone Usigli has built 
up a remarkably fine orchestra 
under the auspices of the Fed- 
eral Music Project. In a pro- 
gram that, with one notable 
exception, was made up of fa- 
miliar works, Usigli gave evi- 
dence of complete mastery of 
the score. The orchestra played 
with sparkling tone and excel- 
lent unanimity of phrasing." 
— Fred Noland, 
Oakland Tribune. 

Some of the old-fashioned musicians looked on the in- 
novation of dispensing with printed music as mere affectation. 
Thus it happened, when Mendelssohn was to play his "D 
Minor Trio" at a London concert, Mendelssohn, by some 
mistake, had forgotten to bring his music with him. 

He knew it by heart, but did not wish to play it that 
way. Finally he said: "Very well, I'll do it, but I want you 
to put a score, no matter what, on the piano, and get some 
one to turn the leaves, so it will not seem as if I were playing 
from memory!" 

"No sudden curtailment in 
the space allotted could perma- 
nently deprive this music edi- 
tor of the pleasure of praising 
Erich Weiler and the Marin 
County WPA Chamber Orchestra, for presenting a pro- 
gram last Monday night which qualified for the distinction of 
being the most unhackneyed program of classical music to 
go on record in this city in years." — Marjory Fischer, 

San Francisco News. 

"All praise to the Federal Music Project orchestras which 
have been doing more in one year to bring talented American 
composers to public notice, than have all the major orchestras 
of the country put together since the year 'one'." 

— Pacific Coast Musician. 

rwcnrM. WOKKS 







1 936 






DR. NIKOLAI SOKOLOFF, Notional Director 

DR. BRUNO DAVID USSHER, Assistont to Notionol Director 

HARRY HOPKINS, Notiofwl Administrator 
EUEN S. WOODWARD, Assistant Admlnistrotof 

Vol. I 

November, 1936 

No. 5 




State Director 

// is our privilege this month to re- 
linquish the CONDUCTOR'S 
STAND to Mr. Guy Maier, Assistant 
to Dr. Sol^oloff, in charge of the Federal 
Music Project in the twelve mid-tvestem 

California musicians will be most in- 
terested to learn about music project 
activities in that region. We are grate- 
ful to Mr. Maier for his interest and 


— Harle Jervis. 

By Guy Maier 

Greetings to our flourishing neighbor 
— "The Baton!" True to its name, it 
has taken the lead from us all. We sin- 
cerely hope its extraordinarily stimulat- 
ing pages have given as much zest and 
inspiration to other regions as we have 
received from it. 

The twelve states of the middlewest, 
under my supervision, have started 
their winter activities with several high 
spots, — Dr. Sokoloff conducting the 
thrilling concerts of the Illinois Sym- 
phony Orchestra in Chicago, and the 
Twin Cities Orchestra in St. Paul, in- 
cluding in his programs that exquisite 
minuet written by your California com- 
poser, Roemheld, first played by your 
Los Angeles Orchestra. Rudolph Ganz 
presided as conductor and soloist at the 
opening of the Michigan Symphony 
Orchestra in Detroit, playing an un- 
familiar Mozart concerto as well as 
some interesting pieces by Leo Sowerby 
and Wesley La Violctte. Mr. Ganz also 
conducted in Chicago with Rudolph 
Reuter, playing the "Emperor" con- 

The enlarged Michigan Symphony 
Orchestra is planning a series of con- 

the brilliant young conductor, Izler 
Solomon, is conducting Philip Warner's 
Symphonic Thumb-Nail Sketches for 
a first performance, and also Gordon 
Campbell's arrangement of the Bach 
choral "Before Thy Throne I Stand," 
dictated by the blind Bach only a few 
days before his death. 

In many cities we are having con- 
tests among the young artists for ap- 
pearances with our symphonic units. 
In each large town, one important con- 
cert a month will be given over to 
outstanding youthful talent. Many units 
are booked to capacity, months in ad- 
vance, among the most popular being 




Beaux Arts Building 

Los Angelo, Calif. 


Conductor's Stand . . . 
By Guy Maier 

Stimulate American Music 

By Richard Dral^e Saunders 


So You Want to Conduct?.. . 
By Gastone Usigli 


Singers Versus Instrumentalist 
By Giulio Silva 


California Project Covers State 7 | 

National News.. 


What Ails American 

Orchestras ? 

By Erich Weiler 


WPA Melody For 20,000,000 . 
From the Literary Digest 

New Project at Bakersfield 

San Bernardino Schedules 


Cover by George Binningto 


the Gypsy Orchestra of Cleveland, the 
"German Band" of Milwaukee, and 
the Negro Chorus of Chicago. A festival 
of Folk Music of all nations was recent- 
ly held in Kansas City, Kansas, with an 
overflow audience of many thousands. 
A similar celebration "A Cosmopolitan 
Music Night" is planned for Indian- 
apolis with Syrian, Roumanian, Greek, 
Italian and the Negro groups partici- 
pating. A two week's Teachers' Project 
Institute was held in St Paul, in which 
many prominent Minnesota state edu- 
cators — instrumental, vocal and public 
school — participated. For two days, I, 
myself, took the class in hand. Omaha 
is opening its weekly evening "Music 
Appreciation" hours with a Brahm's 
program. There, and elsewhere, thou- 
sands of school children are benefiting 
by historical concerts for young people, 
carefully and intelligendy planned. 

The problem of securing a sufficient 
quantity of orchestral music of all kinds 
for our units, has been solved by ar- 
rangement with a well stocked commer- 
cial library, which loans each state all 
the music it needs for a very modest 
sum monthly. 

I have been jumping from state to 
state so fast that I can scarcely keep up 
with myself! On November 1st, 1 have 
been invited to play at the first of an 
interesting series of Bach orchestral 
concerts presented in New York by our 
project. With Lee Pattison, 1 shall play 
the C minor concerto for two pianos, 
and then, adding Ernest Hutcheson to 
our two-some, we shall do the glorious 
C Major Concerto for three pianos. Mr. 
Pattison will then reciprocate by journey- 
ing to Chicago, Grand Rapids and De- 
troit, to play one of the finest composi- 
tions I know — Leo Sowerby 's Ballad for 
two pianos and orchestra. 

And so it goes. Last year at this time 
the midwest Federal Music Project did 
not exist . . . Listen to us now! 

certs in cities of that state. In Chicago, 
This magazine u/as printed through the courtesy of a private organization tvhich contributed its equipment 
for the furtherance of Federal Music Project activities. 


Py 3 


" . . . . we must give contemporary music its opportunity to be heard. In 
so doing we will stimulate and develop the musical talent in which this otoontry 
abounds, and eventually produce our share of genius . . . . " 

By Richard Dra/^e Saunders 

According to all signs, music in Amer- 
ica has now reached the point where it 
is turning from foreign influences and 
beginning to attain a conscious national- 
ism. Other countries such as Germany, 
Russia and England have passed through 
exacdy the same state, one that is nec- 
essary before indigenous music can be 

Mozart's early operas were written to 
Italian text simply because German was 
not sung in the opera houses of Germany 
at that time. Russian music was freed 
from Italian influences by the group of 
five nationalist composers, Balakireff, 
Moussorgsky, Rimsky-KorsakofI, Boro- 
din and Cui. And British music has only 
recently come into its own. 

Tlie time is ripe for American music. 
A conscious nationalism in music is not 
a whofly unmixed blessing, particularly 
in its inception. There is music extant 
today which is termed American merely 
because an American citizen wrote it, 
yet which cannot be regarded as native, 
quite apart from any question as to its 
originality. But if the pendulum swings 
too far from one direction to the other, 
it will eventually adjust its balance. 

As long as music is the plaything of 
a certain clique, music remains foreign, 
principally because its patrons like the 
effectation of foreign things. This atti- 
tude has probably caused music to suf- 
fer more in this country than in any 

Mr. Saunders is music critic of 
the Hollywood Citizen-News, and 
Hollytvood correspondent for Mu- 
sical Courier. 

other. But such foreign music is in- 
variably sterile insofar as engendering 
emotion in the minds of the people may 
be concerned. It is only when music 
takes root in the soil that it comes to 
mean anything to the general public. 

Music is a necessity. It is an integral 
part of life and a requisite adjunct to 
the happiness of the individual. This 
natural desire for music, however hum- 
ble, has caused the rise of popular songs 
the world over. It is true that most of 
the popular songs of the day are bad; 
some of them almost incredibly bad, 
both musically and lyrically. Yet occa- 
sionally a good song will blossom forth 
out of the ruck, and with the selective 
processes of time, these good songs will 
remain in the public consciousness, while 
the bad ones will be happily forgotten. 
It has been so in every country. 

Today a discerning observer can per- 
ceive a drawing together of popular mu- 
sic and serious music. The average 
standard of popular music is perceptibly 
rising, while serious music is becoming 
more understandable to the public at 
large. Here is an influence which will 

have a signal bearing on the musical 
future of the country. 

The Federal Music Project has come 
at the psychological moment. It is 
bringing the consciousness and appreci- 
ation of good music to the public, in a 
manner which has borne visible fruit 
in a very short time. It affords the Amer- 
ican composer a much needed outlet, 
opportunity, and above all, encourage- 

In comparing American compositions 
to the standard repertory of European 
compositions appearing on concert pro- 
grams, it should be realized that only 
the best of the classical repertory re- 
mains for our edification today. TTie 
contemporaries of Beethoven, for ex- 
ample, have been mostly forgotten, yet 
in their day they were highly esteemed. 
Adalbert Gyrowetz was preferred over 
Beethoven by the directors of the Vienna 
Court Theaters. Only time will prop- 
erly classify the composers of any era. 
In justice and fairness, we must give 
contemporary music its opportunity to 
be heard, and in so doing we will stimu- 
late and develop the musical talent in 
which this country abounds, and even- 
tually produce our share of genius. 

The Federal Music Projects through- 
out the country are to be highly con- 
gratulated upon their fairness and open- 
mindedness. In granting opportunity to 
new works, they are making musical 

Pflgc 4 


.So You Want To Conduct? 

.Gastone Uiigli, District Supervisor for the Oakland Federal Music Project 
and conductor of the Oakland Project orchestra, graduated from the Conserva- 
tory of Music of Bologna at the age of twenty-two. Mr. Usigli is the possessor of 
a gold medal presented for his production of "Die Mieistersinger" at the Phil- 
harmonic Opera House in Verona, Italy, in 1920. His symphonic poem, "Don 
Quixote' won the Ricardi prize in 1924, Toscanini being one of the judges. 

By Gastone Usigli 

A story is related of 
a young man who 
once approached a fa- 
mous conductor and 
timidly confided to 
him his "intention of 
becoming a conduc- 
tor" . . . after some 
time the young man 
again visited the same 
party and exclaimed 
with great elation, "You know Maes- 
tro, I found out that after all, conduct- 
ing is rather easy." Whereupon the 
elderly Master answered in a soft, mys- 
terious voice, "I know it, but don't tell 

Whether this story is true or not is 
immaterial; undoubtedly it exemplifies 
an attitude which is rather prevalent. 
There are several young men, express- 
ing themselves in a similar manner, 
while displaying the most astonishing 
ignorance about instruments and or- 
chestration, about scores in general, in 
a word lacking that complex and mani- 
fold knowledge which any prospective 
conductor should already have acquired. 

The entire life-practice of a real 
artist is an apprenticeship, and only 
through an extended period of expe- 
rience does he reach the point in which 
he occasionally succeeds in feeling 
pleased with himself, one thing that 
for him is much harder than pleasing 
his audiences. 

However, it is incontrovertibly true 
that one does not become a conductor 
no less than one docs not become a poet 
(I mean of course, a conductor of real 
merit, an inspiring leader) and that a 
mysterious, undefinable almost divine 
spark must be inborn in him. He would 

therefore feel from adolescence, even 
from childhood, that innate attraction 
towards symphony orchestras, that un- 
canny urge to consult and investigate 
in the score the reason for those magi- 
cal orchestral effects, that mysterious 
need to express the meaning of a mu- 
sical phrase through a rhythmic motion 
of the arm, that irresistible desire to 
assume the leadership, whenever the 
first attempts of Chamber Music are 
made (and incidentally, chamber music, 
in which every good musician is well 
versed, affords the first and most valu- 
able opportunity to the young student). 

Let us, therefore, lure young sudents 
to symphony concerts and especially to 
rehearsals held by competent leaders 
and observe their reactions; many po- 
tential talents could so be discovered 
and subsequendy encouraged and prop- 
erly assisted. 

One of the most valuable features 
about the Federal Music Project is this 
opportunity given to the young candi- 
date conductors of the community; there 
are three young men, with a distinct 
talent for conducting who, although not 
members of our Oakland Project, regu- 
larly rehearse with our orchestra. 

However, it would be rather danger- 

ous to entrust perma- 
nendy an orchestral 
body to an immature 
leader; the drilling of 
an orchestra consists, 
so to say, of a convey- 
ance of musical 
knowledge on the 
part of the conductor 
to all members of his 
orchestra who are to 
be welded into an organic whole ac- 
cording to the general laws of good 

There are infinite opportunides and 
ways for the conductor to impart this 
knowledge and the more apt and ca- 
pable and competent he will appear 
to his players, the more he will enjoy 
their respect, good will and enthusiasm. 
In other words, an orchestra becomes 
as inspired as its conductor will require 
and obtain from it. 

Nowadays a young man has somehow 
more opportunities to conduct an or- 
chestra than time or opportunity of be- 
coming a "good musician"; music is a 
science before being an art and the 
ground work should first be adequately 
mastered before one makes the state- 
ment, "that after all, conducting is 
rather easy." 


That the Oakland Project has given 
a world premiere to three symphonic 
compositions f 


Poge 5 


By Giulio Silva 

The program of work relief for un- 
employed singers is considered, in some 
musical circles of our country, as sec- 
ondary in comparison with that of the 
instrumentalists. Some people even 
look upon the WPA projects for singers 
as useless. 

The argument advanced by those in 
opposition to work relief for singers is 
that most of the so-called unemployed 
singers should be considered either as 
amateurs or at best semi-professionals. 
They say that most of them have relied 
until now upon other professional ac- 
tivities for their livelihood; therefore 
they should not be distracted from those 
non-musical activities to be put into the 
professional musical field, which cannot 
offer any future security to them. 

Contrary to the opinion of those 
critics, we think their argument is the 
very one which demonstrates not only 
the usefulness but the imperative need 
of governmental help to singers. 

It is generally admitted that America 
today is the country which possesses a 
greater wealth of talent in singing than 
any other country in the world. 

Most of this talent is wasted for lack 
of professional opportunity. The artistic 
life of a nation is the index of its de- 
gree of civilization. The waste of talent 
is, therefore, a crime against civilization. 

The action of the Federal Music Proj- 
ect in regard to the singers should be 
considered more under the important 
and large aspect of protection and con- 
servation of the artistic talent of the 
Nation, than under the narrow aspect 
of purely transitory economical help. 

America, largely depending on priv- 
ate finance, has rapidly been building a 
solid musical tradition. 

Each large city of our country feels 
the need of symphonic concerts, opera, 
oratorio performances, and good church 

In order to have a permanent series 
of performances of operas and ora- 
torios, of public concerts and good 
church music, each city needs an able 
body of singers, besides a symphony 

Mr. Silva, former director of the 
Bach Choral Society, is an eminent 
authority on ancient music. He 
is a composer of various eccles- 
iastical wor\s for choruses, and 
is at present Choral Director of 
the San Francisco Federal Music 

The Federal Music Project is trying to 
build up, with the great mass of un- 
employed musicians, the organizations 
of singers and instrumentalists needed 
for this purpose. 

If the Federal Music Project will con- 
tinue, the growing musical culture of 
the people will build automatically an 
increasing demand of service by the mu- 
sicians. The purely commercial agen- 
cies, as they are at the present time, can- 
not perform this function. 

A small admission charge is now es- 
tablished for. the Music Project. By in-- 
creasing gradually, and proportionally 
to the demand of the public, the price 
of admission to concerts, the musical 
organizations of our cities, now under 
WPA, may soon become self-supporting. 

We shall not think that this goal can 
be reached in a few months; it can be 
reached in a few years if public opinion 
will be strong enough to give its support 
to the action of the Government in help- 
ing music. 

To popularize music to this extent, 
symphonic music alone is not sufficient. 
Operas and oratorios are the large forms 
of musical art which attract a large pub- 
lic. Well trained singers are needed for 
these performances. 

A permanent chorus ready for a reg- 
ular series of performances of oratorios 
and operas cannot be established unless 
on a professional basis and with daily, 
rigorous training. A body of able solo- 
ists must be continually nourished by the 
utilization of the young talented singers, 
of which America has such an abun- 
dance; but most of these young singers 
must be helped financially during their 

study as well as during their profes- 
sional debut. Only the Government can 
give them the help they need. 

When good singers are again em- 
ployed, the churches and the broadcast- 
ing companies will feel the need of bet- 
ter music and the necessity of paying 
better wages. 

Having considered what should be 
done, let us say a few words about what 
the Federal Music Project has already 
accomplished for singers. 

In San Francisco, we have grouped 
all the singers in a large chorus. The 
class distinction between vocalists, as it 
exists so marked in the operatic world 
(star soloists, small parts soloists, chor- 
isters), has been eliminated. All the 
singers, regardless of their own individ- 
ual talent and ability, sing in the chorus 
for the daily practice of oratoric music. 
The most gifted of them are chosen for 
the a-solo parts in the public perform- 
ances and for the programs of concerts 
in cooperation with the instrumental 
group. The most able musicians of our 
group teach the other singers sight- 
reading (solfege), theory and harmony 
in classes; we have also classes in His- 
tory of music, Langtiage, Coaching of 
songs and Piano open to all the singers 
of the project. 

The high type of music chosen for 
study and public performance has a 
great influence in building up the morale 
of the singers. Many of them found 
themselves in an artistic rebirth, gradu- 
ally absorbing the beauty of the great 
works which they were called upon to 
interpret, and proudly feeling the re- 
sponse to their efforts and their enthu- 
siasm b^ an audience of intelligent 

The young singers find in our work 
an encouragement to continue their cul- 
tural activity and a great opportunity for 
study and experience. 

These advantages offered by all the 
Federal Music Projects in the United 
States will be the most powerful help in 
saving many young and gifted singers 
from inactivity and oblivion. 




Stephen de Hospodar 

QVeieral Art Project) 


Poge 7 



The entire state is now enjoying 
Federal Music Project concerts, as a re- 
sult of the policy of sending units from 
various district headquarters into small- 
er cities, rural and suburban districts. 

Through the inauguration of this plan, 
people in communities without facilities 
for travel to the former concert centers, 
now have concerts and productions 
brought to them. 

The districts of San Diego, Los An- 
geles, Monterey, San Francisco, San 
Jose, Santa Barbara, Santa Ana, San 
Bernardino, San Rafael, Escondido, 
Fresno, Stockton, San Mateo, Oakland 
and Sacramento are supplying the small- 
er communities in their respective dis- 
tricts with presentations of light opera, 
choral groups, symphony and other 

The Chamber Ensemble of the Marin 
County Project has presented concerts 
in Santa Rosa and San Francisco. 

The Symphony Orchestra of San 
Bernardino has travelled to Victorville 
for two concerts, and after a survey is 
made a teacher will be sent to the desert 
schools to teach instrumentation and 
music appreciation. 

The Escondido Band plays weekly 
concerts in Oceanside, and last week 
presented a concert at Ramona. This 
project also gives band concerts in other 
small towns in that district. 

The Orange County Symphony has 
played in Santa Ana, Fullerton, and 
Laguna Beach. 

Beginning this month, the concert 
orchestra of the San Mateo Project will 
visit coast cities in San Mateo county. 
Concerts will be given at Half Moon 
Bay, Pescadero and Burlingame. The 
teaching unit of this project holds daily 
classes in San Mateo and Redwood City. 

At the invitation of the San Mateo 
Project, the String Quartet of the Oak- 
land Project is presenting a concert in 
Burlingame this month. The Oakland 
Project has presented concerts in Berke- 
ley, Hayward, Richmond and neighbor- 
ing towns. 

The San Jose Concert Orchestra will 
shordy present a concert in Santa Cruz. 

San EHego's recent production of 
"The Mikado" was taken on tour and 
played at Escondido, Santa Ana, Fuller- 
ton and San Bernardino, as well as in 
San Diego. This project's production of 
"The Gondoliers" also played these 
towns, with the exception of San Ber- 

The fourteen members of the Carmel 
Tipica Orchestra recently completed a 
tour which included seven small towns. 

The Stockton Concert Orchestra 
travels to Sonora, Livermore, Lodi, 
Tracy and the Bret Harte Sanitarium. 

The San Francisco Symphony Or- 
chestra, under the direction of Ernst 
Bacon, recendy completed a tour of 
California inland cities which included 
Stockton and Modesto. 

C.C.C. Camps and other small settle- 
ments have been covered by the Santa 

Barbara project units. Concerts have 

been given in Solvang, Buellton, Lom- 
poc, Santa Maria and Ventura. 

The Sacramento Project Band is plan- 
ning a series of concerts to be given in 
small communities and schools near 

Altho complete plans for the Bakers- 
field Project have not been announced 
by Lloyd C. Vath, Bakersfield Super- 
visor, it is expected that oudying com- 
munities will benefit from a number of 

Before the Bakersfield project was re- 
cently established, the Fresno Concert 
Orchestra played in Bakersfield, as well 
as Madera and Visalia. 

Units of the Los Angeles project have 
long been established in Glendale, Long 
Beach and Pasadena, and opera and 
light opera productions of the Los An- 
geles project are presented in these 
towns, as well as in Bell, Fullerton, 
Anaheim and other small cities near 
the metropolitan area. 

In small sections where it has been 
impossible to present concerts due to 
inadequate housing facilities, teaching 
units and other activities have been or- 

As a result of this complete state 
coverage, hundred of letters of commen- 
dation have been received in the State 
and district offices. 

Pogc 8 




The most distinguished achievemeni 
of the Federal Music Project, of Massa- 
chusetts for the month o£ September, 
indeed, for the late summer season, was 
the Festival given by all the bands of 
the State, on Sunday, September twenty- 
seventh, in Russell Field, Cambridge. 

In spite of lowering and threatening 
clouds and the chill of autumn in the 
air, several thousand people gathered in 
the bleachers of the Athletic field, for 
this, the first concert given of all the 
WPA Bands of the State in collabora- 
tion, and the largest Band Concert ever 
given in this vicinity. The sight alone 
of the augmented band composed of 
five hundred musicians was impressive, 
before they began to play. 

The first part of the program con- 
sisted of selections by the individual 
bands in turn, each under the direction 
of its own conductor. The discipline was 
excellent as the units succeeded one an- 
other, returning at the end of their 
special presentations to their places in 
the augmented band. In the program 
there was a nice blending of the popu- 
lar and the classic. Such selections as: 
Overture "Lsl Gazza Ladra" (Rossini) 


by the Beverly Band; Overture to "Sici- 
lian Vespers" (Verdi) by the Newbury- 
port Band; "Joan of Arc" (Verdi) by 
the Fall River Band; "Finlandia Tone 
Poem" (Sibelius) by the Springfield 
Band, were interspersed with more 
popular numbers, such as, "Friml Fa- 
vorites" (Grofe) by the Haverhill Band, 
"Ida and Dottie" Polka for two trumpets 
(Losey) and selection from "Rose 
Marie" (Friml) by the New Bedford 
Band. The applause of the audience 
after each number was spontaneous and 
enthusiastic. In fact, there were at times 
repeated cheers. 

afternoon. All the bands together, under 
the baton of Mr. Giovanni Pompeo, 
united in playing "The Stars and Stripes 
Forever," followed by "Overture to 
Tannhauser," by Wagner, and "Over- 
ture Solenelle 1812," by Tschaikowsky. 
Finally as the sun broke through the 
clouds, lighting up the brass of the 
horns, the summer season was brought 
to a close by the playing by the massed 
bands of "The Star Spangled Banner." 

The Federal Music Project is nation-wide, functionii 
standpoint of organization, educational and performing \ 
out of the stage of adolescence and have reached maturity 

More than forty-six million persons have her.rd "in tl 
Project since October, 1935. There have been approximate 
uary 1 and August 3 1 . 

Music has no social value unless it is heard. These tigui 
greater number of our people than in any other period in th 


Thank you very much for the copies 
of your publication "The Baton," which 
is very interesting, indeed. I think it an 
excellent idea, and I am sure that it is 
of interest to all the Federal Music Di- 
rectors. 1 hope before long to be able 
to send you some oudine of our ac- 
tivities in New Mexico. 

As you know, we are doing what I 
term "pioneering work" here in New 
Mexico and our problems are radically 
different from yours. I wish that we 
might have some symphony and opera 
groups, etc., but we have not the mu- 
sicians on relief in any such numbers 
that we could operate them. Our efforts 
are confined to teaching and direction 
of voluntary groups of performers. We 
are enlarging our program quite rapidly 
and are having some very gratifying 
results now. 

Helen Chandler Ryan, 
Stale Director, New Mexico 
Federal Music Projects. 


The recreational authorities in De- 
troit offered Belle Isle for the WPA 
Symphony Orchestra concerts in Au- 
gust. In Grand Rapids City officials 
built two orchestral shells, used for sum- 
mer programs by the Federal units 
there. Summer schedules also were car- 
ried out in Jackson, Lansing and Iron 
Mountain, Michigan. 

Detroit's WPA Civic Orchestra is 
giving concerts every two weeks devoted 
to the classic symphonic literature, to- 
gether with many of the representative 
American compositions, and with the 
Detroit Civic Choir it is now rehearsing 
Verdi's "Requiem" for early presenta- 


Po9« 9 


-two States and the District of Columbia. From the 
leen set up and now, under supervision, they have passed 

ncerts or performances by units of the Federal Music 
ght thousand performances in the period between Jan- 

it it has not only been heard but that it has reached a 
' the United States. 



The September issue of your Califor- 
nia Federal Music Project Magazine, 
"The Baton" was very interesting; it 
most certainly gave us an excellent op- 
portunity to learn of the fine work you 
are doing out there. 

Here in Maine the Musical talent is 
somewhat limited in numbers, conse- 
quently we have no symphony orchestra 
or large choral groups. In Portland, 
Maine we have a string ensemble, brass 
band and a small mixed chorus. During 
the summer months, the brass band 
won a reat deal of praise with its out- 
door concerts. This was the first time 
in five years that the people of Portland 
had been able to enjoy band concerts 
in the city parks. The chorus and string 
ensemble were booked steadily, giving 
joint public recitals at the surrounding 
summer colonies, as well as a weekly 
radio broadcast through Station WCSH, 
Portland, Maine. 

In planning our programs we have 
given a great deal of consideration to 
American composers, having at least 
one American composition on each pro- 

Reginald B. Bonnin, 

Director, Federal Music Project, 

State of Maine. 


Philadelphia's one-hundred-man Fed- 
eral orchestra, under the sponsorship 
of the University of Pennsylvania and 
Temple University, gave a long series 
of concerts, with soloists and ballets. 
Weekly promenade concerts are being 
heard in old Mercantile Hall. The Penn 
and Sylvania concert bands merged to- 
gether for the summer concerts in the 
Philadelphia area. 


This has been a month of varied and 
interesting activities. Our 280 musicians 
gave 1 1 1 performances to an estimated 
aggregate attendance of 198,667. 

The week of September Hth to 20th 
we held a Harvest Music Festival at 
Mission Farm Auditorium, Medicine 
Lake. Our symphony. Twin Cities Band 
and Jubilee Singers participated in these 

From September 15th to 25th we 
held an Institute in St. Paul for all 
Twin City teachers on our project. We 
succeeded in obtaining an entire col- 
lege in which to hold this Institute 
without expense to the project. Mr, Ga- 
briel Fenyves, our supervisor of teachers, 
received splendid cooperation from 
teachers for lectures and clinics. Every 
prominent teacher in music from the 
music schools, colleges, University of 
Minnesota and Hamline University do- 
nated their services to this cause. We 
were exceedingly fortunate in having 
with us at the Institute for two days, Mr. 
Guy Maier, Assistant to the Federal 
Director, whose lectures and class dem- 
onstrations were a never-to-be-forgotten 
inspiration to all who were fortunate 


enough to be present. We all regretted 
that Mr. Maier could not stay longer. 
We feel that higher standard of teaching 
will result from this Institute as a defi- 
nite outline of procedure in teaching 
has already been evolved. 


The State Director of the Louisiana 
Federal Music Project, Rene Salomon, 
is sponsoring a series of concerts for 
composers residing in that State, and 
expects shortly to extend the series to 
include an Ail-American program. Mr. 
Salomon has extended an invitation to 
the California Federal Music Project to 
submit works for performance in Louis- 
iana. In New Orleans, a civic symphony 
has been formed by Mr. Arthur Zack, 
using the Federal Music Project mu- 
sicians as a nucleus. During the season, 
six evening concerts will be presented, 
and also six concerts especially for chil- 

Pogc 10 ^ 

*la Traviata*' 

Scores Big Hit 

Verdi's "La Traviata" presented on 
October 27th and 30th by the Los An- 
geles Federal Musk Project, played to 
packed houses at the Philharmooic Au- 
ditorium in Los Angeles. 

The cast included Edis de Phillippe, 
as Violette; Felix Knight, as Alfredo; 
and Rudolph Hoyos, as Germont. The 
production was under the general di- 
rection of Max Rabinoff. 

"Traviata" represented the outstand- 
ing production of the Federal Music 
Project to date. We quote from the 

"Miss de Phillippe has a voice of 
fluency and good range, and she met 
the vocal difficulties with proficiency 
and endurance . . . she is small and of 
pleasing appearance, and her high 
colortura voice is exceptionally well 
suited to the role. Knight met the mu- 
sical demands of his part adequately . . . 
the principle success of the singing was 
won by Hoyos, whose traditional his- 
trionic power and fine voice provided 
one of the outstanding features of the 
performance. The singers were mag- 
nificently supported by the Federal Sym- 
phony Orchestra, under the baton of 
Alberto Conti, a wizard in maintaining 
tempos and ensemble." 

{Florence Lawrence, Los Angeles 

"... If the enthusiasm registered by 
last night's audience is any criterion, 
Government sponsored grand opera 
could at once take its place in America, 
and be assured of a warm reception." 

{Mildred Norton, Evening News) 

"No audience smothered in jewels, 
furs, and corsages ever got more genuine 
pleasure from an opera than this one 
got from "Traviata." The enthusiasm 
could leave no doubt in anyone's mind 
that the Federal Music Project should 
plan other operas and should strive to 
make popular-priced opera for the 
masses a permanent institution." 
{M.G.S., Hollywood Citizen-News) 





Los Angdes Reiser 

San Beioaidioo Rcbinson 

Oakland Bernard Gallery 

Los Angeles Tipica Orchestra 
A Capella Chorus 

San Beriurdino Douglas Steele 

Oakland Bernard Gallery 

Los Angeles Usi^i 

San Bernardino Tord Benner 

Oakland Bernard Gallery 

San Bernardino Robinson 

Los Angeles Altschuler 



Bernard Gallery 

Concerts Intrigue 

Many Celebrities 

From one end of the State to the 
other, symphonies, operas and other pro- 
ductions of the California Federal Mu- 
sic Project have been attended by those 
famous in the political world, the world 
of music and arts, and the motion pic- 
ture industry. 

Among those who have attended the 
concerts in San Francisco, Los Angeles, 
San Diego and other California cities, 
are: Senator William Gibbs McAdoo, 
Eleanor Wilson McAdoo, Gladys 
Swarthout, Frank Chapman, Jose Iturbi, 
Marian Talley, Amelita Galli-Curci, 
Otto Klemperer, Max Steiner, Mary Mc- 
Cormic and Alfred Hertz. 

The Los Angeles concerts have be- 
come a rendezvous for Hollywood folk. 
Gloria Swanson, Gail Laemmic and 
Herbert Marshall often attend. Others 
seen at the concerts are: Adrian, fashion 
creator for MGM, Lois Wilson, May 
Robson, Beta Lugosi, Fritz Leiber, and 
directors Jack Conway and Richard 

"Mikado" Scores 

In L. A. Opening 

Any doubt as to whether the public 
wants popular priced musical produ- 
tions, was dispelled when Gilbert and 
Sullivan's "Mikado," a production of 
the Los Angeles Federal Music Project, 
opened before a packed house at the 
Figueroa Playhouse in Los Angeles last 
Saturday night, November 7. 

This production of Gilbert and Sulli- 
van's famous operetta first played in 
Bell, California nearly a month ago, and 
has since been successfully presented in 
Alhambra, Long Beach and Pasadena. 
The Los Angeles opening was an ova- 
tion for Director John R. Britz and the 
entire cast. 

Arthur Codd, dramatic young tenor, 
played the part of Nanki-Poo, the royal 
heir whose incognito philanderings 
nearly placed his neck on the execution- 
er's block. Rene Case, star of numerous 
light operas, gave a captivating per- 
formance as Yum-Yum, the school-girl 
ward, whose innocent charms throw 
half the court of Japan into wierd dif- 

Georgia Carroll, Pasadena Commu- 
nity Playhouse actress, carried the role 
of Petti-Sing, Yum-Yum's equally en- 
trancing sister, in a convincing manner, ■ 
while Maria Lanova, as Peep-Bo, com- 
pleted the pulchritudinous trio. 

Delos Jewkes created an amusing 
character in his interpretation of Pooh- 
Bah, Royal High Most Everything. 

Others in the production who also ap- 
peared on Sunday night were: John 
Hamilton as Pish-Tush, Jack Hender- 
son as Ko-Ko, Beatrice Huntley as Ka- 
tisha, Thomas Glynn as Mikado, and 
Fred Holmes as Umbrella-Carrier. 

The production, which is scheduled 
for an indefinite run, had the following 
changes in cast at later performances: 
Charles de La Platte as Pooh-Bah, 
Charles Cannon as Ko-Ko, Janet Von 
Sturm as Yum-Yum, Maria Lanova as 
Petti-Sing. Martha Herrick as Peep-Bo, 
and Fern Melrose as Katisha. -R. P. D. 

Opera Star Likes 

Colored Chorus 

Mary McCormic, opera star, and a 
party of eight attended a performance 
of "John Henry" when it was produced 
by the Federal Theatre Project at the 
Mayan Theatre recendy, and were pro- 
fuse in their praise of the production, 
as well as the vocal ensemble of the 
Music Project, under the direction of 
Carlyle Scott. 


POflC 11 

Ails American Orchestras? 

By Erich Weiler 

Today we are conisnt to go to a 

concert, sit back in our seats, listen to 
Beethoven's Fifth for the seven-hun- 
dredth time, and use the concert as an 
exercise for our cri-ical faculties, for 
comparisons of past performances and 
performers, for developing a cultural 
snobbery which is the death of all true 
art. We put highest importance on con- 
ductors, on orchestras, on performances, 
instead of on works performed, on com- 
positions, on composers. This is our 
worst fault, this is the disease which 
eats up the creative impulse in strug- 
gling artists. Why should a composer 
write works when he knows beforehand 
that they will not be performed? Our 
conductors will not play them, or play 
them begrudgingly, unwillingly, as a 
painful duty, because they know that 
a new work seldom enhances their rep- 
ut.-ition: and the indolent audiences, un- 
used to intelligent listening, are unwill- 
ing to hear unfamiliar, new music. 

If orchestras have sinned by not 
training audiences to be receptive to new 
works, what shall we say about the total 
neglect of much of the finest music of 
the past, simply because it has not the 
applause appeal of the most played 
works.' Here the fault of program mak- 
ers is still more evident. Conductors 
wish to impress the public, they want to 
show how THEY interpret works 
which everyone knows. They want to 
be compared to other conductors. Small 
wonder that the average criticism or 
praise of conductors is so shallow. It is 
usually confined to how he looks, how 
gracefully he uses his hands, "how mas- 
terfvilly he commands his men," or some 
such nonsense. Everybody is interested 
in personalities or in the extenial trap- 
pings of a performance; hardly ever 
does one hear an intelligent interest 
in the works performed. Again the con- 
ductors are much to be blamed for this 
state of affairs. They want to startle, to 
impress, to conquer. Works played must 
end with a band; brasses must clash, 
tympanies must thunder and climaxes 
must be unleashed lb dispby tbfc ix> 

For twenty-five years Mr. Wei 
ler has been associated with prom- 
inent American Orchestras. At 
present he is Supervisor of the 
Motrin County Federal Music Proj- 
ect and conductor of the Marin 
County Chamber Ensemble. 

works of a shortlived triumph. The very 
people who most condemn the antics 
of famous tenors or spoiled prima- 
donnas, in their mad desire for public 
applause and recognition, commit 
worse crimes against art than the fool- 
ish and comparatively harmless singers. 

I firmly believe that, as a first and 
primary duty, the conductor who loves 
music should stand behind the compo- 
sition performed, not in front of it. By 
this I mean that he should be a humble, 
sincere and modest servant to the com- 
poser; he should be as unobtrusive as 

The conductor's second and still more 
important duty should be to the con- 
tinued life of creative music. It should 

San Diego to Give 

"Coffee Cantata" 

of unusual interest to lovers of music 
is the announcement that the San Diego 
Project will present Bach's "Coffee 
Cantata" in San Diego's Savov Theatre. 

The "Coffee Cantata" will be con- 
ducted by Charles H. Marsh, Super- 
visor of the San Diego Project. "The 
production will present the symphony 
orchestra, the fifry>-five voice Project 
chorus, and several soloists from the 

Unique staging, scenic effects, action 
and plot will be a part of the produc- 
tion. Bach's "Coffee Cantata" is fre- 
quently heard in concert form, but it is 
thought that this will mark the initial 
production of the work in what might 
be called an djientic maimer. 

consist of a constant search for new 
works, for young composers, for works 
of the past seldom or never performed. 
Audiences should learn to listen again, 
conductors should learn to be modest. 
The number of works of the past, great 
works of the past, never or seldom per- 
formed, is legion. Of Mozart we hear 
hardly ever more than three, Haydn sel- 
dom more than four, of Schubert oiJy 
two symphonies. He wrote eight, Mo- 
zart more than twenty, Haydn possibly 
fifty symphonies. Mendelssohn and 
Schumann (and Brahms) follow next 
with a long list of neglected works. 
There are literally hundreds of com- 
positions, symphonies (or movements 
of symphonies) of major and minor 
composers, crying for rescue from obli- 

Of course this means research, work 
and study of forgotten scores for con- 
ductors; it means sacrificing of easy and 
stale applause. It may mean re-arrang- 
ing, re-orchestrating, cutting and prun- 
ing of forgotten scores. It means work 
for capable musicians, but it would 
mean bringing to light beautiful music, 
it would be the work of people loving 
music. What of it, if a work does not 
end with trombones and trumpets bray- 
ing a climax? 

The Federal Music Projects are spe- 
cially fortunate in one respect: they have 
copyists available who can be of great 
assistance in preparing manuscripts and 
scores for concerts. It is up to the mu- 
sicianship of conductors to do the rest: 
Revive the stale and unprofitable or- 
chestral concert life from its lethargy! 
Serve the composer, serve the composi- 
tion, serve music! Forget about pub- 
licity, about cheap triumphs, about de- 
cayed laurels! Search unceasingly, bring 
to light beautiful music, new and old. 
The great masterpieces will not suffer, 
they will be played again and again 
anyway; they will sound fresher and 
more beautiful if they are not over- 
plaved. Serve music, not yourselves! 
This is a grand task for the musicians 
OH the Fedeai Music Pro)scx. 



Three Composers Among Vath Heads New 

San Francisco Supervisors BakersSeld Unit 

Three Supervisors of the San Fran- 
cisco District Federal Music Project 
should be singled out for their work as 


Ernst Bacon, San Francisco District 
Supervisor, having completed a suite 
for orchestra "Country Roads — un- 
paved," which was performed success- 
fully by the Los Angeles Federal Music 
Project Orchestra as well as by the San 
Francisco Federal Music Project Sym- 
phony Orchestra, and a Cantata based 
on the Book of Ecclesiastes, has more 
recendy completed a musical work for 
the stage in collaboration with Raisch 
StoU, Dance Band Supervisor of the San 
Francisco Project, and Phil Mathias. 
This work is expected to be ready for 
production early in January. 

Raisch Stoll has written profusely 
within this last six months for his own 
Dance Orchestra, and some of his own 
compositions were performed success- 
fully for WPA officials during July, on 
the occasion of the visit to San Francisco 
of Robert H. Hinckley, WPA Field 

Frederick Preston Search, Supervisor 
of the Band Unit and bandmaster, com- 
pleted a very interesting overture based 
on a dramatic episode from the life of 
McKorkle, a brave and poetic legendary 
adventurer of the '49 days in California. 
This work was given its premier per- 
formance in August by the Oakland 
Federal Music Project Symphony Or- 
chestra under Gastonc Usigli's baton. 

Another recent work of Frederick 
Preston Search is an "American Rhap- 
sody " in four movements, which was 
performed for the first time by the San 
Francisco WPA Orchestra last season. 
In addition to these compositions, Mr. 

Search is constantly writing new works 
for the Band which he is conducting. 
He has completed two string quartets 
and is now at work on a Symphonic 

Ben Bauer, Assistant Conductor, had 
his first thrill as a composer when his 
pianoforte concerto was given a pre- 
liminary reading by the San Francisco 
Symphony Orchestra a few weeks ago 
with Douglas Thompson, Federal Music 
Project pianist playing the piano pan. 
The work was found interesting by the 
members of the Orchestra who discussed 
its orchestration and musical value quite 
freely with the young composer. As a 
result of this reading and open musical 
forum, Mr. Bauer is rewriting this 
pianoforte concerto into symphonic 

Toma Yagodka, pianist and teacher 
on the San Francisco Project, has just 
completed a sonata for piano and or- 

This work is shorter than the usual 
piano concerto. Mr. Yagodka feels that 
many pianoforte concertos are spoiled 
by their excessive length and many 
repetitions of the same material. This 
work is unusually interesting in that it 
is shaped after the sonata pattern. The 
composer has attempted to avoid breaks 
between the movements so that the 
work may flow continuously from begin- 
ning to end. 

When asked if his work was modern, 
the composer smiled and rejjUed: "It 
is a m'odern work, indeed, f only wrote 
it this summer." And he added in-a 
serious mood, "I hope, however, that 
it may be as nearly as possible as modern 
as the music of Bach^ Mozart, Beethoven, 
and Brahms!" 

San Mateo Plays 

Works of Search 

A program composed of the ^vorks 
of Frederick Preston Search was recent- 
ly presented by the San Mateo Project, 
under the direction of Arthur Gunder- 

Mr. Search, Assistant Supervisor un- 
der Ernst Bacon of the San Francisco 
Project, is an American composer who 
has achieved considerable recognition 
for his chamber music. His "Sextette in 

F Minor" won the chamber music con- 
test of the Society for the Publicising 
of American Music, jn New York, two 
years ago. The first presentation of this 
work in California vyas conducted by 
Mr. Gunderson. 

Mr. Search's Sextette heard on this 
program was also given its premiere per- 
formance. This work is dedicated to 
Mrs. Elizabeth Sprague Coolidge. Six- 
teen musicians took part. 

Last week the concert orchestra pre- 
sented. Mr. Search 4s guest soloist,' play- 
ing his Concerto .for -Ctllp' iiJ ^A-'Mihor.'- 

The establishment of a Federal Music 
Project in Bakersfield was announced 
this week by the State Oftice. Lloyd C. 
Vath, who formerly organized and 
conducted a band in Bakersfield under 
the cooperative system, has been ap- 
pointed Acting Supervisor. 

When plans are completed, thirty-five 
musicians will find employment on this 
new project. Two auditions have al- 
ready been held. At the time of going 
to press, approximately fifteen people 
have been assigned. 

With the opening of district head- 
quarters in Bakersfield, this gives the 
State of California sixteen Music Proj- 
ects, employing more than three thou- 
sand people. 

Carmers Tipica 

Group Ends Tour 

The Tipica Orchestra of the Federal 
Music Project at Carmel, with Manuel 
Serrano, director, was on tour most of 
October. Dressed in colors of the Mexi- 
can and Spanish flags, the fourteen 
members of the Unit gave concerts in 
Castroville, Elkhorn, Alisal, Chular, 
Gonzales, Soledad and Greenfield, 
towns ranging in distance twenty-two 
to sixty miles from Carmel. 

The Tipicas, playing, singing, and 
dancing, enchanted the children of these 
Districts, who with their parents came 
from far and near to the concerts. Hun- 
ger for music was particularly notice- 
able in the smaller and more remote 

As the school curriculum at that time 
included early California history and a 
study of the Spanish background of the 
State, the programs were of timely in- 
terest. The large percentage of Spanish 
and Mexican descent added enthusiasm 
ind' color to the audiences. 


P«ge 13 

2 0,000,000 

From the Literary Digest, September 19th, 1936. 
Copyright, 1936, by Fun\ and Wagnalls Company, 
Netv Yorf^. 

Dramatic proof of America's re- 
awakening to music is not as stunning 
in the box-office records of commercial 
concert orchestras as in the attendance 
figures of the WPA Federal Music Proj- 

In nine months, ended June 30, last, 
more than 20,000,000 persons attended 
the government concerts. To make mu- 
sic for them, 15,000 musicians and ex- 
perts in musical art were employed. 

When the project neared its end last 
June, public clamor was such that exec- 
utives arranged to continue it three 
more months. On October 1, another 
extension will be made. 

Curiously, the clamor for more did 
not arise from the 15,000 music-makers 
who otherwise would have been un- 
employed, their horns untootled. 

Between March 31 and June 30, no 
fewer than 700 left the project's rolls, 
returned to private employment. Others 
have followed them since. Some are 
teaching, some are in the reorganized 
commercial orchestras, others have been 
invited to join collegiate music schools. 


Most of the 15,000 were on relief 
rolls. The Government determined to 
give them work-relief in an effort to 
keep their skill alive. It was realized 
that their musicianship would suffer un- 
less they had opportunity for practice 
and work. 

Within a few weeks, from Coast to 
Coast, there were enrolled instrumen- 
talists, vocalists, composers, teachers, 
copyists, arrangers, librarians, tuners 
and instrument repairers. 

Skill had deteriorated rapidly. It was 

found that many able musicians were 
swinging picks and shovels in labor 
projects, their hands toughening and all 
but losing their essential sensitivity. 
Quickly, they were put into rehearsal 
halls, their skill restored by practice. 

Weeks of unemployment and ditch- 
digging had done more than destroy 
skill. It had destroyed morale. Thou- 
sands were signed up only after per- 
suasion. They believed they were fail- 
ures asked to fiddle for their food. They 
felt themselves adrift from the main 
current of society. Many blundy fore- 
cast the project would be of no musical 
or artistic importance. 


When winter ended and scores began 
going out to new jobs, when they rea- 
lized they had played before 20,000,000 
eager music lovers, morale shot up. 

Most of the concerts were of excep- 
tional merit. Distinguished conductors 
volunteerd their services to the music 
project. Leopold Stokowski, Frederick 
Stock, Hans Kindler, William van 
Hoogstraten, Henry Hadley and others 
asked permission to conduct the men. 

Soon after the orchestral groups were 
arranged, the project began to widen. 
Fifteen chamber-music ensembles were 
formed. Eighty-one dance, theater and 
novelty orchestras were sent out. There 
were thirty-eight choruses, quartets and 
vocal ensembles. 

Teachers were put to work on 141 
neighborhood instruction projects. Com- 
posers had their own work; copyists, 
arrangers, librarians and binders took 
part in twenty-four projects. 

In Greater New York, teachers gave 
free instruction to 2,399,446 students, 
cut off from music by the depression. 


Teachers, themselves discouraged at 
first, were amazed by the enrollment, 
then by attendance figures. More than 
SU per cent of the students were scrupu- 
lously regular in classes. 

"Many good people are saddened 
when Government assumes control of 
art," Samuel Chotzinoff, music critic, 
wrote in the New York Post. "These 
sensitive citizens fear bureaucracy, red 
tape, incompetence, ignorance, favori- 
tism and all the other unhappy aspects 
of governmental lordship. 

"In Europe, where opera is often 
subsidized by municipalities, there is 
said to be a great deal of wire-pulling 
. . . Perhaps, when our own Government 
will have been interested in music for 
a hundred years or so, we shall have 
reason to deplore its competitive selec- 
tion. But, so far, the Federal Music 
Project of the WPA has done noble 
work for music in America. In fact, its 
labors in the cause of creative music are 
unique. Never before has there been 
so wholesale an exposure of a nation's 
creative sources." 


Recording the work of the Compo- 
sers' Forum-Laboratory, Mr. Chotzinoff 
showed that nine months of concerts 
had divulged the compositions of Roy 
Harris, Isadore Freed, Virgil Thomson, 
Solomon Pimsleur, Goodard Lieberson, 
Daniel Gregory Mason, Henry Cowell. 

This winter: 20,000,000 expect music. 



"AU Nations" To 

Take Bow In S. F. 

On November 17th the Son Francisco 
project will present the first of a series 
of symphony concerts dedicated to the 
people of various nations living in San 
Francisco. The first of these will be 
presented at the Veteran's Auditorium 
and will be devoted entirely to French 
music. This concert is being sponsored 
by the San Francisco chapter of the 
Alliance Francaise. 

Ernst Bacon and Giulio Silva will 
share direction in the program, which 
will feature the symphony orchestra, 
chorus and soloists. 

Several hundred seats have been re- 
served by the Alliance Francaise for its 
members and friends, the balance of the 
house being available to the general 

It is planned to follow this concert 
with presentations dedicated to Spanish 
and Italian peoples in San Francisco. 


That the San Jose City Council has 
given the Civic Auditorium free of 
charge to the Federal Music Project 
for Symphony and Chamber Music 

That Gastone Usigli, Oakland Su- 
pervisor, was presented with a gold 
medal inscribed to him and honoring 
him upon the occasion of his direction 
of the "Meistersinger" in the Philhar- 
monic Theatre of Verona, Italy? 

That Charles O. Breach, librarian and 
arranger for the Federal Music Project 
in San Diego, is really Sir Charles O. 
Breach, being the only son of the third 
son of Lord Ashburnham, Sussex, Eng- 
land? At the age of 14, Sir Charles O. 
Breach ran away to Canada, joined the 
"Canadian Voyaguers," subsequendy 
saw service in Egypt, and became per- 
sonal bugler to Lord Beresford. Sir 
Charles Drummond immortalized 
young Breach as "the little bugler who 
went toot, toot, toot," in his historical 
literary composition, "On The Nile." 

That Lenel Shuck, Director of Music 
in Fresno Public Schools, with the ap- 
proval of Mr. Hubbard, Superintentent 
of Schools, will use the orchestra of the 
Fresno Project in the public school sys- 
stcm for work in music appreciation 
classes this winter? 

"Faust" Scheduled 
For San Bernardino 

Plans have been camplrfT'^ U>l 
the production of Gounod's 
"Faust" by the San Bernardino 
Project on December 9th. 

The production will be under 
the general direction of Julia Rob- 
inson and Warren Lewis. 

Vernon Robinson, Supervisor 
of the San Bernardino Project, and 
Tord Benner will alternate in 
conducting the opera. 

Two performances will be 
given in San Bernardino, after 
which the production may be 
taken to San E>iego and other 
cities in Southern California. 

The entire cast had not been 
definitely selected at the time the 
Baton went to press, but it is 
known that Ruth La Gourgue 
will sing "Marguerite." The part 
of "Martha" will be taken by 
Beatrix Mayo, who appeared re- 
cendy with the San Bernardino 
Symphony Orchestra as guest 

Orchestra Opens 

New Sac. Center 

The Clunie Memorial Auditorium, 
built through the co-operation of the 
WPA, and recently presented to the city 
of Sacramento, was officially opened 
last week by the Federal Music Project 
Symphony Orchestra of that city. Leslie 
Hodge conducted the orchestra in a 
program which included: Haydn's Sec- 
ond Symphony, Brahm's Hungarian 
Dances, numbers five and six, Der 
Freischutz Overture by von Weber and 
other numbers. 

The Clunie Memorial Auditorium is 
part of a beautiful recreational center 
in Sacramento, and this concert by the 
Federal Music Project Symphony Or- 
chestra was the first musical event given 

Roderick White 

To Play in S B. 

R,od):xick White, In^cxnationally 
known concert viciiaUt, is scheduled to 
appear as soloist with the Santa Br rbara 
Federal Music Project orchestra in the 
November concert, playing the Mozart 
Concerto in E Flat for violin and or- 
chestra. Antoni van der Voort, direc- 
tor of the project, will conduct the ac- 

Mr. White was a student of the late 
Leopold Auer, and is regarded as that 
master's foremost American protege. 
For the past few years he has made his 
home in Santa Barbara, taking a prom- 
inent part in the musical activity of the 
community. He recendy returned from 
a four-month concert tour through sev- 
eral eastern states. 

Project Worker Is 
Helped By President 

A few months ago a reporter on a 
Stockton, California newspaper said 
"The amazing thing about this whole 
set-up is that President Roosevelt could 
reach out to Stockton, California, and 
supply imemployed musicians with a 
living wage, and at the same time pro- 
mote the culture of a nation." 

An interesting news item has just 
come to light in the Los Angeles 
Project which may prove even more 
amazing, not only to the Stockton re- 
porter, but to others who appreciate 
what the Federal Music Project is do- 
ing. Two years ago President Roose- 
velt heard of a promising young singer 
who needed coaching, but who was un- 
able to pay for lessons. This singer was 
referred by the President to the Cali- 
fornia Department of Rehabilitation, 
and arrangements were made for him 
to receive two free vocal lessons each 
week from Madame Rosa St. Embers 
of Hollywood. 

The singer's name is James J. Lam- 
piasi. He is now a member of the a 
Cappella Choir of the Los Angeles Music 
Project. A few weeks ago Mr. Lam- 
piasi, in appreciation of the President's 
personal efforts, made two recordings 
and sent them to the White House. A 
very kind reply from Mr. Roosevelt's 
White House secretary was immediate- 
ly forthcoming. 


Usigli's Work ^'Hiimaiiitas'' 

Presented in Oakland 

P«9« 15 


Gastone Usigli, Supervisor of the Oak- 
land Federal Music Project, who, to 
quote the Oakland Tribune, "Is one of 
the most distinguished of American 
composers writing in the larger forms," 
conducted his new symphonic poem, 
"Humanitas," in Oakland recently. 

Regarding the work Mr. Usigli said, 
"This work is composed in accordance 
with my artistic creed that no particular 
composition should arouse specific emo- 
tions. The composer can only indicate 
or hint his source of inspiration. 

"The broad title, 'Humanitas' may be 
translated variously. In this case it in- 
dicates the inevitable vicissitudes of 
man; in that mankind reaches divine 
exaltation and accomplishment, con- 
trasted with deplorable weakness. 

"In the beginning the main theme is 
presented pianissimo, growing in so- 
nority and complexity until it reaches 
a prayer-like Hosannah. After the lead- 
ing theme has been so triumphantly in- 
troduced a broader rhythmic treatment 
is entrusted to the basses, and a shorter, 
sharper treatment to the woodwinds. 
Two more themes are introduced, which 
are thenceforth treated in counterpoint. 

"Following an episode of epic char- 
acter suggesting the last judgment, the 
great orchestral sonority subsides to a 
pianissimo episode, which comes to a 
definite end in the original E minor 
key. A code of eight bars is here at- 
tached, leading throughout an unex- 
pected crescendo to a triumphant conclu- 
sion in E Major, thus reaffirming cer- 
tainty and victory. 

"To summarize, although the entire 
work is an impression of world struggle, 
the logic of the composition is entirely 

In regard to its presentation, Harle 
Jervis, State Director, after attending 
the concert, stated, "Humanitas" is an 
interesting and difficult work, and was 

Fresno Professor 

Active In Project 

Mr. A. G. Waldberg, head of the 
Fresno State College Music Department, 
has evidenced considerable interest in 
the activities of the Fresno project. 

Mr. Waldberg, who has taught at 
Fresno State since the college was 
founded, is well known to coast musi- 
cians, and is an active member of the 
Fresno Federal Music Project Advisory 

excellently performed by the orchestra. I 
would like to have Mr. Usigli play it 
in Los Angeles." 

Usigli is scheduled to conduct in Los 

Angeles, November 18th. 



Below is a list of supervisors for 
all districts in CaliJEomia. To 
obtain information about Federal 
Music Project activities, contact 
your nearest district office. 

Phyllis Ashmun 

Leslie Hodge 

2223 Y Street 

Grattan Guerin 

HON. Hunter St. 

Jacques Neill 

1851 Fulton St. 

Vernon C. Robinson 

580 6th St. 

Erich Weiler 

231 San Rafael Ave. 

Ernst Bacon 

678 Turk St. 

Gastone Usigli 

1608 Webster St. 

Joseph Cizkovsky 

261 N. Second St. 

Arthur Gunderson 

Elsworth 8t Tilton Sts. 

Antoni van der Voort 

Cabrillo Bathhouse 

Dene Denny 

Loren S. Greene 

635 So. Manhattan PI. 

Chas. H. Marsh 

Room 16, Broadway Pier 

Loon Eckles 

306 !/2 E. 4th St. 

Lynn Stoddard 

2nd & Quince Sts. 

Uoyd C. Vath 

The California Federal Music Proj- 
ect Inter-exchange Library, established 
in Los Angeles in June, has been the 
scene of considerable increased activity 
the past few weeks. 

Besides suppSying symphony con- 
ductors in all state projects with parts 
and scores for their groups, the lib- 
rary, which is under Cecil S. Copping, 
has more recently created arrangements 
and furnished scores and parts for the 
Los Angeles production of the "Mi- 
kado," which opened in Los Angeles on 
November 7th, "Isle of Coo Coo" and 
other contemplated operettas, as well 
as orchestral scores and choral arrange- 
ments for the Los Angeles grand opera 
production "Traviata." 

'Take Your Choice" 
Opening In S. F. 

The musical play, "Take Your 
Choice," will open in Columbia Thea- 
tre in San Francisco, November 24th. 
It was written and composed collectively 
by Ernst Bacon, composer, pianist, con- 
ductor; Phil Mathias, formerly director 
of the Pine Street Players, producer, 
playright and actor; and Riasch StoU, a 
composer of lyrics, and director of the 
Federal Music Project dance orchestra. 

The play is a collection of stage and 
musical cartoons. Political, social, re- 
ligious and intellectual extremists are 
taken for a wild musical and pictorial 
ride. "Take your Choice" makes fun 
of all the high pressure salesmen, of 
art, church and politics, — in rhyme and 

There are eight principles in the cast, 
and a chorus of thirty. A fifty-piece or- 
chestra, composed of a thirty-five-piece 
symphony and a twelve-piece swing 
band, plays a major part in the produc- 

That "The Gondoliers" is one of Gil- 
bert and Sullivan's masterpieces, we 
were convinced after the splendid per- 
formance by the Federal Opera unit at 
the Savoy Theatre. 

Staged under the direction of William 
G. Stewart, with the orchestra under 
Julius Leib doing consistently good 
work, and the splendid chorus trained 
by Charles H. Marsh, perfection in en- 
semble resulted. Capacity audiences en- 
joyed every moment of the music, color 
and rhythm. 

Sdly Brown Moody, 
San Diego Union." 

Page ]6 



^TE . . . . 

Harold Bauer once remarked, "I remember once Haas 
Richter asked me to play Liszt's 'Todtentanz' at a concert 
in London. When I saw tlie program, I discovered to my 
surprise that it was followed immediately by 'Ein Heldenle- 
ben.' I then asked Richter what he meant by placing these two 
rather formidable pieces in juxtaposition. "I want to show 
the public,' he said 'How Strauss got it all from Liszt'." 

"No audience smothered in jewels, furs, and corsages ever 
got more genuine pleasure from an opera than this one got 
from 'Traviata.' The enthusiasm could leave no doubt in 
anyone's mind that the Federal Music Projert should plan 
other operas and should strive to make popular-priced 
opera for the masses a permanent institution. 

M. G. S., 

Hollywood Citizen-News." 

"Perhaps the most amusing 
incident in my career," wrote 
the famous prima donna, 
Louisa Tetrazzini, "was that 
which occured in my younger 
days, when my sister and my- 
self were touring and sharing 
rather humble rooms. After 
thanking a landlady who had 
been more considerate and 
kind than most, the good lady 
astonished us by looking up 
from her washtub and saying, 
with benign condescension: 
'That's all right, my dears, I'm 
always good to musicians, for 
I never know what my own 
children may come to'." 

What's the use of making so 
much fuss over Caruso, an Ar- 
kansas newspaper once very 
frankly asked, and added: 
"Walter Johnson, the great 
pitcher wants $20,000 a year, 
the litde sum of S600 for each 
game. But some people are 
howling terribly about it, while 
Caruso, the Italian singer, gets 
about $3,000 a night for stand- 
ing on the stage and screeching 
so no one but her own race 
knows what she says." 

"A man should hear a 
little music, read a little 
poetry, and see a fine pic- 
ture every day of his life, in 
order that worldly cares 
may not obliterate the sense 
of the beautiful which God 
has implanted in the human 

— Goethe. 

"Regarding Gastone Usigli's 
new composition, "Humani- 
tas," the music expresses itself 
clearly, and as played by the 
Federal Music Project orches- 
tra last night, won an instant 
response diat found expression 
in the spontaneous and pro- 
longed applause. It was an ova- 
tion for Usigli and his orches- 

"It is not possible that mu- 
sic of such magnitude should 
be for long unknown. We look 
for its speedy recognition. 
Charles Poore, 
Oakland Tribune." 

European nations with eco- 
nomic standards much lower 
than ours subsidize the great 
orchestras of their respective 
cities. They are mindful of the 
educational as well as the moral 
value of good music. The Fed- 
eral Music Project may be a 
movement for subsidized art 
and music. If so, a minister of 
fine arts in the national cabi- 
net is in the offing, and we may 
anticipate more of what we 
heard last evening, (San Fran- 
[cisco project playing in Stock- 
■ton) for the sake of art and 
Jliving music. 

iSiiantos Ballestrasse, 
Stocl[lon "Independent" 

A well-known San Francisco string quartet, a few years 
ago, decided to play a joke on the audience, at a concert 
given at the Musicians' Club in that city. 

They announced a new number by one of the well-known 
"modern" composers, and having worked out their stops and 
the rudiments beforehand, the quartet improvised the entire 
first movement. 

A thunderous applause greeted the conclusion of their 
efforts. And no one was the wiser until it was explained 

"Excellent Music, superb dancing and a real ovation by the 
audience opened San Bernardino's winter concert season at 
the senior high school auditorium last night. 

Director Vernon Robinson's Federal Symphony orchestra 
displayed finished technique . . . few artists appearing in 
San Bernardino have received such applause as did Brahm 
van den Berg. . . . 

. . . The orchestra received several curtain calls at the 

San Bernardino Sun." 







<^^ ^lo^ 





iWerrp » » » 

« Cfjrifiitmag 

m jm 




DR. NIKOLAI SOKOLOFF, National Director 

DR. BRUNO DAVID USSHER, Assistant to Nationol Director 

HARRY HOPKINS, National Administrator 
ELLEN S. WOODWARD, Assistant Administroter 

Vol. I 

December, 1936 

No. 6 




State Director 

The California Music Projects are 
ready for a New Year. We must admit 
that we have enjoyed many benefits in 
the year 1936, and may certainly be 
proud of what we have already accom- 

A recent reorganization of the Federal 
Music Project has necessitated the eli- 
mination of a certain number of music- 
ians. Even if some important instru- 
ments and voices have been removed 
and the groups curtailed, still there is 
plenty to work with and much that 
can be done. 

I consider this present reduction a 
challenge — a challenge to the ingenuity 
and musicianship of every person on 
the Federal Music Project. Let us look 
forward and see what can be accom- 
plished. What is the most we can do 
with what we have? How can we 
utilize to the utmost every instrument 
and every voice? What type of program 
should be given, and what music can 
be best presented ? How can your project 
be readjusted without injuring the qual- 
ity of your programs? These are the 
questions that every conductor and 
musician must answer, if the high 
standard of our program is to be main- 
tained. Quantity may be curtailed, but 
quality must be preserved. 




Beaux Arts Building 

Los Angeles, Calif. 


Conductor's Stand 

By Harle Jervis .... 2 
The Salvation of American 


By Franl^ Colby .... 3 
The Origin of Christmas Carols 

By Dr. Paul DeVitIc . . 4 
Notes from the North 

By Guy Mater .... 5 
Siegfried Slaying the Dragon 

By Stephen de Hospodar . 6 
California Projects Celebrate 

Holiday Season .... 7 
"Take Your Choice" 

Outstanding Hit .... 8 
MacDowell's Anniversary 


By Ray P. Davis ... 9 
National Music Project 

News 10-11 

Theatre Project Anticipates 

National Theatre 

By Bob Russell .... 12 
Six Thousand Works Produced 

By Federal Art Project 

By Nelson Partridge, jr. . 13 
Public Recognizes Importance 

of Writers' Project 

By Hugh Harlan ... 14 
California Musical Talent 

Uncovered 15 

Strike Up the Band 

By Frederie^ Preston Search 16. 
Fan-Fare 19 

The responsibility on each musician 
is doubled now. He must contribute 
twice as much in the quality of his work 
as heretofore. 

We can still play good music, give 
good concerts. Perhaps the programs 
will not be so elaborate, but they can 
be interesting and well done. 

The people in every community want 
good music. We have taught them to 
expect it, and it is our responsibility 
not to disappoint them. Missing instru- 
ments will be no excuse for bad music. 

We have a job ahead of us — one 
that requires resourcefulness and origin- 
ality, and hard work. 1 am eager to 
sec what we can do now. There is no 
reason why we cannot give as fine a 
music program to the California public 
in the next year as we have given in the 

It is not difficult to make good music 
with perfect equipment. But it is an 
accomplishment to make good music in 
spite of obstacles. That is the challenge. 
And there is not a musician on the Pro- 
ject who cannot meet it. 

The splendid work that has been done 
by every member of the California Music 
Project in the year just past gives me 
confidence in the results of our efforts in 
the year to come. I wish to thank you 
all, and hope that every joy of this 
Christmas Season may be yours. 

This magazine ti/as printed through the courtesy of a private organization ti/hich contributed its equipment 
for the furtherance of Federal Music Project activities. 


Pogc 3 




By Frank, Colby 

Are the Federal Music Project Sym- 
phony Orchestras to be the salvation of 
the American Composers? Perhaps. On 
the whole, for these many years past 
this forgotten man, or nearly forgotten 
man, — or shall one say hardly-yet-found 
man — has looked quite in vain for sub- 
stantial recognition from our major 
Symphony Orchestras. Once in a while 
he strays on to one of the latter's pro- 
grams. A lone stranger surrounded by 
Europeans. That is, he may do this if 
he be sufficiendy dissonantal or atonal 
to appear as original in the eyes — or ears 
— of our European-trained conductors. 

This by no means is to speak dis- 
paragingly of conductors born, bred and 
trained abroad. Admittedly there are 
no better in the world. Their musical 
ability is unquestioned; their knowledge 
of old and new orchestral literature, Eu- 
ropean, is thoroughly comprehensive. 
American musical literature, however, 
appears as a never opened book to them. 
If this statement is doubted scan the 
programs of European concerts and add 
up the number of American composers 
who are represented there. 

One will find German works on pro- 
grams in Germany, an abundance of 
French music on programs in France, a 
multiplicity of Italian compositions on 
programs in Italy, and a good represen- 
tation of British creative work on pro- 
grams in England. But in America one 
finds American compositions conspic- 
uous by their absence on major Ameri- 
can Orchestra programs. The writer 
hears this disputed; he hears that this 

Mr. Colby is a welt-\nown or- 
ganist and composer, and for 
twenty-five years has been editor 
and publisher of The Pacific Coast 


orchestra and that frequendy DOES 
play American music. Granted, but the 
representation is decidedly small. 

One has no quarrel with a good rep- 
resentation of the classics on our sym- 
phony programs. But there really is such 
a thing as too much music of this order 
and there are conductors who insist on 
overdoing this phase. Is it because it is 
so much easier for them to perform 
over and over again the works they are 
familiar with than to take the necessary 
time to learn new scores? What con- 
ductors worthy of the name do not 
thoroughly know their Mozart, Haydn, 
Beethoven, Brahms, Strauss and the 
like? Why should they come to Amer- 
ica and not familiarize themselves with 
American works? Why do they not 
more frequently play Chadwick, Foote, 
MacDowell, Hadley, Borowski, Sower- 
by. Carpenter and Hanson, to name but 
a few Americans? Composers of less 
merit who are not American find their 
works represented on American Sym- 
phony programs. 

The Federal Music Project orchestras 
have been in existence hardly a year. 
Naturally, in the beginning they were 
unbalanced and their work was ragged. 
Today many of them are full-sized, ex- 
cepdonally creditable Symphonic or- 

ganizations. Attendance at the earlier 
free concerts was indifferent and the 
audiences were none too discriminating. 
But, today, with a small admission 
charge a decided improvement is ap- 
parent in the type of auditors; these now 
include many professional musicians 
and others of the more cultured sort. 
While the repertoires do not slight the 
standard works, what is particularly no- 
ticeable is the generous recognition the 
Federal Music Project orchestras are giv- 
ing to American music. In Los Angeles, 
for instance, within the past year ap- 
proximately thirty-five American works 
have been played, many of these for the 
first time in public. Compare this with 
an average of not more than one Ameri- 
can work a year for the past three years 
on the programs of this city's major or- 
chestra. It is not to be intimated that 
these American works performed by the 
Federal orchestras are all worthy of 
presentation by major orchestras; it is 
not to be intimated that more than a 
small part of them are worthy of such a 
presentation. However, the fact remains 
that the public performances of these 
thirty-five or more American orchestral 
compositions plus hundreds of others 
performed by Federal Project orchestras 
throughout the country, are giving en- 
couragement to American composers as 
nothing else in American musical his- 
tory has ever done. In a year this has 
given more impetus to creative orchestra 
work in America than a hundred years 
of the kind of recognition accorded 
American composers by the established 
American orchestras. 

Pog< 4 





By Dr. Paul Rinaudo De Ville 

Every Carol sung in the world had it 
origin in the rustic songs of peasantry. 
The birth of Clirist in a stable has per- 
manently connected the spontaneous re- 
ligious expression of the musical soul 
with the soul of the people from the 
mountains and the countryside. 

Most of the Christmas Carol collec- 
tions printed by popular publishers have 
been prepared with an eye for the school 
and church singer, both for group and 
solo singing. 

In many songs used by the Folkloristic 
Group in Los Angeles the manger scene 
is the actual background. On Christ- 
mas Eve the "raison d'etre" to the 
people of Latin and Slavic Europe is 
not the Christmas tree, nor stockings 
by the fireside, nor a visit from Santa 
Claus, but something equally dear to the 
children as well as the grown ups. It 
is the "creche", the "Presepio", the 
"Nacimiento," the "Bethlehem." All 
join in singing favorite Noels, and the 
old Carols of Nativity. In every church 
as in every home, the manger is the heart 
and center of Christmas. With the bells 
clanging noisily in the towers, ancient 
Carols joyously ring upon the midnight. 

Most of these melodious Carols made 
and sung by unknown shepherds are 
in the form of a personal description, 
and suggest a scene of shepherds on 
the hills, singing by the firelight. The 

Dr. De Ville is Director of the 
Fol^oristic Ensemble, a unit of the 
Los Angeles Federal Music Proj- 

folk carols are expressed in very simple 
language, often pictorial and colloquial, 
with dialogues, conversations and 
dramatic narrative. Sometimes they are 
in the form of a personal account, the 
speaker himself thrilled by the marvel- 
ous story he tells. Sometimes, as in the 
Sioux Tribal Carol used by the Los An- 
geles Folkloristic Group, a phrase is re- 
peated at the end of the verses as though 
it were the comments of those listening. 
In Scodand, Greece, Sicily, Penin- 
sular Italy, Poland and other parts of 
Southern and Central Europe, as in Pal- 
estine, the Bagpipers of the Shepherd 
break the monotony of long, quiet hours 
while shepherds watch their Christmas 

flocks. In our concerts in Los Angeles, 
we present a striking vocal imitation 
of the Italian "Pifferari," which recalls 
the first "Presepio" set up by St. Francis 
in an Italian hill-town in 1223. Preach- 
ing by the manger, he made the people 
truly feel that they had seen the Child 
of Bethlehem on the hay. The first phase 
of this ancient bagpiper Carol was used 
by Handel as a leading theme in his 
great aria, "He Shall Feed His Flock 
Like a Shepherd." 

That folk songs and carols are be- 
coming more and more the source of 
inspiration to modern composers is 
proved by the new compositions of the 
ultra-modernists. A striking example 
is given by a Russian composer, Alex- 
ander Vassillievich Mossolow, for in- 
stance, who wrote among other things, 
a Lullaby supposedly inspired by some 
Christmas spirit of old times. However, 
this work strikes out the religious theme 
and injects a touch of bitterness. 

Even in countries that do not cele- 
brate Christmas, the overpowerful 
thought of the Great Event pervades. 
So why not in America, whose traditions 
are so strongly connected with the 
Sign of the Cross.? Let us sing the Carols 
of olden times in the spirit of the new 
and the old together, united in a beau- 
tiful ideal of brotherhood. 


Pafl« 5 


By Guy Maier 

Time: Cold "blue Monday" morning. 

Place: Eau Claire — small city, north- 
ern Wisconsin. Cold, bare hall; 
freight train chugging outside. 

Participants: Orchestra — 15 men; 5 
violins, 2 clarinets, 3 trombones, 2 
trumpets, 1 'cello, 1 drum, and a 
pianist conductor, Siegfried VoUstedt. 


( 1 ) Wagner, Meistersinger Overture, 
played with extraordinary 
rhythm and amazing compe- 
tence; arrangement by Vollstedt 
who, with ease and brilliance, 
supplies missing parts on piano. 

(2) Beethoven, Second Symphony, 
with richness of tone, fidelity to 
pitch, excellent phrasing. 

(3) Selections jrom Carmen, and 
Caro Nome, sung beautifully by 
Florence Kaiser (wife of pianist 
conductor), and accompanied 
sensitively by the orchestra. 

Facts of Case: 

The reason for the popularity of 
this curious orchestra in Eau Claire 
and environs is not difficult to find. 
Vollstedt was for 13 years assistant 
conductor at the Hamburg Staat 
Oper. A man of the highest musical 
ideals, he has trained and drilled 15 
musicians taken from Relief Rolls, for 
the most part ordinary in ability and 
equipment, overcoming the almost 
insurmountable handicaps of instru- 
mentation, welding them into an ex- 
cellent unit which has become so pop- 
ular in its town that it plays weekly 
two or three times to audiences aver- 
aging 600 persons. So well have these 
mediocre musicians been trained by 
Vollstedt that, alas, he has just lost 
his very much needed string bass 
player, who formerly played entirely 

Mr. Maier is assistant to Dr. 
Sokoloff, National Director of the 
Federal Music Project, and as such 
is in charge of twelve midwestem 

by ear, but since, has been so well 
taught that he has left to take private 
employment in another orchestra. . . . 


The regional director could scarcely 
tear himself away, especially after an 
astounding performance of a Viennese 
waltz which could not have been 
bettered by any orchestra in Vienna 
or Budapest. This, in spite of the fact 
that the 5 violinists had to read from 
one music score! . . . After this the 
orchestra needed rest, whereupon the 
conductor sat down and played his 
own superb arrangement of the entire 
finale of Die Walkure — Wotan's Fare- 
well and the Magic Fire music. He 
played this on a 40-year-old upright 
piano, which fairly throbbed and tin- 
gled to the unaccustomed Wagnerian 
sonorities. And all this in the frigid 
wastes of northern Wisconsin on a 
bleak November morning, with the 
freight trains chugging under the 


The Mayor writes: "We are proud 
of our Federal Unit orchestra, and 
feel that the results obtained by Mr. 
Vollstedt are little short of marvelous. 
We are most gratified to have Mr. 
Vollstedt as one of our citizens, and 
take great pride in his accomplish- 

If we could have 100 VoUstedts 
playing only the best music to the 
audiences of our small cities and 

towns, this land would burst with 
musical appreciation in a few years I 

Further Notes on Music 
IN the North: 

At Superior, Wisconsin (at the far 
end of Lake Superior), a Relief band 
of young men played as their opening 
number, the Magic Flute Overture of 
Mozart. They are being taught by a fine 
artist who has one of the rarest collec- 
tions of records and scores in the world. 
If this isn't developing musical taste 
with a vengeance, show me what is I 

Further along, in the Upper Penin- 
sula of Michigan, at Iron Mountain, 
there is a proud band of fine musicians 
with a snap and enthusiasm in their 
manner that one rarely sees. They have 
proven an invaluable asset to their en- 
tire community during the dark, de- 
pressing days. Problems which would 
"floor" ordinary organizations are quick- 
ly solved by this Iron Mountain band. 
For instance, there was no provision for 
renting a rehearsal room, and there 
was no available source of music sup- 
plies in the city. What did these men 
do.' They set up their own store where 
books on music, instrument cases, clari- 
net reeds, mouthpieces, musical sup- 
plies of all kinds, plus candy and cig- 
arettes are sold — the profits from this 
going entirely to rental and mainte- 
nance of the rooms in which they re- 
hearse. Attached to the large rehearsal 
room is a small office and a library. 
Everything about these rooms is kept 
in a rigidly clean condition. The floor 
is scrubbed daily, no cigarette stubs lie 
about, and the whole thing is maintained 
with utmost efficiency. 



Stephen de Hospodar 

(.Fedtral Art ProKCt) 


Poge 7 



The Holiday Season in California will 
be appropriately celebrated this year by 
the presentation of a number of out- 
standing symphonies, operas, and choral 
groups of the Federal Music Project. 

Among the more prominent offerings 
will be an elaborate production of 
"Faust" by the San Bernardino Project 
on December 15; the light opera "H. M. 
S. Pinafore," scheduled to open at the 
Figueroa Playhouse in Los Angeles on 
Christmas Eve; San Diego Project's pro- 
duction of "Hansel and Gretel," which 
will begin a five day at the Savoy 
Theatre on Dec. 29; Bach's "Coffee 
Cantata", to be presented on December 
14 by the same Project; Bach's "Christ- 
mas Oratorio," with five soloists, to be 
sung on December 20 at the Columbia 
Theatre in San Francisco; and this work 
to be performed by the San Mateo Pro- 
ject on December 22. 

Throughout the state, many units of 
the Federal Music Project will combine 
with other units to present programs 
appropriate to the Holiday Season be- 
fore an anticipated audience of 50,000 

Following is a resume of the activities 
of various California Projects for the 
Christmas Season: 


Two major productions are scheduled 
for San Diego during the Christmas 
Season. "Hansel and Gretel" will be 
given five performances commencing 
December 9, and Bach's seldom heard 
"Coffee Cantata" will be given at the 
Savoy Theatre on December 14. This 
will mark the first presentation in Amer- 
ica of Bach's "Coffee Cantata" with 
costumes and scenery. 


Two symphony concerts, the first on 
December 15 in Woodland, and the 

second on December 22 in Sacramento 
will feature selections in keeping with 
the spirit of Christmas. 


A Christmas program will be pre- 
sented at the State Hospital at Stockton 
the last week in December. 


A major program will be given on 
December 20 at the Columbia Theatre, 
and will consist of the combined chorus 
and orchestra under the direction of 
Giulio Silva with assistance of the choral 
unit of the Recreation Project. 

The first half of the program will 
contain excerpts from Bach's "Magnif- 
icat" sung by trios and the chorus, as well 
as by Lucy Day and Nona Campbell, 
soloists. The second half of the pro- 
gram will consist of the first and second 
part of Bach's "Christmas Oratorio" for 
which the soloists will be Anna Nettle- 
ton, Nona Campbell, Anne Meyer, 
Robley Lawson and Andrew Robertson. 


Three concerts are planned by the 
Oakland Project for December: De- 
cember 11 in Oakland, December 15 in 
San Francisco, and December 16 in Ber- 
keley. The latter program will include 
Corelli's "Christmas Concerto" and 
Humperdinck's "Dream Pantomime." 


During the Christmas week, a concert 
sponsored by the Recreation Department 
will be given in the San Jose Civic 
Auditorium in connection with a pag- 
eant presented for the school children. 
This will be a Christmas "television" 
revue of Christmas festivities in differ- 
ent countries. 

"Dreams of Toyland," a dance drama 
composed by Ethel Clark of the San 
Jose Project, has previously been pre- 
sented in three schools, and will be re- 
peated in the San Jose Auditorium dur- 
ing the Christmas Season. 


The regular symphony concert of 
December 22 will include selections from 
"The Messiah," the "Christmas Ora- 
torio' 'by Bach, and old French and 
English carols. 


Members of the Monterey Peninsula 
Orchestra will assist the Carmel Pro- 
ject in a Holiday concert to be held 
December 18. The audience will join 
in singing Christmas carols. 


The regular weekly program on De- 
cember 23 will commemorate Christmas 
by the presentation of Rimsky-Korsa- 
koff's "Christmas Eve Suite." This will 
be the first performance of the work in 
Los Angeles, and will be conducted by 
Modest Altschuler. 

Also in Los Angeles, Gilbert and 
Sullivan's famous operetta "H. M. S. 
Pinafore" will open at the Figueroa 
Playhouse on Christmas Eve for an ex- 
tended run. 


A new interpretation of Gounod's 
"Faust" will be given two perform- 
ances on December 15 and 16. A 
new American translation of the li- 
bretto, the use of two different 
Fausts to portray the two different 
changes in Faust's character, and the 
use of several mechanical devices 
will feature the performance. 

Poge 8 




" 'Take Your Choice,' San Francisco's 
first outstanding contribution to the field 
of revues, scored a decided hit at the 
Columbia Theatre where it had its pre- 
miere under the sponsorship of the 
Federal Music Project." 

Thus does Marjory Fisher, music critic 
of the San Francisco News, comment in 
her criticism of this play by Ernst Bacon, 
Phil Mathias and Raisch Stoll, which 
opened in San Francisco last week. 

Marjory Fisher continues, " 'Take 
Your Choice' is exactly what it claims 
to be — a musical satire, and a grand one 
... A show has been turned out which 
has all the elements needed to be a 
theatrical hit . . . The music has splen- 
did rhythmic, melodic, and satiric quali- 
ties . . . There are some splendid songs 
and instrumental interludes . . . The set- 
tings were imaginative and the stage 
setting excellent . . . 'Take YouJ Choice' 
leaves no choice but to see it. 

This new satirical revue, which has 
been in rehearsal by the San Francisco 
Music Project for some time, concerns 
the adventures of Eustace Jones. Fired 
from McFordstein Company, Jones 
meets a Leftist at the bootblack stand 
and is pursued by him and his kind 
who "stand 100 per cent for the rights 
of man against standing up for his 
own rights" through a sequence of 16 
scenes. He is finally awakened from 
a nightmare fantasia by the girl who 
assured him that it was not what some 
people said and did that was dangerous, 
but the persistence with which they in- 
sisted others do likewise. She reminded 
him that he had the right to listen to 

what others had to say, but also the 
accompanying duty to think things out 
for himself. 

Other San Francisco critics were 
equally enthusiastic in their praise of the 
producdon. Ada Hanifin writes in the 
San Francisco Examiner, "It was not a 
surprise to discover 'Take Your Choice' 
compounded of much of the stuff of 
which theatrical hits are made. It is 
the most ambitious creative work of 
local talent that has been produced in 
the theatre. The work is so far above 
anything the Work Progress Admin- 
istration has given in the theatre to 
date, that it stands no comparison. 
But it holds too much promise to be 
passed over as merely grand entertain- 

"J. H." writes in the San Francisco 
Chronicle, "You may not have realized 
it. but San Francisco has been hoarding 
talent as greedily as the proverbial pluto- 
crat who stores gold in old knotholes. 
.K lot of that talent was liquidated Wed- 
nesday night at the Columbia Theatre, 
when the Federal Music Project staged 
a world premiere of its musical satire, 
'Take Your Choice.' 

" 'Take Your Choice' fairly brisdes 
with talent. It is full of what Stoop- 
nagle and Budd are pleased to call 
peachy stuff. Ernst Bacon, Phil Mathias 
and Raisch Stoll, who all have fertile 
imaginations, plus a sense of humor, 
have put their heads together and given 
the town a good and gay show in two 
acts and sixteen peachy scenes. 

"Some of the scenes in 'Take Your 
Choice' are delirious enough for any 

first-rate Broadway revue. The show 
contains sharp-edged satire, clever lyrics 
and music that is frequendy witty as 
well as tuneful. Under W. E. Watts' 
dynamic direction it moves swifdy and 

All critics lavishly praised the pro- 
duction and the cast. Marjory Fisher 
says, "The players were all talented. 
Many of the 22 played several parts. 
Outstanding in every sense of the word 
was Arthur Cunningham, whose fine 
professionalism was apparent in four 
roles and several song hits. There 
should be praise too for Raymond Keast 
as ardent Leftist! Maudry Auther, as 
'The Bluebird of Swing' in the hilarious 
and finely staged night club scene, was a 
riot! And Marta Golden as an inebriated 
married woman got well merited ap- 

The Chronicle Reviewer praises indi- 
vidual characters in no uncertain terms: 
"Walter Lorenz as chief funnyman 
knows how to work himself into a comic 
frenzy. There should be praise too for 
Amerigo Frediani, amusing as Lucky 
McDucky, crooner; Raymond Jordon, 
Charles Goodwin, Joseph McKenna, 
and the various others who make 'Take 
Your Choice' an enjoyable interlude in 
this winter of our discontent." 

State Director Harle Jervis, after see- 
ing the opening performance, said, "It 
is one of the finest productions I have 
seen in California. It is truly representa- 
tive of the success that can be achieved 
when various units cooperate under 
intelligent supervision toward a com- 
mon cause." 


Poge 9 




By Ray P. Davis 

Three quarters of a century ago, while 
civil strife divided America into two 
warring factions, while brother fought 
brother over the slavery issue, even as 
Abraham Lincoln stood in the rain at 
Gettysburg and delivered an address 
that was to mold the destiny of nations 
and men, a child was born in the ob- 
scurity of New York City. 

Proud parents, who little suspected 
that their bimdle of Christmas joy (for 
he arrived on December 18) would 
someday stand beside the Great Eman- 
cipator in American letters, christened 
him Edward Alexander MacDowell. 

The young Edward had a varied 
music education, first under Spanish- 
American teachers, then in Paris where 
Debussy was a fellow student, and later 
in Stuttgart, Wiesbaden, and Weimer. 
During the later period, he was much 
influenced by Joachim and Liszt. 

Irony is to be noted in the fact that 
this genius of the piano, born almost 
as Lincoln was saying, "all men are 
created equal," had no choice but to 
study in Europe, and presented his 
most famous works for the first time 
before European audiences. Was this 
due to the general decadence of Amer- 
ican arts during that period, or was it 
because Americans now look upon it 
from a higher artistic level.' At any 
rate, one can find some consolation in 
the fact that he was eventually made 
Professor of Music at Columbia Univer- 

MacDowell's works give him the 
highest place amonn American com- , 

posers. When r,.:.ei prominent com- 
posers have appeared on the American 
scene, critics have compared them with 




San Diego Julius Leib 

Los Angeles James Guthrie 


Laguna Beach Leon Ecklet 

(Santa Ana Syraphonv i 


Los Angeles Modest Altschuler 

Oakland Gastone Usigli 


San Francisco Gastone Usigli 

(Oakland Symphony) 


Los Angeles Richard Lert 

San Bernardino Vernon Robinson 
Los Angeles Modest Altschuler 


Los Angeles Alois Reiser 

(Griselle will conduct his own 


Although deeply influenced by French 
models and German romanticism, this 
American succeeded in "overcoming" 
to some extent, his European influence, 
as noted in his orchestral "Indian Suite" 
and his "Woodland Sketches" for the 

Perhaps because he was an artist, 
MacDowell destroyed his first eight 
works so that today we are left with 
pieces numbered from opus No. 9 to 
No. 62. 

It is doubly fitting that we should 
commemorate MacDowell on his sev- 
enty-fifth birthday aimiversary this 
month, for it also marks the first aim- 
iversary of Government sponsorship of 
the arts. Through this recent sponsor- 
ship, an American may study and com- 
pose in his native land with assurance 
of commercial and artistic recognition. 

Federally sponsored orchestras 
throughout the nation will commemor- 
ate MacDowell's birth by presentations 
of his work. In California, his "Indian 
Suite," "To a Wild Rose," "Concert 
Etude," "Scott's Poem," "Woodland 
Sketches,' "To a Water Lily" and mis- 
cellaneous numbers will be featured by 
various groups during the Hohday Sea- 

While these numbers will be played in 
honor of the great American composer, 
born during the Civil War, it is also 
fitting that they should mark the first 
anniversary of a new freedom for the 
American artiit. 

Pogc 10 





The opening concert of the Illinois 
Symphony Orchestra, a unit of the Fed- 
eral Music Project, brought to Chicago 
Dr. Nikolai SokolofI as guest conductor. 
Dr. Sokoloff made, on this occasion, his 
Chicago debut at the condutor's stand. 
The Blackstone Theatre was practically 
sold out, with the musical fraternity 
turning out en masse to greet the guest 
conductor who had prepared a program 
which included as its feature the Sib- 
elius E Minor Symphony. 

Speaking of this concert the Musical 
Courier says, "The Finnish composer 
has in Sokoloff an excellent interpreter 
— one who brings out without unneces- 
sary gesticulations all the beauties con- 
tained in the work. His reading was 
sane, forceful, poetic and dynamic in 


Dr. Nikolai Sokoloff was guest con- 
ductor with the Philadelphia Music 
Project's Civic Symphony Orchestra in 
a concert in Irvine Auditorium of the 


University of Pennsylvania, Sunday 
afternoon, November 22. His program 
included Sibelius' "Symphony Number 
1 in E Minor," and the "Minuet," by 
Heinz Roemheld of Hollywood. 

This was the fifth of Dr. Sokoloff s 
guest appearances with Federal Sym- 
phony Orchestras. Other appearances 
were in St. Paul, Chicago, Syracuse, and 

New York City's Composers' Forum Laboratory p> 
"Requiem" given in Boston; 5,000 hear "Aida" in Miam 
Philadelphia Project Symphony Orchestra; all Massaci 
Orchestra series opened by Dr. Sokoloff; "H. M. S. Pinafi 
sota Teachers' Project Institute; all Delaware Federal A 


All of the Federal Projects are housed 
in one building in Wilmington. The 
first floor is given over to the men who 
make up the Survey of Historic Ameri- 
can Buildings Project. 

On the second floor are administrative 
offices, headquarters of the Writers' 
Project, and other offices. 

On the third floor is a large audito- 
rium used jointly by the Music and 
Theatre Projects. This floor also con- 
tains a work-shop for the wardrobe de- 
partment of the Theatre Project, and 
administrative offices of both Projects, 
as well as a complete musical library 
where are stored the manuscripts used 
by the Civic Orchestra for its numerous 


Two weeks of "H. M. S. Pinafore" on 
Burnett Woods Lake, through the co- 
operation of the Federal Music and 
Theatre Projects, gave over 75,000 peo- 
ple an opportunity to hear this opera 
free of charge. Musically and histrioni- 
cally the opera was adjudged a success. 
The cast included ten principals and a 
chorus of 40 voices. 

Through the cooperation of the The- 
atre and Music Projects, an evening of 
entertainment was recently given in the 
building when the Federal film "Work 
Pays America" was presented in con- 
nection with a concert by the Federal 
Civic Orchestra, and a dance with music 
furnished by a newly organized colored 
dance band unit of the Project. 


A Brahm's Cycle, during which the 
four symphonies and the concerti will 
be heard in four concerts, was begun by 
the Newark Civic Symphony Orchestra, 
a Federal Music Project unit, on No- 
vember 24. Philip Gordon will be con- 
ductor for all concerts. It was Mr. Gor- 
don who conducted the same unit in a 
Beethoven Cycle last season, in which 
eight of Beethoven's symphonies and 
concerti were performed. 

Following the Brahm's Cycle the 
Ninth Beethoven, the Choral Sym- 
phony, is being considered for perform- 
ance in Newark. 




Pag« n 



d Tweedy, Boris Levenson, and Henry Hadley; Brahm's 
ewark presenting Brahm's cycle; Dr. Sokoloff conducts 
unite in state-wide music festival; Illinois Symphony 
i,000 people in Cincinnati; Guy Maier attends Minne- 
housed in one Wilmington building. 


Rene Solomon, State Director, is pro- 
graming in the near future a suite of 
tunes from the Kentucky Hills for 
strings, which have been arranged and 
orchestrated by one of the Kentucky 
Federal Music Project members. 

The Louisiana Project recently ex- 
tended to the California Project an in- 
vitation to submit new compositions 
for performance in that state. Works sub- 
mitted will become part of the perma- 
nent repertoire of the Louisiana orches- 


The grand opera unit and the com- 
bined symphony orchestras in the Flor- 
ida Project have played to large au- 
diences in Jacksonville, Talahassee, 
Pensacola, Miami and Tampa during 
the state-wide tour, which was concluded 
in November. A performance of "Aida" 
drew an audience of 5,000 people in 
Miami. Plans for adding "Hansel and 
Gretel," "Die Toten Augen," and "The 
Flying Dutchman" to the operatic rep- 
ertoire are now being considered by the 
Florida director, Dr. Clarence Carter 


Bands and symphony orchestras were 
active in concerts in college and high 
school auditoriums during November, 
and added immeasurably to the cul- 
tural knowledge of the students. 

The Teachers' Project, greatly bene- 
fited by the institute held in October, 
under the direction of Gabriel Fenyves, 
and of which Guy Maier spoke, have 
held over one thousand classes in band 
instruments, voice, piano, guitar, and 
other instruments. These classes have 
averaged 246 pupils weekly. 



Brahm's Requiem was presented on 
November 21 and 22 by the Boston 
Project's Civic Chorus and the Federal 
Music Project Commonwealth Sym- 
phony Orchestra, with Solomon Bra- 
slavsky conducting. Mr. Braslavsky con- 
ducted orchestras in Brahm's adopted 
city of Vienna for many years. 

The Composers' Forum Laboratory o£ 
the Boston Project presented the com- 
positions of Mark Dickey on November 
17. The highlight of the evening was 
one of Mark Dickey's songs "Ozyman- 
dias," from Shelley's poem by that name. 

The next meeting of the Composers' 
Forum Laboratory, held on December 
3, was given to the works of Robert 
W. Manton. 

In all of the programs distributed at 
these Composers' Forum Laboratory 
concerts in Boston, as well as in New 
York City, a sheet of paper is inserted, 
which bears the heading: 


"Please write in space below any 
questions you wish to ask the composer 
relative to his compositions. These ques- 
tions will be answered from the platform 
immediately after the concert." 


A state-wide music festival was given 
November 18 and 19 in the Municipal 
Auditorium at Springfield, Massachu- 
setts, utilizing several units of the Fed- 
eral Music Project. 

On November 18 the program in- 
cluded numbers by a massed symphonic 
band of 150 players, spirituals by a negro 
a cappella choir, and music by a modern 
swing band. 

On November 19 a symphony orches- 
tra of 125 players participated in a pro- 
gram including Cesar Franck's "Sym- 
phony in D Minor," and the cantata, 
"A Peace Pipe," by Frederick Converse. 


Page 12 





By Bob Russell 

(Editor, The Prompter, Federid 

Theatre Magazine) 

"Nobody would have dreamed a year 
ago — " is said again and again of the 
Federal Theatre Project. It is a sort 
of motif which accompanies each new 
triumph of the project. As the sensa- 
tional "It Can't Happen Here" closes at 
the Mayan, many ot the startled declara- 
tions that greeted it are forgotten. Los 
Angeles, and all America, now expects 
still more astonishing phenomena from 
the Federal Theatre. 

They were suprised, excited, by the 
multiple opening in twenty cities of "It 
Can't Happen Here," October 27, with 
four units in New York, a Negro ver- 
sion in Seattle, and a second production 
in Los Angeles in Hebrew. 

It was something, indeed, that "no- 
body would have dreamed a year ago." 
The Federal Theatre Project grew in- 
to great things with a grand swoop to 
the top. To have Sinclair Lewis, a 
Nobel Prize-winner, working for Fed- 
eral theater, to have a play pop up in 
twenty-seven simultaneous openings, to 
have a government sponsoring a play 
that the public wanted to see — these 
were things that people only could have 
been dreaming about in 1935. 

Now that it has run six weeks and 
closed, we are getting used to this new 
success. What 1937 holds for us may be 
even more startling theatre history, 
which will cause us to look back at this 
time with the same thought that we 
would never have dreamed it. 

More and more new plays are appear- 
ing on Federal Theatre marquees. A 
particularly good one is "Class of '29," 
by two young New Yorkers, Orrie 

Lashin and Milo Hastings, has just fin- 
ished a three-week engagement at the 
Musart. Vital, pertinent to one of the 
great problems of our times, it was per- 
formed for large audiences. 

The Hollywood Playhouse has been 
playing a new comedy, "Purple Is As 
Purple Does," with record business. 

Chekov's "Uncle Vanya" opened De- 
cember 10 at the Musart;"The Warrior's 
Husband" and "The Goose Hangs 
High" on December 15 at the Mayan 
and Mason, respectively. Stravinsky's 
"Petrouchka" done with marionettes, is 
continuing a long run at the Theatre 
of the Magic Strings. 

The Christmas season will sec two 
novel shows calculated to appeal to wide- 
ly different theatre appetites. A pro- 
gram of morality plays, largely choral, 
will catch the old-time religious spirit of 
the Yuletime. 

For the modern, gay holiday that ex- 
tends from before Christmas into the 
middle of January, Federal Theatre will 
open on Christmas Eve a rip-roaring 
musical show at the Mayan. It is to be 

called "Revue of Reviews," with the 
theme drawn from aspects of magazine 

Two powerful plays of the American 
scene very likely will be produced in 
January; "House of Connelly," by Paul 
Green, and Lynn Riggs' touching drama 
"Green Grow the Lilacs." 

Another significant contemporary 
play is "Awake and Sing," which may be 
done by the Jewish imit of the Federal 
Theatre in Los Angeles. 

A road show tour for "What Anne 
Brought Home," now in rehearsal, is ex- 
pected. On the road, it will visit small 
California cities where the theatre has 
never been anything but a bird of pass- 

Los Angeles' Federal Theatres may 
be showing, during January, any of the 
following plays: "Blind Alley", "Roar- 
ing Girl," "Lars Killed His Son," and 
"Ladies of the Jury." 

Nearby San Bernardino's unit will do 
"The Rear Car," "Rain," and "The 
Cat and the Canary." 

The radio unit will start 1937 with 
a regular schedule of presentations, in- 
cluding the popular "Presidents on Pa- 
rade " series. Such playlets as "The 
Affair At Oscar's" and "The Ghost" 
have brought enthusiastic response from 
the air audience, and more like them 
will be written and broadcast. 

1937 begins with the Federal Theatre 
Project prepared to surpass itself, mak- 
ing new history that may one day mean 
much in the establishment of a perman- 
ent National Theatre. 


Paa< 13 



By Nelson H. Partridge, Jr. 

Southern California Director, 

Federal Art Project 

Evidence chat we are coming of age 
as a nation is seen in the fact that our 
Government is concerning itself with 
the cultural life of the people. In 
various other countries of the world it 
is no unusual thing for a Minister of 
Fine Arts to be included among the 
chiefs of state. Wisdom and experience 
have taught these older nations that a 
completely developed national life calls 
for more than attention merely to the 
utilities of existence. 

Without the warning influence of the 
arts in the daily lives of people, they are 
apt to feel a vague dissatisfaction. They 
are entitled to ask themselves the ques- 
tion: What is the purpose, after all, 
of living.'' Is it merely to join in the 
vast competition for survival, or to see 
who can outstrip the other in amassing 
wealth? Intelligent consideration of the 
matter points to the conclusion that we 
would all be happier and better off if 
our lives were enriched by more fre- 
quent contacts with the values offered 
by the arts, music, theatre, literature, 
painting and sculpture. 

But in United States we have been 
apt to regard such things as luxuries 
to a large extent. The visual arts in 
particular have been surrounded with 
an aura of costliness which has all but 
cut them off completely from exerting 
any perceptible influence on the lives 
of millions of Americans. 

Paradoxically, it has required a world- 
wide economic depression to bring the 
Government of the United States into 
the field of the arts. It was found that, 
along with the millions of laborers and 
artisans thrown out of employment by 
the downward trend of events, there 
were also thousands of talented and 
trained artists. The Government's 
action in rescuing these artists from 
starvation has resulted in the discovery 
that, for a comparatively small outlay 
of public money, valid art works can 
be obtained for the enjoyment of large 
numbers of people. The people are 
learning that art is something really to be 
enjoyed, rather than a penance to be 
endured when a rainy Sunday afternoon 
suggests dragging the children off for a 

tour of the art museum for the good 
of their souls. 

Encouraged by the nation-wide suc- 
cess of the Public Works of Art Project 
which flourished in 1933 and 1934, the 
Works Progress Administration contin- 
ued and enlarged the Government art 
program by launching the Federal Art 
Project in the fall of 1935 — By its pro- 
visions, thousands of artists were taken 
from the relief rolls and given employ- 
ment at wages ranging in California 
from $77 to $94 a month. 

It is now a little more than a year 
since the Federal Art Project began oper- 
ations in southern California. In the 
space of time, more than four hundred 
artists and craftsmen have been employ- 
ed. The largest number at any one time 
was 310, during the winter months of 
1936. Some 250 are on the payrolls at 
the present time, and this number will 
be reduced to 210 by December 15th. 
The distribution of the 250 now em- 
ployed is as follows: Los Angeles, 182; 
San Diego, 40; Santa Barbara, 17; 
Riverside and San Bernardino, II. 

During its first year in Southern 
California, the Federal Art Project has 
produced more than six thousand works 
in various media. They range in size 
from large mural paintings and monu- 
mental sculptures down to small prints, 
oil paintings, wood carvings and cera- 

All of these works are available for 
loan, permanent or for stated periods, 
to tax-supported institutions. Greatest 
demand for them has come from the 
public schools. Then follows parks, 
libraries, hospitals and other public 
buildings. The recipients of works are 
required to pay only nominal cost of 
the materials involved. 

Communities which have thus ac- 
quired murals, sculptures and pictures 
have not been slow to pass the word 
along. As a result, public buildings 
once innocent of any trace of art in- 
fluence are now blossoming forth with 
color on their walls and sculptures in 
their gardens. Architects are making in- 
creasing use of the facilities of the Fed- 
eral Art Project for the embellishment 

of public buildings which they have 
been commissioned to design. 

Special activities of the Federal Art 
Project in southern California include 
the Index of American Design and the 
creation of exhibit material for the Na- 
tional Parks Museum Service. Each of 
these gives employment to about thirty 
artists, working under expert super- 

The Index of American Design is well 
advanced in twenty-five states. It will 
comprise a series of portfolios of draw- 
ings, water colors and photographs de- 
picting the rise and development of the 
decorative arts in this country from the 
earliest years of its settlement through 
the nineteenth century. Both public and 
private collections have been drawn 
upon for examples. For at least a hun- 
dred years Europe has recognized the im- 
portance of compilations such as the In- 
dex of American Design. They have 
been considered important as a well- 
spring to which works in the arts may 
turn for a renewed sense of total native 
wealth in design tradition. 

The work for the National Park Ser- 
vice has been established for the purpose 
of planning and constructing exhibits 
for the various western national parks 
and monuments. A high standard has 
been set for this work. Maps, charts, 
diagrams, scale models, and sculptural 
work are accurate in every detail. 
Miniature dioramas show three-dimen- 
sional groupings of animals and people 
in their natural habitat settings. Scale 
models show forts, covered wagons, 
Indian habitations and many other fea- 
tures of early western life. 

All in all, the Federal Art Project 
is bridging the gap between artists in 
need of employment on the one hand, 
and of public institutions desiring the 
talents of artists on the other. With 
the Government paying the artists a 
nominal salary, and the qualified re- 
cipients of their output defraying the 
cost of materials, a happy solution has 
been found. The artists are enabled 
to enjoy a degree of economic security, 
the public gains a priceless enrichment 
of spirit. 

Page 14 






By Hugh Harlan 
(District Supervisor, Los Angeles 
County Federal Writers' Project) 

The Federal Writers' Projects in Los 
Angeles are engaged in two major 
activities. First is the compilation of 
the American Guide and its corollary 
for this locality, known as a Los Angeles 
County Guide. The Second activity 
is carried on by the Historical Records 
Survey , a subsidiary project of the Fed- 
eral Writers'. 

The American Guide has been apdy 
described as being a work to "discover 
America for Americans." In some re- 
spects it will resemble a Baedeker, or 
tourist's guide. Actually, it will go far 
beyond the ordinary limits of a tourist's 
guide. It is designed to meet the need 
of a comprehensive and authoritative 
guide to the United States. The work 
is to be published in five regional vol- 
umes, supplemented by individual state, 
city and county guides, covering the 
scenic, historic, cultural, recreational, 
aesthetic, commercial, industrial, and 
the agricultural activities of the nation. 
It is intended to serve not only the tour- 
ist, but the student author, businessman 
and research worker. 

The Historical Records Survey repre- 
sents the first attempt in the history of 
America to make a thorough-going sur- 
vey of historical records on a national 
scale. Many foreign countries have long 
kept official records in a form readily 
accessible to historians. The United 
States heretofore has made no unified 
attempt to make this valuable data avail- 
able to students. The value of a survey 
of this nature may be readily grasped 
when it becomes known that practically 
all we know of the life of William 
Shakespeare has come to us through the 
media of the official church records in 
Stratford, England. 

An example of the material being un- 
covered by research workers and catalo- 
gue by them for future historical use is 
an original census of Los Angeles, taken 
in 1836, written in Spanish. This record 
was found in a sub-basement of the City 

There are approximately 5,800 work- 
ers on the Ainerican Guide projects 
throughout the nation, and about 3,900 
on the survey of state and local histor- 
ical records, a total of nearly 9,700. In 
Los Angeles county 18 workers are en- 
gaged in the Historical Records Survey 
and 80 in the compilation of the Ameri- 
can Guide and the Los Angeles County 

The importance of the national and 
local guides cannot be over-stressed. In- 
fluenced by European promotional mat- 
erial, which has been published for over 
a century, American citizens go abroad 
to spend millions of dollars every year. 
They neglect equally beautiful scenery 
and our own important historical land- 
marks because they have not been 
brought to their attention. 

The American Guide and the subsi- 
diary local guides represent our govern- 
ment's first important effort to show a 
comprehensive picture of the American 
scene. One reason why Americans go 
abroad for sight-seeing is that the beau- 
ties and interesting sights of their own 
native land have not been placed before 
them in a manner calculated to arouse 
their interest and hold their attention. 

Of course, all have heard of our out- 
standing wonders like Niagara Falls, 
Yellowstone Park, Yosemite Valley and 
the Grand Canyon, and travelers con- 
stantly visit them. The object of the 

American Guide is to discover and de- 
scribe, in a way to stimulate the sight- 
seeing instincts, worthwhile features 
that have not been adequately recog- 
nized, or else have been allowed to fade 
out of mind. 

It is often remarked that many of our 
travelers, in passing from one point of 
interest to another, treat the intervening 
territories as total blanks. Every terri- 
tory, however, is full of light and inter- 
est to the ones who know. The Ameri- 
can Guide writers have the privilege and 
opportunity to fill every square foot of 
our soil with all the light and interest 
they possess by describing features 
which will awaken memories of travel- 
ers or satisfy their craving for the new 
and unusual. 

The importance of this work has been 
quickly grasped by the public officials 
and private citizens through the nation. 
Literally thousands have proffered 
their aid and cooperation in compiling 
the authentic and informative treatise 
on American life. The National Guide 
is expected to be published and ready 
for distribution about January 1, 1937. 
The local Los Angeles Guide probably 
will be published later in the spring. 
The cost and method of distribution 
has not yet been determined. This is 
due to the fact that there are no beaten 
trails to follow in the compilation and 
publishing of the Guide. As soon as 
the information is available concerning 
the cost, and method of distribution has 
been determined, they will be given to 
the public through the daily press. 

Henry G. Alsberg is national Direc- 
tor of the project, and James Hopper is 
California state Director. 


Page 15 




Although the daily life of a Super- 
visor or Conductor of one of the Federal 
Music Projects is filled with supervisorial 
and musical tasks of every description, 
an important one is to "discover" 
young hopefuls. Many supervisors in 
California have uncovered dormant 
talents, young people who have been 
denied the opportunity for study 
by their economic conditions. Singers, 
orchestra conductors, instrumentalists 
and people with a wide range of talent 
have been discovered in the past year. 
Some of these had already found their 
work and were on the project, others 
less fortunate were unemployed, or had 
been working in offices or stores. 

In Oakland, Conductor Gastone 
Usigli recently presented May Robin 
Steiner. a young Berkeley pianist, as 
guest soloist with his orchestra. Her 
rendition of Tschaikowsky's Concerto in 
B Flat Minor met with enthusiasm from 
the press and the public. It was her first 
experience with a large orchestra. Mr. 
Usigli is also responsible for the dis- 
covery and public presentation of Mary 
Hughson, twenty-one years old, a 'cellist. 
Miss Hughson was given an audition 
as a 'cellist, was employed, and soon 
raised to principal of the 'cello section 
in his orchestra, and received much 
commendation when she was featured 
as soloist recently. 

In August Mr. Usigli presented Miss 
Constance Lescuyere, soprano, in her 
Oakland debut. Many requests were re- 
ceived for her reappearance. 

Last week Miss Lescuyere sang Chaus- 
son's "Poem of Death and the Sea" as 
soloist with the orchestra. This was the 
first performance of the Chausson work 
in California. 

Bernard Callery, conductor of the con- 
cert orchestra at Carmel, is now studying 
under Mr. Usigli. 

Among the many discoveries of Ver- 
non Robinson are Eleanor Maegle and 
Jack Bierbaum, both violinists. Miss 

Maegle appeared last summer in the 
Lark Ellen Bowl concert series, which 
wnr. conducted by Mr. Robinson, and 
>vith the same orchestra in Riverside. 

Douglas Steele, first chair horn play- 
er in the San Bernardino Project orches- 
tra, has recently, under Mr. Robinson's 
tutoring, shown potentialities as a con- 
ductor. He made his debut as guest 
conductor on November 12th. 

The trombone section of the San 
Bernardino orchestra brought forth Roy 
Benz, who has directed the brass band 
in several concerts and received consid- 
erable praise. 

Ernst Bacon, San Francisco super- 
visor, discovered a conductor in his sec- 
ond violin section. The result of this 
discovery is that Ben Bauer is now as- 
sistant conductor to Ernst Bacon. 

Jose Molina, assistant supervisor of the 
Rumba Orchestra in San Francisco, sug- 
serted that there was a principal guitar- 
ist in his orchestra too good to remain 
a "forgotten man." Because of this sug- 
gestion Emelio Bonsilau has given pleas- 
sure to guitar lovers in concerts of classi- 
cal music written for the guitar. 

In San Diego, Director Julius Leib 
recognized near genius in Leo Scheer. 
He was made first violinist with the 
project symphony orchestra. Later, 
through the co-operation of Dr. Charles 
Breach, Julius Leib and Anino Marielli, 
Mr. Scheer directed his own composi- 
tion, "Los Cargardores" in the Ford 
Bowl last summer. 

Robert Hester, an oboe player with 
the San Diego Orchestra, won high 
praise as guest soloist at the Ford Bowl 
concert last summer; and George Fish, 
clarinetist, another member of this or- 
chestra, was featured soloist at the Cali- 
fornia International Exposition. 

The Fresno Project has discovered a 
capable young concert singer, Marjorie 
Brown Williams. She previously had 
appeared with the Fresno State College 
Band. Ernest Michaelian, violinist and 

student of Fresno State College is a 
pupil of Samuel Hungerford, acting su- 
pervisor of the Fresno Project. He was 
recently presented with the project or- 

In seeking to discover local talent, 
Arthur Gundersen, San Mateo super- 
visor, recently brought forth a young 
lady of rare violinistic ability, Miss Eby 
Burszan. She was presented as soloist 
with the concert orchestra on November 
24th, performing Max Bruch's concerto 
in G. Minor. 

As a result of the series of auditions 
being held in Los Angeles to discover 
voung people of musical talent, Aida 
Mulieri, harpist, was presented as guest 
soloist with the Los Angeles Federal 
Music Project Symphony Orchestra on 
November 4th. The critics were gen- 
erous in their praise of her work. On 
December 2 three more winners of the 
new talent auditions in Los Angeles ap- 
peared as guest soloists. Twelve-year-old 
Dorothy Marie Wade, violinist; Zauki 
Elmassian, youthful soprano; and How- 
ard Mann, young pianist, were featured. 

Stockton recently brought to light 
Miss Daisy Newman, who was working 
as librarian on the Stockton Music Proj- 
ect. It was found that Miss Newman 
was an excellent orchestra arranger. She 
is now making modernistic arrange- 
ments of special numbers, and of the 
classics for use in this project. 

Miss Newman has recently been 
studying harmony and arranging under 
Clarence Buchanan, concert master of 
the orchestra. 

The above represents only a few of 
the many artists discovered and being 
assisted in California under Federal 

Lists from other states are equally 
imposing and encouraging. 

Discovering and developing talent is 
only a part of the routine of Federal 
Music Project supervisors. 

Poge 16 



By Frederick, Preston Search 

{Prominent composer; Supervisor 
of the Concert Band unit, San 
Francisco Project) 

Band concerts are a matter of great 
public importance. In the State of Iowa, 
bands are supported in every locality 
through the Iowa Band Law, which 
was passed about eight years ago. Like- 
wise, in the city of Long Beach, Cali- 
fornia, many band concerts have been 
presented each week under the cele- 
brated bandmaster, Herbert Clarke. 
The impetus to fine band music is also 
seen in the Goldman Band Concerts 
which, since 1924, have been entirely 
supported by the Daniel and Florence 
Guggenheim Foundation. Yet this par- 
ticular type of music has been more or 
less neglected within the last few years. 

As in so many musical things, how- 
ever, 1936 will be remembered as the 
year in which band music returned to 
its rightful place in the life of this na- 
tion. The Federal Music Project is play- 
ing a significant part in again bringing 
before the public fine concert band mu- 
sic. The San Francisco Music Project 
is, at present, giving five programs every 
week in the various city parks. When 
this scries of concerts was inaugurated, 
the listeners were few, but the audiences 
have been steadily increasing until now 
these programs are giving pleasure to 
many hundreds. 

In addition, the Federal Music Project 
has brought much happiness to the 
bandsmen themselves, inasmuch as it 
has given them the opportunity to again 
be active in their chosen profession. It 
is also giving courage and spirit to 
these musicians, many of whom have 

passed through very trying and serious 

On every program given by the San 
Francisco Project's band, several num- 

"Coffee Cantata" 

Due In San Diego 

Bach's "Coffee Cantata" has been an- 
nounced for presentation by the San 
Diego Project in the Savoy Theatre of 
that city on December 14. 

This production, which will be con- 
ducted by Charles H. Marsh, Supervisor 
of the San Diego Project, will present 
the symphony orchestra, fifty-five voice 
Project chorus, and several soloists. 

Unique staging, scenic effects, and 
costumes will be used in the production 
for the first time in America. 

Bach's "Coffee Cantata" is frequent- 
ly heard in concert form, but this new 
interpretauon, as with other "first" per- 
formances already presented and being 
contemplated in California, marks a 
milestone in the history of Government 
sponsored musical productions. 

bers by present-day American composers 
are played. These include the works of 
John Philip Sousa, MacDowell, and 
Stephen Foster. Excluding these and 
the works of a few other composers, 
bands have had to play music origin- 
ally written for an orchestra. 

Brilliant march music, such as Sousa's 
"Stars and Stripes Forever," will always 
rank in position with the compositions 
of MacDowell and Foster. 

Young American composers would 
do well to delve into the wonderful in- 
strumentation possibilities of the con- 
cert band, since band music is so much 
more effective when planned for the 
right instrument. For instance, a violin 
number, even when rearranged for so 
similar an instrument as a viola or 'cello, 
must undergo considerable alteration, 
thus losing much of the composer's 
original intention. In fine concert bands, 
twenty clarinets, divided into four or 
more parts, have great possibilities of 
brilliantly executing technical passages, 
the clarinets taking a similar position 
to the violins in an orchestra. 

Let the American composer not for- 
get the concert band. With this new 
freedom engendered by the Federal 
Music Projects, there is little reason why 
he should not — and rightfully so — turn 
his attention to the needs of a concert 

For, in the performance of brilliant 
march music, which is loved by the 
masses everywhere, concert bands will 
always excel. 


Pag« 17 

Ernst Bacon's ^^Cantata'' 

Scores in San Francisco 

In 1935 the San Francisco Municipal 
Chorus commissioned Ernst Bacon to 
compose a work to be performed by 
them, using for this purpose the |200.0U 
scholarship amiually presented to the 
chorus by the To Kalon Club. 

On December 1 this work was given 
its world's premiere at the Geary Theater 
in San Francisco with the San Francisco 
Municipal Chorus, under the leadership 
of Dr. Hans Leschke. Soloists with the 
chorus were Anna Nettelmann, soprano, 
and Steen Sconhoft, baritone. 

After the first performance of this 
new "Cantata", Alexander Fried, writ- 
ing in the San Francisco Examiner, 
said, "In many of Ernst Bacon's works 
there are passages which suggest that he 
is one of the most important talents 
among the younger school of American 
composers. Such was the case once 
more last night in his new Cantata . . . 
One secuon, "Ihere Is a Oeneration', 
attains magmficent power. Anotner 
"ihere tic Ihree Imngs, is inspired 
with a deep tenderness. Another suc- 
cessfully undertakes the tradition of vig- 
orous choral polyphony. Without a 
doubt, Bacon's creative talent is extraor- 

The text of Mr. Bacon's "Cantata" is a 
series of extracts from Ecclesiastes, Pro- 
verbs, and Genesis. In setting this text 
to music, the composer has, as Alfred 
Frankenstien writes in the San Fran- 
cisco Chronicle, "composed passages of 
melody as disarmingly lyrical as the fat- 

test of puccini, which is not to say they 
resemble the Puccinian surge. The tex- 
ture is ahve with polyphony . . . turned 
to melodious, effectively expressive ends. 
In short, the Cantata calls for repetition 
at the earliest possible moment. It can 
stand frequent rehearings. It has meat 
and meaning, and it confirms one's be- 
lief in Bacon as one of the outstanding 

Scored for full orchestra, chorus, and 
soloists, this "Cantata" is one of the few 
works to be conmiissioned in San Fran- 
cisco in recent years. 

Mr. Bacon has won international fame 
as a composer. Four years ago he won 
the Pulitzer Prize in music. His most 
recent symphony "Coimtry Roads — Un- 
paved" has been performed widely since 
its first performance in San Francisco 
this summer. 

The entire "Cantata", with the San 
Francisco Municipal Chorus of 190 
voices as guest artists, will be repeated 
at the Municipal Auditorium in Oak- 
land on January 15 under the auspices of 
the Oakland Federal Music Project. 

Harle Jervis, State Director, recently 
expressed the hope that Mr. Bacon's new 
"Cantata " could be performed in other 
parts of the state later in the season. 

Dr. Leschke and Mr. Bacon plan to 
present the "Cantata" in 1939 at the Bay 
Bridge Exposition as one of the major 
works in concerts devoted to San Fran- 
cisco composers. 

Juilliard Awards 

Are Announced 

Among the sixty-five Juilliard Fellow- 
ship awards for study at the Juilliard 
Graduate School for season 1936-7 are 
the following from the Pacific West: 
Arthur Austin, San Diego, California, 
conducting; Mary Bamberry, Portland, 
Oregon, and Earle Voorhies, Los An- 

geles, California, piano; Rivka Ivcn- 
tosch, Berkeley, California, and Alice 
Plumlee, Los Angeles, California, vio- 
lin; Hugh Thompson, Seattle, Wash- 
ington, and Bernard John Tyers, San 
Diego, California, voice. While not 
having a list of those who won scholar- 
ships at the Institute of Musical Art of 
the Jilliard School of Music, New York 
City, it is known that Ruth Krieger, 
Seattle, 'cellist, won a scholarship and 
a place on the Institute string quartet. 

San Bernardino 

Awaits "Faust" 

What is expected to be the most elab- 
orate presentation of the California Fed- 
eral Music Project for the Holiday Sea- 
son will be the San Bernardino produc- 
tion of Gounod's "Faust," which will be 
given two performances in the San 
Bernardino Municipal Auditorium De- 
cember 15th and 16th. 

Throughout the opera. Director Ver- 
non Robinson has endeavored to speed 
up the action, heighten the dramatic 
effect, and make the whole production 
seem more dramatically and musically 
reasonable to a layman audience through 
a new American translation of the 
libretto. This new interpretation eli- 
minates the stilted language contained 
in the printed score. The use of two 
entirely different Fausts, one for the 
old philosopher and one for the young 
lover, will lend realism. This will also 
eliminate the obvious wig changing 
act, which often spoils the illusion in 
Act One. Further innovations include 
the transposition of the Soldier Scene 
and the Church Scene, to build up 
greater dramatic sequence. 

The original dramatic intentions of 
Gounod and Goethe will be carried out, 
and a number of modern viewpoints 
and mechanical assists will be employed 
to bring these intentions to the audi- 
ence's consciousness. The whole idea 
of the production will be to use a modern 
technique in the presentation of an estab- 
lished classic. 

The principals of the opera, who will 
be taken to San Diego after the closing 
of the San Bernardino engagement, 
are: Russell Horton, "Faust"; David 
Englund, "Mephisto;" Ruth La Gour- 
gue, "Marguerite;" Beatrix Mayo, 
"Martha; Everton Stidham, "Valen- 
tine"; and Harold Lutz, "Siebel." 

Acting as assistants to Mr. Robinson 
are Julia Robinson and Warren Lewis, in 
charge of the chorus and the dramatic 
technique respectively, and Brahm van 
den Berg in charge of the ballets. 

Federal Theatres 

Lease Beaux Arts 

An announcement recendy made by 
Howard Miller, Assistant to the Nation- 
al Director of the Federal Theatre Pro- 
ject, is to the effect that the Beaux Arts 
Theatre, once famous as a radio play- 
house, has been leased by the Theatre 
Project and will open on December 17 
with the play "Le Berceau". 

Poge 18 

KQW In San Jose 

Broadcasts Query 

Within the last few weeks the 
Federal Music Project of San Jose, 
through the co-operation of radio 
station KOW, broadcasted to the 
music-loving public of San Jose the 
following questions, and invited con- 
cert goers to answer them: 

Do people ot San Jose enjoy sym- 

How many musicians feel that sym- 
phony is the highest form of music? 

What is the reaction of the public 
toward operatic music? 

What compositions do you like best? 

Mr. Cizkovsky, the local supervisor, 
received many interesting answers. Here 
are extracts from some of them: 

"Keep up the good music. San Jose, 
slow as it is to recognize the better 
things, will eventually wake up and 
attend the fine symphony concerts. We 
like all composers . . ." 

"Hope the very fine symphony con- 
certs are to continue throughout the 
winter. We look forward to the sym- 
phony concerts . . ." 

"I sincerely think that more people 
will eventually attend when they are 
so worthwhile. They are really excel- 
lent and the work at the school is 
also very enlightening and necessary . . ." 

"I would say from my observation 
that about one-forth of San Jose enjoys 
symphonic music, but that number is 
gradually being increased due to the fine 
music work being done, particularly 
among the Junior High Schools. I am 
not a musician, but I do think the sym- 
phony is the highest, most completely 
satisfactory form of music . . ." 

Five Groups From 

One In Stockton! 

The Stockton Project has added sev- 
eral new units from regular members 
of the concert orchestra. These include 
a saxophone quartet, string quartet, old- 
fashioned dance orchestra, and a con- 
cert orchestra. Future plans include the 
assembling of a brass sextet composed 
of three trumpets, two trombones, and 
a baritone. Thus, Stockton will have 
five units from one. 

The Stockton Project has discovered 
an excellent singer in Norma Bcntley, 
their 'cellist, a violin soloist of merit 
in Josephine Miramontes, and have a 
well-known composer in their oboist, 
Hoyle Carpenter. 




Below is a list of supervisors for 
all districts in California. To 
obtain information about Federal 
Music Project activities, contact 
your nearest distritt office. 

Phyllis Ashmun 
Leslie Hodge 

Grattan Guerin 

Samuel Hungerford 

Vernon C. Robinson 

Erich Weiler 


Ernst Bacon 

Gastone Usigli 


Joseph Cizkovsky 

Arthur Gunderson 

Antoni van der Voort 

Dene Denny 

Loren S. Greene 


Chas. H. Marsh 

Leon Eckles 

Lynn Stoddard 


In its regular winter season, the Tulsa 
Symphony Orchestra will present six 
symphony concerts and four concerts 
by the Choral Group, in which Men- 
delssohn's "Hymn of Praise," Greig's 
"Olaf Trygbasson," and works by Ros- 
sini, Coleridge Taylor and Handel 
will be heard. There also will be 
programs devoted to the composi- 
tions of four Oklahomans: Robert 
Wolfe, Paul Wesley Thomas, Sam- 
uel Addison McReynolds and Lem- 
uel J. Childerg. 

The Tulsa orchestra also will give ad- 
ditional concerts in various cities of 
the State. 

Usigli, "Humanitas" 
Scheduled For S. F. 

Gastone Usigli, Oakland Project Su- 
pervisor, will conduct the Oakland Pro- 
ject Symphony Orchestra in a concert at 
the Veteran's Auditorium in San Fran- 
cisco on December 14, which will feature 
Usigli's new symphonic poem, "Hu- 
man! tas." 

Mr. Usigli's latest work was given 
high praise by the press and public 
after its first presentation in Oakland 
early in November. 

Regarding the composition, Mr. Usigli 
said, "The proud tide 'Humanitas' in- 
dicates the inevitable vicissitudes of 
man, in that mankind reaches divine 
exaltation and accomphs^bment, con- 
trasted wiht deplorable weakness." 

Other numbers to be played on the 
same program are Weber's "Euryanthe" 
Overture, MacDowell's "Indian Suite 
No. 2" (in honor of the composer's 
seventy-fifth aimiversary), and Rach- 
maninoff's "Piano Concerto No. 2," with 
Elena Guirola Hitchcock as guest solo- 

WPA Inaugurates 

Radio Broadcasts 

As a result of recent efforts by the 
Works Progress Administration, the 
theatre and radio have joined hands in 
an enterprise to foster both air enter- 
tainment and stage fare, employing pro- 
fessional actors and actresses who have 
not been absorbed by private entertain- 
ment enterprises. 

These radio programs, heard weekly 
over the NBC network, star Fred Niblo, 
famous producer of the silent cinema 
days, as master of ceremonies. Only pro- 
fessionals not employed at present take 
part in the broadcasts, and it is hoped 
that this type of entertainment will stim- 
ulate a demand for vaudeville artists in 
theatres that do not now use such talent. 

After each weekly broadcast the per- 
formers will be booked into theatres, 
and their place on the air will be filled 
by other actors from relief rolls. 


Poge 19 

"Hansel and Gretel" 
Christmas Offering 

Along with announcements from all 
parts of the state concerning major pro- 
ductions, comes the information that the 
San Diego Project will present Humper- 
dinck's "Hansel and Gretel" under the 
direction of Julius Leib, and with 
Charles Cannon as "Peter." Mr. Cannon 
created a sensation in San Diego and 
Los Angeles recently as "Koko" in the 
"Mikado." This opera, which has wide 
appeal for adults as well as children, 
will be given its first performance De- 
cember 29 at the Savoy Theatre at San 
Diego, and will continue for five days. 

The part of "Gertrude," the mother, 
will be played by Elizabeth Clarke; 
"Hansel" by Carmen Conger; "Gretel" 
by Genevieve Roberts, while Dorothy 
Starbird will portray the role of the 
"Witch." William G. Stewart is general 
production manager. Eugene McCoy is 
designer of the scenery, and the cos- 
tumes will be in charge of Helen Beth 

Enthusiasm regarding this work has 
been tremendous, and it is thought that 
"Hansel and Gretel" will be one of the 
California Federal Music Project's out- 
standing productions this year. 


The Educational Department of the 
Los Angeles Project, under the super- 
vision of Arthur M. Perry and his assoc- 
iate, Abbie Norton Jamison, has such 
an increased enrollment of students that 
the capacity of the building is tested to 
the utmost to provide sufficient class 
rooms. This unit is teaching more than 
1000 students every week. In one week 
recendy there were 683 class lessons 

Free lessons are given only to the fam- 
ilies of people on relief or those regularly 
engaged on the Federal Music Project. 
The Los Angeles "Times" recendy 
made an investigation of this department 
and the result was a very commenda- 
tory and informative article in that 
paper, which attracted wide attention to 
this unit. 

Music of 898 American composers 
has been played by WPA units since 
October, 1935. This list was prepared 
on October 19, at the request of the 
very important league of Composers in 
New York City, and discloses creative 
wealth that was undreamed of when the 
Federal Music Project came into exist- 

Ike Obiiol's 

J an "'jaKe 

Questions pertaining to music or any 
phase of Federal Music Project activities 
wtl! be answered in this department. 

Communications sAouid not exceed 
lOO ivords. 


The magazine is interesting from be- 
ginning to end, and it is very gratifying 
to see the spirit of cooperativeness that 
pervades it. The Music Project of Cali- 
fornia may well feel proud of its mouth- 
piece, also of its musical achievements. 

Besides the news and valuable articles 
in The Baton, there are many ideas 
which any director can apply to the 
betterment of his project. 

Thanks again for The Baton — for the 

Louisiana notice — and bravo for the 

spirit of cooperation you have sponsored. 

Rene Salomon, State Dirertor, 

Louisiana Music Project 


I wish to thank you for the copy of 
The Baton. 

I assure you I was very much inter- 
ested in the magazine, and appreciate 
your consideration in sending it to me. 
Congressman Byron N. Scott. 


I would like to contribute to The 
Baton as you suggest, but I am simply 
loaded up with more work than I can 
properly take care of as it is. 

Meanwhile, I read The Baton with 
much interest and will look forward 
to the occasion when I shall have some- 
thing to quote from that publication. 
Olin Downes, 
Music Critic, 
New York Times 


The September issue of your Cali- 
fornia Federal Music Project publication. 
The Baton, was very interesting. It most 
certainly gave us an opportunity to learn 
of the fine work you are doing out there. 
Reginald Bonnin, State Director, 
Maine Federal Music Project 


Thank you very much for your most 
interesting and inspiring magazine, The 
Baton. I feel, as Guy Maier states, that 
you have taken the lead from us all, 
not only in the publishing of The Baton, 
but also in the actual work you are doing 
on the Proj ett there. 

Your magazine is filling a real need 
for the Federal Music Project, as I have 
always felt that there should be an ex- 
change of all interesting activities the 
Project is carrying on over the nation. 
Too few of us know what the other 
fellow is doing, and I am sure we could 
benefit gready by an exchange of ac- 

Dean Richardson, State Director, 
Oklahoma Federal Music Project 


May we suggest that some of the 
smaller projects be given encouragement 
in the field of musical endeavor by at 
least a mention of such endeavors in 
The Baton? We do not ask for re- 
peated mentions. 

Ethel Clark, Publicity Manager, 
San Jose, California, Project 


Since there is a Federal Project in 
Washington working on recording mu- 
sic, why not have all music played on 
programs recorded and then send each 
score and orchestration material to the 
different project orchestras to be per- 
formed.'' Good phonograph records of 
compositions would enable other con- 
ductors to know the interpretation given 
by the composer. 

Joseph Cizkovsky, Supervisor, 
San Jose, California, Project 


1 have been following with increasing 
interest The Baton, and must congratu- 
late you upon your excellent accomplish- 
ment. If you deem advisable any co- 
operation on my part in the form of a 
few notes about Folkloristic Music, I 
will be extremely glad to contribute 
them at your request. 

Dr. Paul Rinaudo De Ville, 
Director Folkloristic Ensemble, 
Los Angeles, California, Project 

Page 20 



WE QUOTE . . . 

A well-known British musician proposed to give a leaure 
on "Schumann's Pianoforte Works," and enthusiastic ama- 
teurs did their best to beat up an audience. One of them, 
meeting a friend, seized the opportunity to urge him to 
attend the lecture, and was met by the inquiry, "Schumann's 
Pianoforte Works? And where may they be situated, at 
Leeds or Bradford?" 

"Nowhere in Europe is there anything that even compares 
with the Federal Music Project. Of course, we have state 
subsidized opera, but no country in Europe has anything to 
equal this. It is heartwarming to see these splendidly trained 
musicians performing concerts of high calibre for the public 
for nominal admissions, and in most cases, free of charge, 
as a phase of government activity." 

— Erich Wotjgang Komgotd. 

In the days of Lully, the fa- 
mous French opera composer, 
life in the theatrical world was 
considered a wicked thing call- 
ing for penance. 

One day Lully was so ill that 
it was thought wise to send 
for his confessor, as his end 
seemed near. "In view of your 
stage-life," said the priest, "I 
want you to do penance by 
sacrificing something very dear 
to you." 

Seeing the manuscript of a 
new opera, just finished, he 
added: "Let me throw this in 
the fire." 

Lully consented. He did not 
die, but soon recovered. Some 
time later a friend said to him, 
"What a pity that new opera 
score was destroyed." 

"Oh, that's all right," re- 
torted Lully, "I have a copy 
of it!" 

"Music is in all growing 

And underneath the silky 
wings of smallest in- 
sects there is stirred 

A pulse of air that must be 

Earth's silence lives, and 
throbs, and sings." 


("Music of Growth") 

"It was my pleasure on the 
occasion of a Rotary luncheon 
to listen to a program presented 
by the Federal Music Project 
Orchestra of Fort Worth, and 
I would like to compliment 
those of you in charge on the 
fine work being done by that 

— Paul Whiteman. 

"Among the many fine of- 
ferings of the Federal Music 
Project was a performance at 
the Philharmonic Auditorium 
of Traviata.' The performance 
gave rise to unbounded expres- 
sions of approval on the part 
of the sold-out house. Alto- 
gether, with Conti, one of our 
finest operatic conductors, and 
the Federal Orchestra, which 
was such an improvement on 
the usual h.iphazard group of 
players, the performance was 
one to give hope for a perma- 
nent civic organization." 

— Mai\ Cair Moore. 

A country visitor was doing London, and went to a well 
knovin concert hall. He was particular to inquire the prices 
of seats, and the obliging attendant said, "Front seats, two 
shillings; back, one shilling; programs, a penny." 

"Oh, well, then." blandly replied the countryman, "ill 
sit on a program." 


Persons annoyed by the talking of others at a concert might 
try the method used bv a music lover in London. He wrote 
the following words on a piece of paper and passed it on to 
the culprits: "I am sorry wc could not have heard more of 
your conversation, but the violinist has been inconsiderately 
making himself heard from time to time. I am sure, however, 
if you speak a little louder, he will understand and give way 
to you." 

"The writer was privileged to attend a concert recently 
given by the WP.\ Orchestra, under the direction of Leslie 
Hodge, at Clunie Memorial Auditorium at Sacramento. 

Only praise heard for the highly commendable rendi- 
tion of the various numbers . . . The orchestra played as if 
inspired . . . Director Hodge i:. a vaUiabL- astet to Sacra- 
mento's cultural and musical life." 

— James Harvey Hester. 


"Usieli's u^e of the baton shows mature surety and re- 

... • -A 

source. The orchestra respont''; to ins idc^s 
a'ertly and with discrimination, and his ideas are tho-rc of a 
thorough individual artist." 

— Alexander Fried. 






^^ te 




V. 1,\^.{ 






DR. NIKOLAI SOKOLOFF, Notional Directof 

DR. BRUNO DAVID USSHER, Asslstont to Notionol Director 

HARRY HOPKINS, Notional Administrator 
ELLEN S. WOODWARD, Asslstont Administrotof 

Vol 2 

January, 1937 

No 1 



State Director 


I have been wondering if musicians 
working on the Federal Music Proj- 
ect actually realize the importance of 
each day's rehearsal and of each con- 
cert given. 

The Government has said, "You 
are a professional musician without 
a job. We will create a Music Project 
in the Works Progress Administra- 
tion so that you can practice your 
profession and still support yourself 
and your family until you find pri- 
vate employment." But the govern- 
ment has gone further than that. It 
has provided musicians with compe- 
tent musical leaders who have made 
the daily work vitally interesting and 
constructive. These leaders have 
worked persistently to improve skills, 
and with unquestionable success. 
More than that, they have molded 
into a harmonious whole a hetero- 
geneous group of musicians whose 
knowledge, training and ability were 
so vastly different. This has been 
done for over a year. 

Times are better now. Musicians 
are finding work outside the project. 
Symphonic, operatic, dance and the- 
atre groups are employing our musi- 
cians more and more. But the general 
economic improvement is not the 
only reason for outside employment 
of project musicians. Twenty-four 
hours each week of intensive work 
over a period of fifteen months has 
had a great deal to do with making 

This magazine was printed through the courtesy of a private organization which contributed its equipment 
for the furtherance of Federal Music Project activities. 



Beaux Arts Building 

Los Angdes, Calif. 



B) Harle Jems . . . 


By Lee Pallison .... 





By Eruh Weiler .... 



By S/ephen de Hospodar 








By Gailone Uligli .... 






them desirable musicians. However, 
this concentrated work each week 
means even more than improving 
skill and obtaining an occasional out- 
side job. It means presenting fine 
concerts, impressmg music on public 
consciousness, creating a need and a 
demand for good music, and eventu- 
ally making a permanent place for 
the-, musician in every community. 
The musician has been a luxury in 
America. He must become a neces- 

When you rehearse each day, you 
are just a day nearer acquiring your 
permanent place in the world. It is 
not just a job to tide you over the 
present. It is an opportunity to make 
a place for yourself m the future. Do 
not forget that for one second. 

Whether the public will want you, 
whether your community will offer 
you a livelihood in your chosen 
work, depends on what you do in 
rehearsal today, what you offer them 
in concerts tomorrow, and what their 
response will be to your concert next 

The Federal Music Project in Cali- 
fornia has come far in 1936, but if 
there is one person who considers 
this just a temporary job and cannot 
realize its significance for the future, 
he is merely delaying the time when 
serious musicians may arrive at their 
rightful place in American life. 


Pogc 3 


By Lee Pattison 

(RegioTial Director for seven Netf 
Englatid States, a member of the 
famous piano team, Maier and Pat- 

The New York City Federal Music 
Project congratulates California for 
the iine appearance of its pubUca- 
tion. New York City is now at 
work on one that will reach the 
public shortly after the New Year. 
V/e hope that it will be as attractive 
and pleasant to read as the "Baton." 
October 30, 1936 marked the in- 
ception of our paid admission activi- 
ties, and we are happy to report that 
our season had a very auspicious be- 
ginning. On that date we presented 
the first of a series of six weekly 
concerts devoted to the orchestral 
works and concertos of Johann Se- 
bastian Bach, m the auditorium of 
the New School for Social Research. 
Announced as the first paid admis- 
sion activity of the 1936-37 season, 
the concerts were both an artistic 
and financial success. More than 
two- thirds of the auditorium was 
sold out on a subscription basis with- 
in a week after the concerts were 
announced, and on the date of the 
first performance our Agent-Cashier 
reported that all seats had been sold 
for the complete series. Each pro- 
gram was performed before a capac- 
ity audience. 

The first concert was in the nature 
of a reunion, for Guy Maier came 
from Michigan to participate with 
Ernest Hutcheson and myself in the 
performance of a two and three 
piano concerto, while Andre Polah, 
conductor of the Syracuse WPA 
Symphony Orchestra, directed the 
Bach Chamber Orchestra, a unit of 
38 musicians formed expressly for 
the Bach Series. Other artists who 
appeared on the series included 
Remo Bolognini, Michel Naszi, 
Ralph Kirkpatrick, Georges Barrere, 
Jacques Gordon, Chalmers Chfton 

and Samuel Gardner. 

Numerous requests from subscrib- 
ers to the series led us to schedule a 
special program of Bach Christmas 
music on December 18. For this 
occasion the orchestra was supple- 
mented by the Madrigal Singers, a 
mixed chorus of sixteen voices under 
the direction of Lehman Engel. The 
program again attracted a capacity 

Late in January we hope to open 
our WPA Theatre of Music. The 
project has leased the Gallo Theatre, 
and after extensive alterations we 
plan to open the theatre as an audi- 
torium where a coordinated program 
of musical activities will be offered 
to the public at popular prices. 

Our chamber opera group is now 
in rehearsal for two operatic presen- 
tations that will officially open the 
WPA Theatre of Music. "Romance 
of a Robot", a modern operatic sat- 
ire in EngHsh, by Frederick Hart, 
one of my colleagues at Sarah Law- 
rence College, will be given its world 
premiere here, as will a new version 
of "La Serva Padrona" by Pergolesi. 

Popular priced symphony concerts 
also will be resumed in New York 
City when the WPA Theatre of 
Music opens. Offered as an experi- 
ment last season, the programs met 
with favorable public reaction, and 
they will be presented as a regular 
phase of the WPA Theatre of Mu- 

sic s activities. 

Under discussion for the WPA 
Theatre of Music is a subscription 
plan to be offered to the pubhc so 
that within one month a subscriber, 
in successive weeks, will be able to 
attend one chamber opera perform- 
ance, one grand opera presentation, 
a symphony concert and a chamber 
music program. Supplementing this, 
specialized music activities will be 
offered as part of the subscription 

Amazing results are being achieved 
in our various educational centers, 
where both children and adults are 
receiving musical instruction under 
the guidance of trained teachers. 
Amateur orchestras, adult and chil- 
dren's rhythm bands, choral and 
operatic groups have stemmed from 
these WPA music center activities, 
giving leisure time enjoyment ro 
thousands who otherwise would be 
unable to afford them. 

Our free concerts draw increas- 
ingly large audiences. Throughout 
the city people are developing an 
understanding and appreciation of 
music. This gratifying response vin- 
dicates our oft-repeated expression 
that the WPA Federal Music Pro- 
ject is moving forward to the point 
where it will be accepted as the 
greatest single impetus this country 
has yet received for the foundation 
of a permanent musical culture. 

I take this opportunity to extend 
to the WPA Federal Music Project 
units in California and in other re- 
gions of the United States wishes 
for a successful year — one which 
will find our musicians, with their 
skills restored or unimpaired, return- 
ed to private employment in increas- 
ingly large numbers. 

PqB> 4 





Tabulations recently completed by 
the Federal Music Project offices in 
Washington, D. C. carry the names 
of 1,351 American musicians whose 
compositions have been heard in 
public performances of the Federal 
Music Project units since the incep- 
tion of the Project late in 1935. 

These tabulations disclose a crea' 
tive talent in music composition that 
was unsuspected when the Works 
Progress Administration set up the 
program to retain the work and 
skill of unemployed musicians, ac- 
cording to a statement made last 
week by Dr. Nikolai Sokoloff, Na- 
tional Director of the Federal Music 

Among these works by American 
composers are 16 operas, which have 
been performed in whole or in ex- 
cerpt; 18 choral works; 5 hturgical 
writings; 38 symphonies, performed 
in their entirety or by movements; 
30 concerti for solo instruments and 
orchestra; and 41 symphonic and 
tone poems. 

Cantatas include Seth Bingham's 
"Wilderness Stone", which had its 
world premiere in New York City 
in May; Josie Holton's "Abel", re- 
cently performed in Philadelphia; 
and Ernst Bacon's "CanUta", per- 
formed in San Francisco last month. 

In the Music Project's indexed 
tabulations there are more than 3,300 
American compositions that either 
have been heard or which have been 
approved for public performance. 
Marches and descriptive pieces for 
bands, including suites, lead in num- 
ber, but hundreds of compositions 
for string quartets, sinfoniettas and 
other chamber ensembles, art songs, 
vocal quartets, and piano studies are 

While some of these composers 
were nationally recognized when the 

Federal Music Project came into 
existence, a large majority found 
their first opportunity for perform- 
ance with Federal Music units. En- 
couragement for the American com- 
poser has been an integral part of 
the Federal Music Project plan. 

"An amazing wealth of creative 
talent has been brought to light by 
Federal Music activities," Dr. So- 
koloflt said, "and hundreds of these 
native compositions have had re- 
peated performance. 

"While perhaps no great numbers 
of these contain lasting values, the 
way is being cleared for native and 
national expression in music. The 
programs we have been hearing for 
years comprised predominantly of 
the works of European composers 
do not reflect, we should remember, 
the whole field of European music. 
They are the works that have stood 
the test of more than two centuries, 
while thousands of other composi- 
tions, when performed at all, have 
flourished for a few programs only. 

"It is possible that the American 
compositions heard during the last 
year have discovered as many en- 
during works as Europe has pro- 
duced in any similar period." 

American composers of grand or 
chamber opera or opera comique, 
which have figured in Federal Music 
Project programs or performances, 
include: Paul Hastings Allen, Fran- 
cesco De Leone, Louis Woodson 
Curtis, Louis Gruenberg, Homer 
Grunn, Frederick Hart, Victor Her- 

bert, Mary Carr Moore, Otto Muel- 
ler, Frank Patterson, Alois Reiser, 
Ernst Toch, and Guy Bevier Will- 

Composers of choral compositions 
are: Ernst Bacon, Walter Danurosch, 
Harry Evans, Josephine Forsythe, 
Harvey Gaul, Percy Oramger, Mary 
Howe, Nat Matlin, Lazare Saminsky, 
WilUam Schuman, Albert Stoessel, 
Wilhelm Sykes, Randall Thompson, 
Jacob Weinbert, and Waldo Will- 

Writers of liturgical works include: 
Alan Scott Hovaness, Nicola Mon- 
tani, Giuho Silva, Everett Titcomb, 
and Paul Wesley Thomas. 

The following are listed as com- 
posers of symphonies: Stanley D. 
Avery, Paul Hastings Allen, Ernst 
Bacon, Armand Balendonck, Mrs. 
H. H. A. Beach, John Becker, Otto 
Cesana, Felix Borowksi, Aaron Cop- 
land, Lemuel Childers, Jerome P. 
Davidson, James P. Dunn, Carl Ep- 
pert, Francis Frank, Rudolph Forst, 
Joseph Baum Gressett, Arthur Gut- 
man, Henry K. Hadley, Howard 
Hanson, Adolph Hoffman, Edgar 
Stillman Kelley, Daniel Gregory Ma- 
son, John Christopher Moeller, 
Douglas Moore, Sigismund Stojow- 
ski, Gastone UsigU, Waldo William- 
son, Robert S. Whitney, and Robert 
W. Wolfe. 

Concertos have been written by 
the following: John J. Becker, Nic- 
olai Berezowsky, Marc Bhtzstein, 
Ernest Bloch, George F. Boyle, Clar- 
ence Bowden, Irwin Fischer, Sam 
Franke, Henry Hadley, Edward 
Burlingame Hill, Kurt Hintz, Fred- 
erick Jacobi, Hunter Johnson, Boris 
Koutzen, Edward MacDowell, Mary 
Carr Moore, Harold Morris, Alex- 
ander Mauke, George Mulfinger, 
Frederick Preston Search, Edward 
Walters and Mark Wessel. 


PoQg 5 




By Erich Weiler 

(Supervisor of the Marin Courtly 
(California) Federal Music Project, 
conductor of the Marin County 
Chamber Ensemble, and composer.) 

People have very romantic ideas 
about composers and their works, 
and there are many misconceptions 
about the art of composition which 
need correcting. 

From childhood on we have looked 
on the highly conventionalized pic 
tures of the great masters, most of 
which are as unlike to their originals 
as our conception of their creating 
masterpieces. Our sense of propor- 
tion and reahty seems to suffer dis- 
tortion when we gaze on these pic- 
tures of giants in flowing wigs, on 
these men with wavy hair, melan- 
choly eyes, when we look on the 
gloomy countenance of Beethoven, 
or the effeminate features of Chopin 
or Schumann as they are represented 
in the traditional portraits. Too much 
reading of shallow literature on 
music, of hero-worshipping biogra- 
phy, of nonsensical program - notes, 
are also apt to give us queer ideas 
about how great works of art are 

Many music-lovers, in complete ig- 
norance of the technique of composi- 
tion, form vague pictures of a genius 
sitting in a lonely chamber, manu- 
script-pages strewn in wild disorder 
all over his room, in mysterious ex- 
altation, waiting for the divine in- 
spiration to descend on him, creating 
his music for himself alone, loathing 
and despising the applause of the 
public and the reward for his 
labors. . . . 

No picture more misrepresents the 
way art-works are born. I shall at- 
tempt to give a more accurate, if 
less romantic description. Let me say 
right now that the opposite view 
that music is created for a market 
and for gain and fame, is, while not 
absolutely correct, much nearer to 
the truth than the other. 

Since Wagner, it has become the 
fashion to believe that music cannot 
be written to order. Yet most of our 
great music was written' to order. 
In what we call the classic period, 
the public was insatiable in its de- 
mands for new music, not much 
different from our pubhc in its 
hunger for new popular song hits. 
How times have changed! Nothing 
displays this more than a comparison 
of present-day concert life with that 
of the past. Gone are the days when 
for each concert the man who con- 
ducted the music had to write the 
music as well. Bach wrote a cantata 
for every day of the year. Nearly 
every note he wrote was written to 
order, for every possible occasion. 
He sold his works as a tradesman 
sells his goods, or as a workman sells 
his labor. This may sound ugly and 
disappointing, but it is the truth; 
Bach's music never suffered from 
having been written to order. His 
art expanded, developed and grew 
under the most severe conditions. 

Handel, Gluck, Haydn, Mozart, 
Schubert, Rossini, the early and 
some of the later Verdi, and most 
other classic composers wrote on de- 
mand, composed music to order. 
Much of Beethoven's music was 
written for a patron, in commission 
for a London Philharmonic society, 
a. s. o. The opera public of the past 
was as desirous to hear new operas 
as today's movie audiences are to 

see new pictures, or as Elizabethan 

audiences ..wanted new plays from 
Ehzabethari autKors.'Peopl?..then did 
hot incessantly i#sk the' question, 
"Will it be an immortal ;Work?" 
They left this to the artist who 
wrote for them, and often the artist 
never knew nor cared to know 
whether his great works were to be- 
come the joy of future generations. 
Verdi's Aida was perhaps the last 
masterpiece written to order. Are 
we right in saying that works since 
then are greater than those of the 
classic periods? 

New works were written when 
there was a demand for them, and 
the artist perfected his art while he 
tried to supply the demands of his 
patron or his audience. His aim was 
to write beautiful music pleasing to 
his public. When his audiences 
could not appreciate his art, then it 
was never the result of a purposeful, 
conscious going beyond his time; 
rather was it an unconscious, natural 
development of his art and tech- 
nique, possibly never noticed until 
a fickle, ungrateful public brought 
to him the reahzation that what he 
had thought would - please, was not 
as yet understood." -- ' 

Nor is it true that all great art 
was always in advance of its time. 
Nearly all the"gteaVmasftj^s had their 
ample measure of success even if .the 
uneducated public made it hard for 
them to "arrive", or misunderstood 
many of their works. Many of our 
masters' creations appreciated today 
were instantaneous hits when first 
performed. Shakespeare, Moliere, 
Cervantes, Michael Angelo, Beet- 
hoven, Mozart, Haydn, Handel, Ver- 
di, and many other giants among ar- 
tists were recognized and appreciated 
Conmued on Page 15 



Stephen deHospodar 

(FederoJ Art Pnjtct) 


Pogt 7 




By Hugh Harlan 

{District Supervisor, Los Angeles 
County Federal Writers' Project') 

The workers of the Los Angeles 
Federal Writers' Projects, who are 
engaged in compiling a Los Angeles 
County Guide, can usually be de- 
pended upon to bring to light un- 
usual and interesting sidelights on 
local history in their research ac- 

The royal romance of Mrs. WaUis 
Simpson and the Duke of Windsor 
is a case in point. Edward Othe 
Cresap Ord, the man who 87 years 
ago laid out the Los Angeles town- 
site and made its first map in 1849, 
had in George III a common grand- 
father with Edward VIIL The pres- 
ent Duke of Windsor descended 
from the fourth son, the Duke of 
Kent, father of Queen Victoria, 
while Ord was the grandson of 
George IV, the first son. 

In his late 'teens, young Ord was 
sent to West Point. Tops engineer 
in his class at graduation, he saw 
service in the Mexican War. The 
year 1848 found him in Monterey, 

Don Abel Stearns, Mayor of Los 
Angeles then, wrote to Governor 
Mason in Monterey: "This place is 
a sand flat. Nobody knows where 
anybody lives. You walk across lots. 
You cut corners. There are no 
streets," he wrote. "Can't you send 
somebody down to straighten out 
the town?" 

When the doughty Governor Ma- 
son got the letter, near him was 
young Lieutenant E. O. C. Ord. 

"You're an engineer," the gov- 
ernor said. "Here's a job for you. 
Go down and see what you can do." 

The rest is civic history. 

His work is generally known as 
the Ord map. For many years the 
royal origin of the dashing young 
Lieutenant, who later became a 
Northern general in the Civil War, 
more or less has been forgotten. 

Thus did the history making ro- 
mance of an English King focus the 
spotlight of interest on the history 
of an American city. 



Federal Theatres of Los Angeles, 
established a little more than twelve 
months ago as a producing unit m 
a gigantic national set-up, is well 
advanced into the second year of 
its existence with plans active and 
tentative for many months to come. 

January brings into four major 
government - operated houses legiti- 
mate stage attractions with the stamp 
of approval on them after long pe- 
riods of preparation. Among these 
are a gala musical extravaganza, "Re- 
vue of Reviews", which had its Hol- 
lywood Playhouse premiere on Jan- 
uary 9; Lynn Rigg's stark drama of 
the Oklahoma prairies, "Green Grow 
the Lilacs", which opened at the 
Mayan on January 6; "Ladies of the 
Jury", comedy due for the Mason 
the latter part of January; and "Help 
Yourself", a satirical farce by Paul 
Vulpius which will have a Musart 
staging the middle of the month. 

"Revue of Reviews", fiirst on 
Uncle Sam's list for the new year, 
is another scintilating musical along 
the same lively and ultry modern ap- 
peal as "Follow the Parade", gov- 
ernment sponsored hit of the pas' 

Under expert direction, such fu- 
ture ofi'erings as "House of Con- 
nelly", "Crime Killed His Son", 
"Roaring Girl", "The Copperhead", 
"Crime of the Century", "Mary Lin- 
coln", and "Lucky Sam McCarver" 
will soon reach the local boards, and 
plans are going rapidly ahead to 
stock government theatres with the 
best in show material to the middle 
of 1937. The forthcoming program 
will also include Jewish and French 
productions slated for Uncle Sam's 
"foreign drama" house, the Beaux 
Arts Theatre, and the marionette 
productions which will see release in 
the Theatre of the Magic Strings. 
— B. McD. 

By Nelson H. Partridge, Jr. 

(Southern Calijornia Director, 
Federal Art Project) 

The Federal Art Project enters 
the new year filled with greater zest 
than ever. This is inspired largely 
by public approval of its past record, 
evidenced not only in art pubhca- 
tions but in the general press as well. 
An example of this nation-wide re- 
sponse is seen in Mr. Lewis Mum- 
ford's splendid "Letter to the Presi- 
dent on the Arts Projects of the 
WPA," which appeared in The New 
Republic for December 30. 

"The excellence of the work done 
to further American art under 
WPA," says Mr. Mumford, "may 
well surprise you; indeed the most 
hopeful observer could hardly have 
predicted it. . . . The worth of the 
WPA arts projects has been proved: 
a magnificent achievement. Now is 
the time, not to tear down the scant- 
ling, but to build a permanent 

It is with increased confidence, 
therefore, that we begin a new year 
of enlarged activities and greater 
service to the growing number of 
communities which manifest a desire 
to share in the benefits of this pro- 

More frequent public exhibitions 
of work done by the artists of the 
Federal Art Project are planned for 
the coming year. In California alone, 
for example, four such exhibitions 
are scheduled for the month of Jan- 
uary. Three of these are in southern 
California. Two of them, at the 
Santa Monica Woman's Club, and 
in the rooms of the Los Angeles 
Municipal Art Commission, will run 
throughout the month. An exhibi- 
tion of lithographs v.'ill be held Jan- 
uary 17 to 30 at Pomona College, 

A pleasant feature on the opening 
days of Federal Art Project exhibi- 
tions, as well as at unveilings of 
mural paintings and sculptures, has 
been the music furnished by the Fed- 
eral Music Project. For this friendly 
cooperation our most sincere thanks. 

Poga 8 





In Boston, carol singing began at 
7:45 o'clock Christmas Eve, with the 
WPA Symphonic Band and the 
WPA C!ommonwealth Chorus lead- 
ing in the old songs from the Park- 
man bandstand on Boston Common. 
Throughout the afternoon and night 
selected singers were heard in carols 
at various points in the city, the 
municipal authorities supplying the 

On December 17, the Boston Com- 
posers' Forum Laboratory presented 
compositions by Professor Leo Rich 
Lewis of the music department of 
Tufts College. Professor Lewis was 
trained at Harvard and at the Mu- 
nich Conservatory. 

Isaac van Grove, former conduc- 
tor and stage director of the Chicago 
Civic Opera Company, has joined 
the forces of the Boston Project to 
direct opera. He succeeds Ernst 
Hoffman who, because of his success 
in Boston as a WPA musician, has 
been called to Houston, Texas, to 
direct that city's privately supported 


symphony orchestra, in its present 

To the five operas already in the 
Boston repertoire it is proposed to 
add Carmen, Pagliacci and Louis 
Gruenberg's Jack and the Beanstalk. 
Another token of the friendliness of 
the music leaders is shown in the 
fact that Mr. Gruenberg and John 
Erskine, author of the libretto, have 
cut the royalty to a very nominal 

15,000 musicians from Federal Music Project 
the classes taught and directed by Federal Music 
in songs celebrating the Christmas Season. Dur 
which voices were not raised some place in Ame 
posed chiefly of children, broadcasted from more 
continuous, the hours had been arranged to follow 
West. Besides the choral festivals Christmas I 
hundreds of regular concerts were presented in r 


In a dosen different districts of In New 

Grand Rapids, Michigan, the Christ- 
mas dawn was greeted by brass or 
woodwind quartets playing the old 
carols. The WPA band was divided 
into such sjroups, and these were 
assigned to the different sections 
from WPA headquarters at 5 A.M. 

On Christmas Eve the Grand 
Rapids Orchestra sponsored with 
the cooperation of local civic groups, 
a great community Christmas sing. 
Earlier in Christmas week the or- 
chestra divided into small groups to 
make brief appearances in the lob- 
bies of hotels and department stores. 

Jackson's WPA Orchestra, with a 
large civic chorus, presented "The 
Messiah" on D e c e m b e r 20. On 
Christmas Eve it accompanied carol- 
ers assembled about the municipal 
Christmas tree. The WPA Orches- 
tra in Lansing visited hospitals after 
appearing in the program of carols 
with groups of children. Early in 
January it participated in a perform- 
ance of Haydn's "Creation". Com- 
munity Christmas Eve singing in 
which WPA units appeared was 
heard in Detroit and Iron Mountain. 


In cooperation with the Amer- 
ican Legion, the WPA Concert Band 
in Kansas City, Kansas, presented a 
Christmas concert and pageant for 
all the school children of the city 
in Municipal Auditorium on two 
evenings Christmas week, with the 
backing of the city authorities. The 
Negro Band in this city was co- 
ordinated wnth the national carol 
program on Christmas Eve 


In New Orleans all of the white 
units of the Federal Music Project 
were massed into a group for carol 
sinijing on the Square facing City 
Hall. During the week smaller carol 
sings, led by the WPA Vocal Unit, 
took place in schools and settlements. 
The Negro units led the carol sing- 
ing at the Milne Boys' Home on 
December 24 when the new audi- 
torium of the institution was dedi- 




Po9« 9 



hundreds of thousands of children and adults in 
^achers, orchestra, band and choral leaders joined 
ours on Christmas Eve, there was no moment in 
singing of old Christmas Carols. Choruses, com- 
cities and towns. So that this singing might be 
as the activities spanned the country from East to 
f "Christmas Oratorio", Handel's "Messiah", and 


In Mississippi more than 12,000 
children in the Federal Music classes 
rehearsed Christmas carols for more 
than a month. There were two state- 
wide carol festivals during the week, 
the first on December 20, and the 
second during the late afternoon of 
Christmas Eve. 

The original plan calling for the 
major celebration on Christmas Eve 
had to be abandoned because of the 
difficulty faced in transporting chil- 
dren from the remoter rural areas 
to the various county seats. Civic 
groups and service clubs, boards of 
supervisors, aldermen and education 
cooperated in the festival plans, 
which centered in Vicksburg, Jack- 
son and Hattiesburg. 


In listing the three WPA sym- 
phony orchestras, the bands and 
choral groups, and the students en- 
rolled in the Music Project classes, 
the state director in Florida has an- 
nounced that 15,000 persons took 
active part in the Christmas week 
observances. On a state-wide sched- 
ule from Pensacola to Key West 
these musicians and choristers were 
heard about municipal Christmas 
trees in the 4 o'clock Christmas Eve 
celebration when the selected carols 
were sung. 


Mayor S. Davis Wilson presided 
at the carol festical in the court- 
yard of the City Hall in Philadelphia 
at 4:30 o'clock on Christmas Eve. 
More than three hundred singers 
were accompanied by the WPA 
Civic Symphony Orchestra and the 
WPA Concert Band. 



Early in December the symphony 
concert given by the Omaha Civic 
Orchestra at Joslyn Memorial marked 
the fifth anniversary of Omaha's 
three million dollar art museum and 
the opening of the Five States' Art 
Exhibit. The day also marked the 
first anniversary of the estabhsh- 
ment of the Federal Music Project 
in Omaha. Conductor Ernest Nordin, 
Sr. and the members of the orchestra 
were given a splendid ovation. 

The Omaha Civic Orchestra 
played seventy-one engagements dur- 
ing December, half of which were 
music appreciation concerts in 
schools. This total does not include 
radio programs. Radio programs were 
broadcasted by the Omaha Civic Of 
chestra and the colored dance or- 
chestra over radio stations KOIL and 


Four cities in Texas participated 
in the Music Project's plan for 


Christmas Eve observances. Dallas 
gave an elaborate celebration in the 
City Hall when the combined chor- 
uses from the community centers pre- 
sented carols and "The Three 
Kings", a musical play of the Nativ- 
ity. The WPA Orchestra accom- 
panied the carolers and the cantata. 
In Fort Worth the Music Project 
joined with the Recreation Depart- 
ment in presenting a Christmas pag- 
eant with a chorus of seven hundred 
voices, and both the San Antonio 
and El Paso Projects were heard in 
special programs in community cen- 


In Chicago Bach's Christmas Ora- 
torio was sung on December 20 in 
the Great Northern Theatre by the 
Illinois Philharmonic Choir, Walter 
Aschenbrenner, conductor, assisted 
by the WPA Illinois Symphony Or- 







By R. P. D. 

Each month, as news comes into 
The Baton oiEce regarding plans for 
presentations by various projects, 
these plans lead to the general im- 
pression that "this month will be the 
biggest in the California Federal 
Music Project." 

It is highly probable that we will 
be condemned for the over-use of 
superlatives in applying the above 
phrase month after month, but with 
"Pinafore" playing to capacity houses 
for the third week in Los Angeles, 
and with the premiere of Felix Bo- 
rowski's new musical, "Fernando del 
Nonscntsico", and "Chimes of Nor- 
mandy" scheduled to follow, with 
"Faust" playing in several cities and 
"Hansel and Gretel", "Coffee Can- 
tata", Debussy's "Blessed Damosel", 
Mendelssohn's "St. Paul" Oratorio 
in Northern California, and a num- 
ber of other outstanding productions, 
it seems correct to say, "this will be 
the biggest month in the California 
Federal Music Project." 

Major January programs through- 
out the state v>rill include the San 
Francisco Project's presentation of 
Bacon's "Cantata" in Oakland on 
the 14th; the "St. Paul" Oratorio 
with the Oakland Symphony Or- 
chestra and chorus on the 29th; San 
Francisco Project's Symphony Or- 
chestra in a concert at the Jewish 
center in San Francisco on January 
28th; the San Jose Orchestra with 
Joseph Cijkovsky conducting in Car- 
mel on January 8th; a series of addi- 

tional concerts to be presented on 
four different days in the schools of 
Laguna Beach, Anaheim, Hunting- 
ton Beach and FuUerton, with Leon 
Eckles conducting; Beethoven's 
"Third Symphony" on January 14th 
in San Jose, and on Januar>' 28th 
the premiere performance of Edward 
Schneider's prise winning symphonic 
poem, "Crossing the Lake"; "Hansel 
and Gretel" on January 27th, 28th, 
29th and 30th, and Bach's "Coffee 
Cantata" on January 8th, with sev- 
eral high school performances to 
follow. Debussy 's"Blessed Damosel" 
and Vaughan Williams' "Benedicite" 
will be played in various high schools 
during January and February by the 
San Diego Project, with a Symphony 
scheduled for January 11th, with 
Julius Leib conducting, and on Janu- 
ary 25 th with Modest Altschuler 

On January 8th the San Bernar- 
dino Project presented "Faust" in 
Redlands after successful presenta- 
tions on December 15 th and 16th in 
San Bernardino, and in San Diego on 
December 30th. This production will 
be brought to Los Angeles next 

month. On January 13th Supervisor 
Robinson will conduct a symphony 
concert, with Mary Elizabeth Paine 
playing Schumann's "Piano Con- 
certo", and on January 20th Karel 
Shultis will conduct the San Ber- 
nardino orchestra, with Mischa 
Gegna as cello soloist. On January 
27th Mr. Robinson will conduct the 
third of the January symphonies, 
featuring Thomas Gorton, pianist, 
playing his own concerto. 

The Santa Barbara Project will 
present Beethoven's First Symphony 
in a concert at the Minerva Club at 
Santa Maria on January 19th, with 
Irene Pavloska as guest soloist. Other 
January concerts are scheduled for 
St. Anthony's Seminary and Faulk- 
ner Memorial Gallery in Santa Bar- 

The Los Angeles Project's sched- 
ule calls for "Chimes of Normandy" 
to follow "Pinafore" into the Figu- 
eroa Playhouse, after which two of 
Felix Borowski's light operas "Fer- 
nando del Nonsentsico" and "Punch- 
inello" will follow. These will be 
conducted by Jacques Samossoud. 
San Bernardino's production of 
"Faust" will follow Mr. Borowski's 

The above is but an incomplete 
list of the outstanding productions 
for January. In addition to these, 
regular concerts will be given by Cal- 
ifornia's SLxteen projects. 

Nearly two hundred regular con- 
certs are presented each week by a 
variety of units throughout the state. 


Page 11 


By Qastone Usigli 

(Supervisor of the Oakland Federnl 
Music Project, Conductor, Composer) 

I find myself at times meditating 
upon the measure and nature of 
pleasure a layman derives from 
music, and my speculations resolve 
themselves into considerable admira- 
tion for the faculty of musical per- 
ception of those who are completely 
ignorant of the laws of musical sci- 

In fact, unlike other arts, music 
has its own laws that cannot be ap- 
prehended from mere observation of 
life surrounding us. 

Whereas Nature, with its manifold 
phenomena, furnishes clear examples 
and direct sources of inspiration to 
the poet, the painter, and to those 
who are enjoying their works, there 
is no outward experience of life to 
facilitate the "understanding" of a 
certain piece of music, or to assist 
us in that uncanny process by means 
of which the musical ideas become 
orderly arranged in our mind, their 
logical succession being subcon- 
sciously discovered. 

The "beautiful" or the "horrid" 
that music tends to express does not 
exist in nature, strictly speaking. 

Aristotle's aphorism that art is imi- 
tation of nature is already exploded 
(modern esthetics have decreed that 
art should not imitate Nature, but 
rather transform it by subjective 
presentation) . 

The most important and fecund 
relationship of art is with Nature, 
and the study of Art's essence and 
the solution of its manifold problems 
depend to a great extent upon a 
proper evaluation of said relation- 

This implies the preexistence of 
natural models for Art; but whereas 
Nature provides directly ample ma- 
terial to the inspiration of the painter 
or sculptor, as shown above, it does 
not offer any musical material proper, 
much less any definite or prearranged 
musical "system". Its manifestations 
limit themselves almost completely to 

noise and resonance; its sounds, 
rarely produced, lack orderly succes- 
sion and cannot be related to any 
musical "scale." 

Nature has originally furnished to 
man only the organs that enable him 
to perceive these rudimentary sound 
phenomena, the faculty for finding 
a stimulating enjoyment in them, and 
the desire of reproducing them. 

Man gradually developed the fac- 
ulty for arranging these sounds into 
a musical system, based upon mathe- 
matical relations and on the universal 
law of order in time called rhythm, 
which is an extra-musical element 
preexistent to music and to man 

In the first place man had knowl- 
edge of the "harmonic principle" 
much earlier than music existed in 
him as "melodic element". This har- 
monic principle is implicit in every 
musical note, which, as every musi- 
cian knows, contains the perfect 
chord, foundation of our harmonic 

Only after centuries of musical 
practice man became aware of the 
affinities, attraction, or "sympathy" 
existing between certain superim- 
positions of sounds (chords) and the 
influence that these reactions exert 
upon the creation of a melody (he 
toust have always possessed a spon- 
taneous and intuitive perception of 

There is an immense step between 
our commonplace singing in thirds 
and the monodic song of the ancient 
Greeks who, despite their learned 
and intricate system, did not know 

other forms of "accompaniment" 
than the unison and the octave. 

This third is indeed the revealed 
foundation of the harmonic sensi- 
bility of modern times. 

The harmonic substratum of a 
melody explains and justifies the co- 
existence of the various strata of 
themes in a fugue and the immense 
enjoyment that a trained ear derives 
from it. 

The principle of "unity in variety" 
is thus beautifully expressed in the 
manifold forms of sound combina- 
tion, and permits to discern the 
single elements and to blend them 
into a whole abstract representation. 
The great value of this property 
peculiar to music must have been 
sensed by that French poet who, 
listening to a Bach fugue, pleaded 
"Do help me to combine several 

The definite melodic and rhythmic 
designs that every work contains (or 
should contain) are perceived di- 
rectly through our senses while they 
are produced, and are later still pres- 
ent in our subconscious mind. As in 
the spoken language this depends en- 
tirely upon the faculty of committing 
to our memory what we have previ- 
ously heard, and associating it with 
what we are actually hearing. How- 
ever, this phenomenon is much more 
prodigious in the case of the complex 
and undetermined musical speech the 
material of which is so eminently 
abstract and mysterious to the cre- 
ator himself. 

We have thus arrived at some ele- 
mental conclusions already implied, 
namely that musical work is the 
more acceptable to the layman as its 
melodic elements are simple and 
symmetric and its harmonic support 
is built according to conventional 
and familiar patterns. 

But how extraordinary this ever 
increasing faculty of grasping higher 
and more complex forms! 

Poge 12 



-:- Scores in -r- 

San Bernardino 
San Diego 

The San Bernardino Project's presenta- 
tion of Gounod's "Faust", given two per- 
formances in San Bernardino on December 
li and 16 under the baton of Tcird Bennei, 
a performance on December 30 in San 
Diego, Vernon Robinson conducting, and 
January 8 in Redlands under the baton of 
Mr. Robinson, has received such a tremen- 
dous ovation in Southern California that 
the production is being considered for per- 
formance in Los Angeles. 

We u-ill let an authoritative music critic, 
Ruth Taunton of the San Diego Union, tell 
you of the reception accorded "Faust" in 
San Diego. 


"Since there has been a United 
States, there has ever been the prob- 
lem of how to bring the world's 
great music to the people of America 
as it is brought to all classes in Eu- 
rope. After more than 150 years, is 
the answer here? 

"Disregarding rainy weather, scores 
of San Diegans last evening filled 
the Savoy theater to capacity for a 
WPA Federal Music project produc- 
tion of Gounod's opera 'Faust". Fur- 
thermore, we were thrilled and we 
were musically edified. When it was 
over, we applauded our profound 
appreciation for Vernon Robinson, 
supervisor of the San Bernardino dis- 
trict project, and his musicians for 
having brought to us an evening of 
rare fascination. 

"Robinson, conductor, brought 
with him his orchestra of forty-six 
musicians, who gave intelligent sup- 
port to the singers consistently 
through the four acts of the opera. 
The libretto was sung in English — 

beautiful English that was a joy to 
the ear and gave the lie to any and 
all die - hards who maintain that 
grand opera is spoiled in America 
the moment we are allowed to un- 
derstand a word of what is going on. 

"Ruth LaGourgue sang the role of 
Marguerite. There was deafening ap- 
plause after her 'Jewel Song' in the 
second act. She deserved it. Miss La- 
Gourgue has a fresh, youthful voice 
of beautiful quality. Her interpreta- 
tions were artistically true through- 

"The roles of Faust and Martha 
were sung by Russell Horton and 
Beatrix Mayo. Horton's tenor voice 
was equal to the demands of the 
part and Miss Mayo's comedy was 
never overdone for what is, after all, 
a tale of deep tragedy. There was a 
smoothness to her contralto voice 
that pleased the ear. 

"An interesting member of the 
cast is Everton Stidham, not a mem- 
ber of the project, but a San Ber- 
nardino business man who cared so 

much about singing the role of Val- 
entme. Marguerite's soldier brother, 
that he volunteered his services — 
and his undoubted talent. His death 
scene in the third act was intensely 

"Personally, I specially enjoyed 
the work of Harold Lutz, who as the 
lover of Marguerite doesn't get very 
far. Other members of the cast are 
Carl Dewse, Brahm van den Berg, 
Sten Englund (who did excellent 
work as Mephisto), and Edwin 

"Warren Lewis and Julia Robin- 
son assisted in staging the produc- 
tion, which has elaborate settings 
and costumes. The story of the opera 
is familiar — an old man sells his soul 
to an evil tempter for the privilege 
of being young for a brief interval. 
In his rejuvenated state, he loves and 
brings disgrace to the young Mar- 

"And now a word about the audi- 
ence. Through the summer sym- 
phonies in Ford bowl, played by the 
San Diego Symphony orchestra and 
visiting organi;ations, and the cori' 
certs this winter of the WPA Fed- 
eral Symphony orchestra in the Sa- 
voy, local audiences are educated to 
the appreciation of much that is 
lovely in 'Faust' and which might 
have otherwise been missed. Gou- 
nod's opera is not a 'scientific' music- 
al structure — it is one of beautiful 
melody and the audience last night 
was sincerely attentive." 


Questions, Answers, 
Recorded at Forums 

Stenographic transcriptions of 
questions addressed to the composers 
whose works are performed before 
the audiences at the Composers' hor- 
um Laboratories in New York and 
Boston, and the answers of the com- 
posers are being made as a part of 
the record which will be available 
to cultural historians and critics 
writing of American music brought 
to hght by the Federal Music Project. 
These questions, which follow the 
program, generally concern them- 
selves with the composer's methods 
and mathematics, his emotional com- 
munication or esthetic persuasions. A 
first performance of William Schu- 
man's Chamber Symphony was 
heard at the New York Forum re- 
cently, and brought this interesting 
exchange between the audience and 
the composer: 

Question: Isn't your symphony 
more in the nature of a Fantaise of 
many moods? 
Answer: No! 

Question: Do you acknowledge 
the influence of any of the modern- 
ists, and, if so, which single com- 
poser has most affected your style? 
Answer: I am not aware that any 
single composer has affected my 
style. I try to borrow from each 
equally and add what I may have 
to say for myself. I have no pref- 
erence to whom I prefer. 

Later Mr. Schuman added: "I 
think all music is problematical — that 
it states in music what the composer 
is striving for — and this same thing 
can not be translated into words, so 
that I can't explain it any more than 

Young Musicians Win 
Chicago Appearances 

Winners in the competition staged 
by the Federal Music Project in co- 
operation with the Society of Amer- 
ican Musicians for Chicago appear- 
ances with the Illinois Symphony 
Orchestra have just been announced. 
They were selected from more than 
200 young Cook County musicians 
by Guy Maier, Leon Sametini and 
Shirley Gandell, adjudicators. 

Successful contestants are Maryum 
M. Horn, soprano; Berenice Jacob- 
sen, Bertha Ostrar and Alvis Horn, 
pianists, and William Faldner, vio- 

Oakland Schedules 
Bacon's "Cantata" 

A repeat performance of Ernst 
Bacon's "Cantata" has been arranged 
for January 15 at the 0:-kland Audi- 
torium, when the composer will con- 
duct the Municipal Chorus and Fed- 
eral Orchestra as guests of Gastone 
Usigh and the Oakland Project. 
Soloists again will be Anna Nettel- 
mann, soprano, and Steen Skonhoft, 

The "Cantata" (as yet unnamed) 
derives its text from Ecclesiastes, 
Genesis and Proverbs on a basic 
theme of man's small place under 
the sun, by reason of his frailty. The 
melodic line is carried broadly 
through chorales and fugues with a 
consistent counterpoint in the accom- 
paniment, thoughtfully orchestrated; 
m the solo parts it is often dramatic, 
always fresh. On first hearing, critics 
destined the work for a place of 
considerable importance in the con- 
cert repertoire. 

Pflg« 13 

Dr. Reiser Wins 

Another Contest 


Los Angeles Altschuler 


Carmel Cizkovsky 

(San Jose Orchestra) 

San Diego Leib 

San Bernardino Robinson 

Los Angeles Reiser 

San Jose Cizkovsky 

Oakland Bacon 


Santa Maria van der Voort 

(Santa Barbara Orchestra) 


San Bernardino Robinson 

Los Angeles Reiser 

Arnold Schoenberg 

Redwood City Gunderson 

(San Mateo Orchestra) 

San Diego Altschuler 

Sacramento Hodge 

San Bernardino Robinson 

Los Angeles Benner 

San Jose Cizkovsky 

San Francisco Bacon 

New York, Jan. 2— Dr. Alois Rei- 
ser, Hollywood, was today awarded 
second prize of $500 in a contest by 
the National Broadcasting Co. for 
the best original chamber music 

By Dr. Alois Reiser 

(Symphony Conductor, Los Angeles Project) 

My String Quartet, for which a 
prize was recently presented to me 
by the National Broadcasting Com- 
pany, was started in 1925. When 
the first movement was nearly com- 
pleted, I lost the manuscript on the 
subway in New York City. Feehng 
very disheartened, and with only my 
memory to serve me, I started fever- 
ishly working the next morning. 
After a few hours of intensive con- 
centration, I found I could remem- 
ber most of the movement. Within 
twenty- four hours I had rewritten 
the first movement. 

On account of my position at the 
time — I was musical director of the 
Strand Theatre — it took me two 
years to finish the other three move- 

This particular score I rewrote in 
1933, for in re-reading it I found it 
could stand considerable improve- 
ment. When I presented it to the 
National Broadcasting Company for 
judging, it was in its present, chang- 
ed form. I was greatly honored to 
have had my work selected for sec- 
ond prize out of six hundred works 

I have received five prizes for my 

First: In 1909 from the Art Soci- 
ety, Pittsburgh, Penn., for a string 
trio for violin, cello and piano. 

Second: In 1916 from the First 
Chamber Music Fesrival in Pittsfield, 
Mass., sponsored by Mrs. Elizabeth 
Sprague Coolidge, for string quartet 
in E Minor. 

Third: In 1918 from the New 
York Philharmonic Society for the 
Prelude from my grand opera 

Fourth: In 1932 from the Holly- 
wood Bowl Association, for Con- 
certo for cello and orchestra. 

Fifth: In 1937 from the National 
Broadcasting Company for String 

Page 14 



Two principal aims of the Federal 
Music Project, the presentation of 
resident artists and the introduction 
of new music, have been fulfilled by 
the San Francisco unit during its 
first year of operation, according to 
a survey released recently from the 
office of Ernst Bacon, Supervisor. 

Eighteen pianists, cellists, violin- 
ists, and players of woodwinds have 
been presented from within the proj- 
ect, as well as nineteen singers. Guest 
artists were: Patricia Benkman, Mar- 
cus Gordon, Elena Hitchcock, 
Charles Myers, LiUian Steuber, Dr. 
Hans Leschke, Doris Ballard, BJta 
Lorraine and Frances Weiner. 

Six guest conductors accepted in- 
vitations to direct the symphony 
orchestra: Modest Altschuler, H. Ar- 
thur Brown, Albert Elkus, Richard 
Lert, Alois Reiser, and Frederick 
Preston Search. 

Three different string quartets, a 
trio, and other groups have presented 
chamber music ranging from Loeillet 
to Prokofieff. 

Under the direction of Ernst Ba- 
con the symphony orchestra has 
played 107 works of 47 composers, 
including all the Beethoven sym- 
phonies, e.\cept the Fifth and Ninth, 
three Mojart concerti for piano, 
flute, and bassoon, and six major 
works of Bach including three violin 

The chorus, under the direction of 
Giuho Silva, has presented major 
works: Bach's "Christmas Oratorio" 
and "Magnificat", Beethoven's "The 
Mount of Olives", Bizet's Excerpts 
from "Carmen", Gluck's "Orpheus", 
Act III, Handel's Excerpts from 
"The Messiah", Mendelssohn's "St 
Paul", Monteverdi's "Orfeo", Acts 
I and II, Palestrina's "Missa Brevis", 
Pergolesi's "Stabat Mater", Giulio 
Silva's "Mass of the Blessed Virgin", 
and Randall Thompson's "Ameri- 

First performances have been 
given to "Take Your Choice", by 
Bacon -Mathias-Stoll; Ernst Bacon's 
"Cantata" and "Country Roads, Un- 
paved"; Lou Harrison's two piano 
sonatas; "American Rhapsodic", cel- 
lo concerto, and "Exhilaration", by 
Frederick Preston Search; Giulio 
Silva's "Mass of the Blessed Virgin", 
and "Sonata for Piano and Orches- 
tra", by Tomo Yagodka. 

Aside from the seven project mem- 
bers who have had their works pre- 
sented in concert, ten other Ameri- 
can composers have been represented 
on Federal Music Project programs 
in San Francisco. They are: Hoyle 
Carpenter, Albert Elkus, Ray Green, 
Howard Hanson, Lou Harrison, 
Robert McBride, John Harlow Mills, 
Alois Reiser, Randall Thompson, 
and Mark Wessel. 

Musical "Tour" Taken San Diego Presents 
By San Jose Students "Hansel and Gretei" 

"The Trip Around the World," 
an idea in which the music of vari- 
ous countries is played, has been pre- 
sented in several schools near San 
Jose recently by the concert orches- 
tra of that project. Leo Sullivan, 
assistant, conceived the idea, which 
was rearranged and presented by 
Joseph Cizkovsky, supervisor. 

As many as eight schools have en- 
thusiastically received this travelogue 
in one week recently. The idea was 
endorsed by local educators in Santa 
Clara, Coyote, Los Gatos, and sev- 
eral other towns near San Jose. 

The children of these schools re- 
ceived a pleasant and educational 
entry to other countries via the 
world's best composers. 

"Hansel and Gretei" will be pre- 
sented by the San Diego Project in 
the Savoy Theatre of that city for 
four performances on January 27, 
28, 29 and 30. Carmen Conger and 
Genevieve Roberts play the roles of 
Hansel and Gretei respectively. Dor- 
othy Starbird will portray the part of 
the Witch, while Charles Cannon 
and Ehsabeth Clarke play the roles 
of Father and Mother. 

The production, which is under 
the general direction of Julius Leib, 
was originally scheduled for late in 
December, but was changed because 
of the Hohdays. 





By Zarh Bickford 
(Teacher of Conducting, Los 
Angeles Federal Music Project) 

It IS impossible to state exactly 
when the baton was first used to 
conduct a musical performance, but 
Ludwig Spohr's Autobiography 
states tnat he produced his baton 
and msisted on standing in front of 
the London Philharmonic Society 
when he conducted his series of con- 
certs in the year 1820. Prior to this 
time it had been the usual custom 
for the conductor to sit at the piano 
of that day, the harpsichord, playmg 
a few notes occasionally if thmgs 
went too far astray, but dependmg 
very largely on the leader (our pres- 
ent concert-master) to keep the play- 
ers together and to set the tempi. 

This mnovation, apparently intro- 
duced pubhcly by Spohr, gradually 
became the popular and proper thing 
until Mendelssohn, in 1844, con- 
ducted a complete series of concerts 
and Signor Costa was made the per- 
manent conductor of this London 
orchestra in 1846. 

From this time on the baton has 
been almost universally used, Men- 
delssohn and von Weber having 
made it popular in Germany and 
various parts of Europe. 

It was not long after this method 
of conducting became popular that 
real interpretation began to show in 
orchestral performances and virtuoso 
conductors developed, such as Ber- 
hos, Liszt, and Wagner, all of whom 
excelled particularly in interpreta- 
tions of their own works. 

Orchestra Retains 
Dismissed Members 

An example of the devotion WPA 
musicians have shown towards their 
work was evidenced in Richmond, 
Va., when a recent order, since 
amended, called for dropping five 
members of the Virginia Symphony 
Orchestra. The remaining members 
held a meeting and by vote agreed 
to donate i-ne day's salary a month 
to retain the dismissed musicians so 
that the orchestra would not suffer. 


Poge 15 




Continued fron Page l-tve 

during their lifetime, even it there 
were many who opposed them. 
What stood in their way often 
helped them to become great. 

Ihe gitted artist's developing into 
greatness grows out of the continued 
use of his powers; the natural 
growth of his technique and art is 
the result of his being drafted as 
It were by the incessant demands of 
his visible and invisible audience and 
pubhc. He is a human being, not a 
demi-god, with human needs and 
desires, m healthy mtercourse and 
relationship with his fellow - men. 
fie is much more important than 
any performers, be they ever so 
gifted. The art-works of the past 
should never be allowed to crowd 
the hving composers off the stage. 
I'oday, creative music has lost the 
mcentive of immediate performance, 
while concerts have become musty 
as museums. The same two dozen 
symphonies, concertos and operas 
are reperformed with a regularity 
which spells death to the enjoyment 
of them. Concert-attending, listening 
to music has been transformed into 
a pastime of conscious and uncon- 
scious snobbery. Conductor-worship 
and artist - worship, the incessant 
bombardment from the ether, all 
have contributed to the decadence 
of creative music. 

A reconstruction must be at- 
tempted, composers must again be- 
come more important than perform- 
ers, compositions more necessary 
than performances. Symphony and 
opera societies should spend more of 
their funds on commissions to tal- 
ented composers, instead of on stale 
concert-celebrities and conductors. 

This might be a guiding line for 
Federal Music Projects too! En- 
courage the performance of new 

Sophia Samorukova, soprano with 
the San Francisco Federal Music 
Project, sang the leading feminine 
role in two performances of Glinka's 
opera "A Life for the Tsar," pre- 
sented by the Russian Music Society 
December 12 and January 5 at the 
Tivoli Theatre. This was the first 
time the work had been given in 

Questions pert^uning to mttsii' or any 
piiuse of Federal Mnsic Project activities 
util be answered in this department. 

Communications should not exceed 100 


I like The Baton very much, par- 
ticularly your new one. Please accept 
hearty congratulations from one who 
IS herself responsible for two bul- 
letins and knows something of the 
work that goes into each issue. 

I find that I did not receive the 
first number. As I will want to keep 
them on file, and possibly bind them, 
can I get that number? 

Naturally I am very much in sym- 
pathy with the Music Project, and I 
wish you the greatest success in your 
particular phase of the work. 
Jessica M. Fredricks, 
Music Department, 
San Francisco Public Library 


I saw in "The Baton", the Works 
Progress A d m i n i s t ration Music 
monthly, that a Mr. William G. 
Stewart is working on a Music Proj- 
ect and I, as an intimate friend of 
thirty - six years standing of Mr. 
Stewart, would ask you to be good 
enough to give me his address. 

Thanking you in advance for your 
kindness, I remain 

Hans S. Linne, 

San Francisco, Calif. 

P. S. You need not be afraid that 
I am a process-server or sheriff dep- 
uty — any one in the Beaux Arts 
Building knows me. 


I am glad to have made you laugh 
— a laugh is worth a dozen "mis- 
takes", if that is the heading my 
comment upon the story quoted from 
The Baton comes under. (Mrs. 
Moody had referred to an article 
in the "Sharps and Flats" column as 
being "interesting, if true — and 
probably isn't". Authority for the 
quotation was forwarded to her.) 

It has been my pleasure to give 

space m the column under my by. 
line to help in my small way the 
work of the Federal Music Project. 
Personally, I am convinced that the 
valuable work of the Federal Music 
Project is directly responsible for 
this new era of Democracy in music 
— something America needs. 

Sally Brown Moody, 
Music Critic, 
San Diego Union 


I wish to thank you most heartily 
for the recent issue of The Baton. 
I have read this magazine from cover 
to cover with the greatest interest, 
and congratulate you most heartily 
on this wonderful success. 
Thaddeus Rich, 
Assistant to the Director, 
Federal Music Project 


Our library has recently received 
a copy of The Baton for December, 
1936. Will you kindly send copies of 
the preceding issues and place our 
name on the mailing list to receive 
future numbers as they are pub- 
lished? They will be indeed a great 
value to our staff members. 
Virginia Breen, 
Research Librarian, 
Works Progress Administration 
Washington, D. C. 


I have seen several copies of The 
Baton. You are doing a real piece 
of work, and you deserve a lot of 

You have an article in your last 
issue about one of my projects in 
Wisconsin, "Eau Claire." 

Could I ask you to place me on 
your mailing list, and could I also 
ask for about 40 copies of the last 
issue, for use on the project? 
E. J. Sartell, 

State Technical Supervisor, 
Wisconsin Federal Music Project 

Page 16 


An enthusiastic lady once heard Max Reager play the 
piano part in Schubert's "Trout Quintet" so beautifully 
that she sent him some trout next day for dinner. 

Reager wrote her a note of thanks, in which he re- 
marked that at his next appearance he would, with her 
permission, take the hberty of playing Haydn's "Ox 

Z X z 

Leonard Liebling once re- 
lated in the Musical Courier 
an amusing story about 
Fritz Kreisler. 

The great violinist was 
doing his very best for the 
Sultan of Turkey, the veiled 
women, and the befezsed 
courtiers, when suddenly the 
Sultan smote loudly upon 
his hands, and the more the 
fiddler played the harder the 
Sultan clapped. 

Flattered, Kreisler was 
about to break into Pagan- 
ini's twenty - four caprices 
and play them without pause 
when the Sultan's right- 
hand man jumped to Kreis- 
ler's side, grasped the violin, 
and whispered hoarsely, "In 
the name of Smyrna rugs 
and Damascus dates, do you 
wish to lose your head? 
Don't you hear His Majesty 

"Well, what of it?" 

"What of it! The Sultan 
is giving you the signal to 


Rossini wrote his "Barber 
of Seville" in a fortnight, 
after Mascagni had boasted 
of composing his opera, "Lo- 
doletta", in one hundred 
days. When Donizetti heard 
of Rossini's feat he re- 
marked sarcastically, "I al- 
ways thought he was a lazy 
fellow." XXX 

Amy Fay relates the following incident about Liszt 
in her book, "Music-study in Germany": "One day 
when I was playing, I made too much movement with 
my hand in a rotary sort of passage where it was diffi- 
cult to avoid it." 

" 'Keep your hand still, Fraulein,' said Liszt, "don't 
make omelet." " 

"He touched his harp, 
and nations heard, 

As some vast river of 
unfailing source; 

Rapid, exhaustless, 
deep, his numbers 

And opened new foun- 
tains in the human 

— Pollock 

"Those citizens who are interested in the welfare of 
San Bernardino will see to it that they are in weekly 
attendance of the symphony concerts presented here, 
and that they interest themselves to the extent of bring- 
ing their friends. The local symphony orchestra of the 
Federal Music Project is one of the finest in the State." 
Editorial, San Bernardino Sun. 
z z z 

"The Federal Music Proj- 
ect orchestra of San Diego 
is something to be genuinely 
enjoyed. No one who loves 
music, as music, will make 
a mistake in attending these 
concerts and discovering 
what Mr. Leib and his play- 
ers are accomplishing. It 
means symphonic music for 
San Diego that is as fine as 
any in the state and deserves 
the support of every San 

Havrah Hubbard, 
San Diego Union. 


"The Marin County cham- 
ber ensemble should do 
much to revive forgotten, 
worth-while works. It is one 
of the finest in the state, and 
one hopes that it will have 
imitators both in and out of 
the Federal Music Project." 
Alfred Frankenstein, 
San Francisco Chronicle. 


"In many of Ernst Bacon's 
works there are passages 
that suggest that he is one 
of the most important tal- 
ents among the young school 
of American composers. 
Without a doubt Bacon's 
creative talent is extraordi- 

Alexander Fried, 

San Francisco Examiner. 


"I do not remember ever having witnessed such wld 
enthusiasm as has occured several times at these concert.^ 
And this enthusiasm was genuine. The Works Progre.f 
Administration orchestra here is certainly one of tho 
finest in California, and is giving us a chance to hear 
nev.- music and music'ans new to us, including players. 
soloisls, and C(;nductors." 

Francis Kendig, 

Los Angeles Saturday N'ght. 





<^^ te 








HARRY HOPKINS, Nationol AAninistratOf 



LOFF, Notionol DIfector 

aiEN S WOODWARD, Assistont Administrotof 

Vol 2 

February, 1937 

No 2 




State Director 

In my last trip axound California, 
I was so glad to see that men and 
women are happy and vitally inter- 
ested in their work. They look con- 
tented and unworried and seem per- 
fectly satisfied to continue in the 
work which has brought them to this 
point. Of course, this is a splendid 
result of the Music Program and one 
which only interesting and successful 
work can bring about. 

But, are musicians in their con- 
tentment forgetting that the Federal 
Music Project is a relief program 
which has been estabHshed to pro- 
vide support for musicians until they 
can again obtain private employ- 

The government has done every- 
thing possible to create a place for 
the musician in American life. All 
its efforts have been directed toward 
that purpose. All that has been ac- 
complished this year has been just a 
means to a definite end. The inten- 
sive training, the development of or- 
chestral and choral groups, the 
school concerts, the recreation work, 
the regular symphony concerts, the 
operas, all have been offered the 
pubUc to create a need for good 
music and eventually a permanent 
place for musicians. 

What is the musician doing to 
help the government accomplish its 
purpose? Quite a few have obtained 
jobs with symphonies, theatre and 
dance orchestras. However, if some 
have been offered outside positions 
and have refused them, fearing they 
would not get back on the project if 
the job ceased, it should be remem- 




Beaux Arts Building 

Los Angelo, Calif. 



By Harle jervis . . . . 



By Dr. Nikolai Sokolojf 





By Olin Dounes . . . 



By MudesI Ahschuler 



By Joseph Danysh 



By Felix Borowlii . . 



By Ernest Montana 















By Emit Bacon . . . . 


bered that in reahty that position 
may be as secure as one on the Music 
Project. There probably are a great 
many musicians, on the other hand, 
who have sat in rehearsal day after 
day, complacent and contented and 
so have made httle effort to obtain 
private employment. Certainly this 
is a short-sighted atritude to take. 
Are we so certain the Music Project 
will continue indefinitely that we 
may sit back and refuse outside jobs 
or make no effort to obtain them? 

Wouldn't the far-sighted musician 
say, "The government has helped 
me, how about helping myself," and 
he would be wise to look about and 
make connections which he could 
be glad of in the future. 

The Employment Division is do- 
ing everything possible to find out- 
side work for musicians, but it is 
the responsibility of every person to 
help. Contentment is very well until 
it results in complacency and inac- 
tion. Musicians must stir themselves 
out of their years of lethargy and 
make people feel they are ahve and 
eager to take their places in this 
great forward movement. Fear of 
competition, fear of insecurity, fear 
of hfe, never made for achievement 
or happiness. Perhaps some day the 
government will see fit to sponsor 
the Arts in a permanent program, 
but right now no matter how suc- 
cessful our concerts are, no matter 
how much the public appreciates us, 
we will never achieve the ultimate 
hope of this program unless musi- 
cians go back in increasing numbers 
to private employment. 

This magazine was printed through the courtesy of a private organization which contributed its equipment 
for the furtherance of Federal Music Project activities. 


Page 3 



By Dr. Nikolai Sokolojf 

(National Director, Federal Music Project) 

I am glad of the opportunity to 
talk with you men and women in 
whose keeping rests in so great a 
measure the future of music in the 
United States — and in a degree, per- 
haps unsuspected by all of you, of 
music in the world. 

I want to tell you frankly of the 
scope and activities, the policies and 
achievements, and of the social in- 
tentions and the philosophy of the 
Works Progress Administration's to 
reclaim and rehabilitate the skills and 
aptitudes of those professional musi- 
cians who lost their jobs in the re- 
cent tragic years. You all know the 
story; how employment vanished un- 
der the double impact of advances 
in sound producing technics and the 
economic depression. All of us are 
aware that our skills as musicians 
are subject to deterioration more 
rapidly than those of other profes- 
sional workers, and, because we are 
musicians, we possess a sensitivity 
more acute, perhaps, than other 'folk, 
a quality which is both a blessing 
and a hability. This quality of sensi- 
tiveness is less protected against the 
blows of economic misfortune and it 
exposes the possessor more openly to 
transitions in morale. 

More than 17,000 musicians came 
to the Federal Music Project for 
retraining and for the chance to keep 
bodies and souls together within 
their craft and aptitude. Many of 
them were bitterly skeptical. Their 
morale was lamentably low. They 
were convinced they were failures, 
set adrift through no fault of their 
own from the main current of so- 

These m u s i c i a n s responded 
promptly, however, when they were 
convinced that honest standards of 
musicianship were expected of them, 
and that persons found to be un- 
equipped to earn a living within the 
skill of the musician were to be 

transferred to other agencies of re- 
lief as quickly as possible. 

There was further uplift of the 
spirit when these men and women 
learned also that they were expected 
to return a value to their commu- 
nities. And this is a point I want 
to emphasize as strongly as I can. 
From the first, and as an integral 
part of the national plan, the con- 
sideration of making this cultural re- 
turn has been a guiding one with 
the administration of the Federal 
Music Project. The effort was in- 
tended to so engage the interest of 
communities that music would be re- 
tained or introduced as a part of 
permanent civic programs, and mu- 
sicians thus would find security in 

During the fifteen months that 
these projects have been functioning 
as a part of Works Progress Admin- 
istration Project No. 1 for the Four 
Arts, these musicians have given 
more than 62,000 programs and per- 
formances in 42 states; they have 
taken instruction in music to hun- 
dreds of thousands of the under- 
privileged and to the reHef popula- 
tion; they have devised new texts 
and technics for musical training in 
remote rural areas and they have 
carried the message, inspiration and 
solace of music to a greater audience 
than America had ever known be- 

Compilations in Washington show 
that since January 1, 1936, these 
audience figures reached the almost 
unbelievable total of 50,000,000 per- 
sons. . . . 

Now if you will permit, I will say 
just a few words on the amazing 
amount of creative talent brought to 
light by the encouragement to Amer- 
ican composers, and then I shall get 
on to that part of my talk in which 
you as educators may have a larger 
interest. A compilation made in the 
Analyses Unit of our Project in 
Washington listed on December 23 
more than 3,500 original composi- 
tions by 1,373 native composers or 
composers now residing in the 
United States. 

Rubin Goldmark used to tell a 
story of an occasion when one of his 
works was performed in Carnegie 
Hall. Following the performance, in 
response to the applause, he arose 
and made a bow. A woman was 
heard to say to her neighbor, "Who 
is that bowing in the box?" Upon 
being told it was the composer, she 
replied in astonishment, "Why, I 
thought all composers were dead!" 

Well, from the number of Amer- 
ican compositions played by WPA 
units, it is pretty clear that about a 
thousand of them are alive and work- 
ing. Of course, these programs in- 
clude many American composers 
who have been known for years, 
some performances going back to the 
American music writers of the 18th 
century. I wonder how many of you 
know that 38 American symphonies 
have been heard since October 1935? 
Frankly I was not aware a year ago 
that our native symphonic literature 
was so large. 

There is a drift and a trend and 
an opulent new texture in American 
music that may be very significant. 

Of course many of these works, 
perhaps the great majority of these 
new American compositions, may not 
stand the test of time, or even re- 
peated performance. There have 
been thousands of European com- 

Conlinued on Pjgc FouTlttn 

Page 4 



By Olin Dowries 

(Music Editor, New Yori Tj 

It has long been recognized that 
a great need of the American com- 
poser was a practical laboratory for 
expenmental scoring and for hearing 
his works. In Europe, at least in 
years antedating the present disor- 
dered conditions, a composer who 
had shown reasonable talent and in- 
dustry in perfecting himself in ex- 
pression was quickly given the test 
of a hearing. American composers 
were much less fortunate. Until very 
recently they had few opportunities 
of hearing their music, discovering 
their weaknesses, and profiting by 
the experience. But the situation is 
rapidly changing for the better. One 
of the most promising of these de- 
velopments has taken place under 
the auspices of the music division 
of the WPA, a development which 
goes by the name of the Composers' 
Forum Laboratory. 

This institution affords real labora- 
tory work for American composers, 
in an eminently useful and practical 
way. There are sufficient musical 
forces available to provide any com- 
poser (whose works are considered) 
with such performers as his score 
requires. He can hear his song, a 
piano composition, work for chamber 
or large orchestra, or choral works. 
With these resources the Composers' 
Forum pursues its activities, which 
have had a decidedly stimulating ef- 
fect in encouraging our young mu- 
sicians to create and develop. 

The performances reveal as no 
mere paper work ever could the 
actual value and actual weaknesses, 
if such exist, of their music. They 
also subject that music, on the spot, 
to critical discussion by the com- 
poser, by his colleague who may be 
present, or by any curious and crit- 
ical person in the audience. 

The composer comes on the scene, 
as it were, well documented. A 
printed page or more gives the lead- 
ing facts of his career, his training, 
his general artistic objectives, and 
on occasion facts about the composi- 
tion to be performed. It is then 
played, with the audience in posses- 
sion of this information, after which 

the composer is often subjected to 
(rank and brutal treatment. 

The composer, for his part, has 
ample opportunity of explaining his 
work and answering objections that 
may be removed by such explana- 
tions of purpose and procedure. The 
audience matches minds and ears 
and conversations. The thing is done 
seriously. The compositions played 
are by American composers of all 
kinds, grades and ages. Composers 
of reputation already established are 
called upon to furnish material for 
the programs. Young experimenters, 
who may not even have found their 
feet, technically speaking, are given 
opportunity to know themselves ui 
the thorough practice of their art. 
Records of these events and the dis- 
cussions are kept. They are illumina- 
tive of the seriousness of the discus- 

Sometimes, apparently, the com- 
poser desired only that his music 
should be played, without attempt 
to otherwise designate his artistic 
purposes. But on the advance notices 
of the program and under the signa- 
ture of Ashley Pettis, who directs 
these events, are blank Unes, with 
an accompanying direction printed 
above them, for the reader to write 
in the questions he wishes to ask of 
the composer, which will be an- 
swered after the concert. Criticisms 
also reach the composer in written 
form, thus: 

"Your songs are without form. No 
melody in them. Your string quartet 
is too modern, too dissonant. I dp 
not like it." 

To which the composer humbly 
replied, "Indeed I will try to make 
better music." 

This composer was reputed to be 

' Prom the New York Time 

an atonalist, and therefore not lo 
believe in any key relationships .is 
thus far conceived by the public 
mind. He was asked to "define tne 
esthetic value of atonahty." 

His answer was surprismg, "'I don't 
think that it exists as such. How can 
anything be atonal? That is only a 
relative question, of course. We are 
around a tonal center. It is as though 
we hved in a tone center — we may 
stop in byways but we know that 
we will really get home. . . . Take 
the chromatic scale. What key is it 
in? There isn't any key unless you 
start on some particular note. ... It 
seems to me that there are a great 
many passing tonaUties — which, is 
not to be determined." Atonahty, he 
went on, was a misnomer. It is only 
"a very developed form of decidedly 
classical things." 

Or another composer is asked, 
"Can you explain why it is pleasant 
to hsten to your newness?" 

With entire seriousness the man 
of music seats himself at the piano 
and says, "I don't know. I could 
have a guess that it is this: that the 
actual harmonic material I use is 
not dissonant for its own sake, as I 
prefer using chords that have a 
beautiful sound to the ear, although 
I may place them in relationship that 
is not consciously conventional. 
(Seats himself at the piano and il- 
lustrates.) The beginning of the Fi- 
nale of the Piano-Suite (plays). This 
is all perfectly straight chord-writ- 
ing (illustrates). Perhaps this might 
seem strange to you on first hearing 
(illustrates). These are all perfectly 
analyzable chords. See? (illustrates). 
And most of them have the triad 
relationship somewhere inside of 

A lady modernist was asked, 
"Would you sing your baby to sleep 
with your 'berceuse' for piano?" The 
reply was pat. "A modern baby? 
Yes! Why not?" 

The purposes of this Forum, now 
operating in New York and also in 
Boston and Chicago, were well syn- 
thesized by Dr. Pettis in an opening 

Continued on Pdfi Sbmn 


Page 5 


By Modest Altschuler 

(Conductor, Los Angeles Federal Music Project) 

The little-known side of a con- 
ductor's life makes quite an interest- 
ing picture for those unfamiliar with 

To begin with, a conductor has 
only his baton, strictly speaking. He 
has no opportunity to test his lead- 
ership ability until he stands in front 
ot an orchestra, and it is then that 
he begins to discover how much he 
doesn't know! 

Other than his baton, however, 
the conductor knows how to follow 
a certain routine in order to secure 
desired results. These he must secure 
with his baton. The musical score 
before him becomes a chess board. 
Each instrument in the orchestra is 
a paun. Just as a conductor can hear 
a score before it is played, so he 
prepares the game of chess before 
he mounts the podium. 

What happens? The conductor 
has everything in his vision. The 
musicians, if the orchestra is medi- 
ocre, become obstacles to the con- 
ductor, and every time he moves a 
paun he steps on the feet of another 
paun. Confusion and distortion be- 

An experienced conductor, know- 
ing the psychology of an orchestral 
body, will avoid this. He knows that 
no two players have come to the 
rehearsal with the same mental atti- 
tude. A violinist has had a quarrel 
with his wife, another has a bad 
cold, one of the woodwinds has a 
gas bill he is unable to meet, the 
harpist has just lost her sweetheart, 
and so on. The conductor, there- 
fore, is dealing with a grouo of prob- 
lems, and he who knows this meets 
the situation and handles it with 

Assuming that the conductor 

passes the first rehearsal satisfac- 
torily, and gives his orchestra the 
proper interpretation, this same 
group after the rehearsal goes out 
into a world of personal problems 
and forgets what it has just learned. 

Many conductors tear their hair 
in dispair, and wave their batons 

My own conviction is that ninety- 
nine percent of the conductors are 
at fault if things do not go right, 
for what a great conductor can do 
with human strings spiritually is al- 
most unbelievable. Keeping them in 
this spiritual mood is the conductor's 
greatest problem. 

Most laymen think the baton is 
only a stick with which to mark time, 
but what a wrong impression this is! 
The baton, in the conductor's hand, 
is as a bow to the violinist, command- 
ing many degrees of tone shadings, 
many interpretations, many spiritual 
moods, but the ability to thus handle 
the baton comes only after long years 
of training. A straight beat never 
brings shadings. 

What is the mystery of the baton? 
In New York I conducted an orches- 
tra of 250 players. At one place in 
the score, I made a very slight move- 
ment of the baton, a delicate accent, 
and 250 musicians responded as one. 

A conductor must enhance the 
musicians. He must recapture the 
feelings each musician had when he 
was studying. If the conductor 

knows how to properly handle his 
musicians, they then give themselves 
up to the conductor. 

Whereas the eyes of the individual 
players do not affect the conductor 
durmg a rehearsal or performance, 
the conductor's eyes have signifi- 
cance for the players. He must co- 
operate with his eyes. They must be 
dreamy, inspirational, must retain the 
mood of the composition. 

What the conductor and orchestra 
have in common is intercourse of hu- 
man strings. The orchestra, through 
the conductor, must portray the in- 
ner feelings of the composer, must 
reflect precisely what the composer 
meant by the composition. The com- 
posers are of different blood, of dif- 
ferent heredities and environments. 
If the conductor plays Russian music, 
he must become Russian; French, he 
should be French, etc. 

The biggest thing is to get the 
composer's interpretation, and not the 
conductor's. One famous conductor 
always puts the composer second; 
another great contemporary gets on 
his knees and begs the orchestra to 
play according to score, "I did not 
write it, Beethoven wrote it!" 

There are the two types of con- 
ductorship; true interpretation of the 
original score, and showmanship. 

Music is spiritual. To achieve this 
spiritual quality from a body of mu- 
sicians is difficult, but the audience 
should be enchanted with the one- 
ness of the orchestral sound as of 
some one great artist. 

Those who stand before an or- 
chestra and beat time can be made 
conductors; but great conductors 
with the instinct of dynamic leader- 
ship and the ability to play on hu- 
man strings must be born. 

Page 6 



By Joseph A. Danysh 

(Regional Director, federal Art Pro/ectJ 

In the past the word "hteracy" has 
always been defined as a working 
knowledge of the three R's, and the 
percentage of hteracy of a country's 
population has been taken, and 
rightly, as a pretty sound index of 
the cultural level of that country. 

Nowadays, more and more, 
thoughtful people are coming to real- 
ize that this definition no longer 
serves. Today the abihty to read, 
write and cypher cannot be accepted 
as sufficient proof of the hteracy of 
an individual or a nation. 

Today in a vastly refined and com- 
plex world, much more is needed. To 
be truly hterate, in the new sense 
of the word, it is necessary that an 
individual be aware of the spuntual 
overtones, so to speak, of his own 
group and of the groups with which 
he comes in contact. He must be 
able to assess and evaluate, to dis- 
tinguish the authentic from the false, 
sincenty from charlatanry, truth and 
beauty — at least an honest attempt 
to portray truth and beauty — from 
untruth and ugliness. 

How is this new literacy to be 
obtained? How can its dissemination 
throughout a people best be accom- 
plished? These are vital questions. 

One of the basic principles of edu- 
cation is, that to become truly edu- 
cated in a given field it is not enough 
to read about it or hear about it; a 
sound background of living, personal 
experience in that field is the prime 
requisite, the sine qua non. 

Granted the necessity for building 
a cultural as well as a factual literacy, 
how is this necessary cultural back- 
ground to be provided? 

Obviously in this country, the only 
agencies which have even attempted 
to deal with this problem are those 
provided by the Federal No. 1 Proj- 
ects. In the past fifteen months tre- 
mendous strides have been taken by 
all four of these projects. I propose 
to examine in some detail, the ways 
in which the Federal Art Project is 

advancing the cause of hteracy m 

The best way to do this, I beheve, 
IS to present a few case histories and 
see how they meet the terms of the 
problem as stated. 

CASE I. One of California's 
teacher -training mstitutions decides 
to avail Itself of the services of the 
Federal Art Project and obtain a 
mural decoration for its trammg- 
school library. The space is measured 
and photographed; designs are made 
and submitted by several artists; one 
design is accepted by the sponsor 
and receives the approval of the 
supervisors, advisory committee and 
art commission; work is started. 

Every step in the creation of a 
fresco is carried out under the ob- 
servation of the children and prac- 
tice teachers. They get acquainted 
with the artist, watch him draw his 
design on the wall. Some of them 
pose for the figures in the picture. 
They watch the first little square of 
plaster put on the wall, paints mixed 
and painting begun to the accom- 
paniment of "Why do you do this?" 
"How do you do that?" "When are 
you going to do the other?" 

It is a fascinating and fruitful ex- 
perience for the artist as well as for 
the children. When, after several 
months of friendly acquaintance the 
mural is completed and dedicated, 
and the artist departs, the children 
are generally sorry to see him go. 

And the immediate fruits of this 
episode? The children, enthused by 
their admiration for the artist and 
his work, and fortified with the 
knowledge they have gained from 

watchmg him work and questioning 
mm, start painting tiieir own murals 
— antl very nne murals they are, too. 

It would be labormg tne point to 
ask how tnis compares m value witn 
any number of courses m "The Ap- 
preaation of Art IB. " 

Although not directly germane to 
the problem it would be a mistake 
to leave this case without some men- 
tion of the reciprocal gain to tlie 
artist. He has painted a picture 
where it will be seen and appreci- 
ated by hundreds of admiring young- 
sters daily. In the process of painting 
It he has made tnends and experi- 
enced the satisfactions inherent m 
satisfying the curiosity ot eager, in- 
quiring young minds. The whole 
process, m short, has been a rich and 
mutually beneficial cultural experi- 

How much better than if he had 
painted his picture alone, in the pro- 
verbial garret, looked on askance by 
his acquamtances as an eccentric 
"long hair", too lazy to do an honest 
day's work and probably a trifle 
cracked. And how much better to 
have his finished picture where it 
will be seen and enjoyed daily than 
to have it (if he is phenomenally 
lucky) purchased by some wealthy 
collector to be exhibited occasionally 
to his bored and blase acquaintances 
and then stored in the hope that it 
will increase in value and can some- 
day be sold to another collector at 
a handsome profit! 

CASE II. Since Case I concerned 
the experience of a young artist in 
the field of child education, we will 
take for the second, the experience 
of an older artist in the field of adult 
education. This, parenthetically, is a 
field which is getting more and more 
serious attenrion from educators the 
country over. 

The artist in this instance is a man 
of many years experience with an 
estabUshed reputation. A man of 

ConlmiiciJ on Page £igfit(en 


Page 7 



By Fe/ix Borowsh' 

(World Famous Composer) 


It is being said frequently these 
days that opera is moribund. The 
impresarios, who are more hkely to 
know than any other people, put 
their fingers on the public pulse and 
profess that they are satisfied that 
opera is still alive. A slight touch of 
anemia in the region of the box- 
office, they admit, may occasionally 
be found, but taking the operatic 
constitution as a whole, it is as 
healthy as it has been for the last 
two hundred years or So. As this is 
a somewhat qualified statement there 
would seem to be room for enquiry 
as to why the question of diagnosis 
should come up at all. As a commer- 
cial enterprise it is generally con- 
ceded that opera more frequently in- 
volves deficits than profits; that costs 
of production are far too large and 
general public patronage far too 
small . The lack of balance between 
production and patronage is respon- 
sible for the anemia in the sales de- 
partment that worries the impre- 
sarios. What, they cry, can be done 
about it? 

Production means rent of expen- 
sive theaters, costly scenery, numer- 
ous stagehands, large orchestra, enor- 
mous fees to singers — and such items 
are merely the outstanding factors 
in operatic expense. There are many 
others. In order to meet such outlay 
there must be very large public at- 
tendance on the performances and, 
necessarily, the price of the tickets 
the public buys must be higher than 
the price of tickets for other shows. 
The latter circumstance eliminates a 
multitude of patrons who, nursing 
an abiding love for opera in their 
hearts, lack the wherewithal to pat- 
ronize it, or anything more expensive 
than the movies. It has been urged, 
too, that many people who might go 
to opera stay away because, as opera 

is given (in America at least) in 
alien tongues, they have never been 
able to find out what it is all about. 
The problem of production costs 
in the large opera houses does not 
seem easy of solution. Taxes being 
what they are, and maintenance ex- 
pense being higher than it has ever 
been, the rent of an opera gives 
impresarios reason for anxious 
thought. If there are no bargains in 
opera houses, there also seem to be 
no bargains in first class singers. 
Curiously enough, the celebrated De- 
pression, which pulled down the in- 
comes of most of the dwellers upon 
earth, made but little difference to 
the demands — or the receipts — of 
operatic artists the public wished to 
hear. Nor do labor unions care to 
discuss lower fees for stage-hands or 
for the musicians in the pit. 

All this is in explanation of the 
fact that opera-giving and financial 
loss seem, as they have always been, 
to be inseparable twins. Yet the pro- 
duction of dramatic music has gone 
on joyously just the same. And since 
many people search their pocket- 
books for the price of tickets to listen 
to it, opera would seem to be far 
from moribund. And yet — yes, there 
IS another factor that has escaped 
the attention of opera's physicians. 

The public may still be enthusiastic 
for opera, but the composers are not. 
You cannot have opera production 
without operas and the world will 
not be able to exist perpetually upon 
"II Trovatore" or "Lucia." Even the 

Latin peoples — the Italians and the 
French — who only a generation or so 
ago turned out composers who wrote 
nothing but music for the stage, are 
now occupying themselves with 
other things. New operas, it is true, 
are being written each season in ev- 
ery land; but it is now a trickle 
Where once it was a flood. What, 
then, has happened to the com- 

The answer to such a question is 
not necessarily bound up with the 
fact that many of them find sym- 
phonies and chamber music more to 
their individual tastes. Rather, it 
would seem, have they arrived at the 
conclusion that opera, as it has been 
written and cultivated for the last 
two centuries, is one of the lower 
forms of art? As it is manifestly im- 
possible to sing and act at the same 
time superlatively well, the basis of 
all dramatic music is unsound. There 
is, at least, no reason why the text 
of an opera should not be as fine 
as that of the best dramas; but so 
far from having been only moder- 
ately good, the majority of hbrettos 
have been extravagantly absurd. Said 
Beaumarchais even as early as the 
18th century: "Anything too silly to 
be said always may be sung!" 

Perhaps a way may be found 
whereby what is beautiful in opera 
may be saved and what is obscure 
may be brought to light. The matter 
of language may well be the first to 
be considered. It does not make 
much difference what language an 
opera is sung in. Comparatively little 
of the text will float beyond the foot- 
lights; yet an understanding of a 
really dramatic and convincing text 
is of vital importance. The natural 
corollary is — don't sing the text, but 
present it orally. But, you will ex- 
Continued on Page Seventeen 




Stephen deFHospodar 

(F<J«m1 Art Project) 


Page 9 



By E. A. Montana 

(Supervisor Theatre Music, Los Angeles Pederid Theatre Project) 

In the past, music in the theatre, 
although never confined to any one 
phase of drama, was thought of more 
as an accompaniment, rather than 
as an integral part of a play's pro- 
duction. Today it has definite inter- 
pretive importance apparent to any- 
one who has his finger on the pulse 
of activities in the musical world. 

Hitherto, music in the American 
theatre was ordered for productions 
almost on the eve of openings — with 
the result that the selections were 
frequently made by agents who 
probably had little knowledge of the 
Trite musical treatments are now 
considered ridiculous. No longer can 
the fair-haired heroine die on the 
stage to the strains of "HeaLrts and 
Flowers". No modem audience will 
tolerate "Humoresque" as entr'acte 
music for Ibsen, nor "American Pa- 
trol" as exit music for a performance 
of "Hamlet". However, unfortu- 
nately, even today some theatres en- 
deavor fiercely, and sometimes with 
more ferocity than good taste, to 
have the audience "amused" from 
the time it enters the theatre until 
the time it leaves. There is sure to 
be an orchestra, large or small, and 
there is sure to be an overture, 
usually a jerky arrangement of some 
popular song, or a too-familiar med- 
ley. Between the acts, the rasp of 
sprightly waltzes or the booming of 
operetta selections choke the smoke- 
filled air, and aficr th; play the 

audience straggles out to the tune 
of a march. 

In the spirited Federal Theatre re- 
vival of "Our American Cousin" last 
year at the Mason, we have am illus- 
tration of the 1858 manner of intro- 
ducing music. Here the course of the 
action was wholly suspended while 
the players danced a minuet. After 
the musical interlude, which had no 
connection with the story, the play 

More and more plays are being 
produced these days with integral 
musical arrangement — at times, a 
mere theme; often a complete score. 

Music for the drama now has the 
obligation of setting the mood, build- 
ing the climax, and giving the whole 
production congruity. As music has 
taken a greater part in the produc- 
tion, it has been forced into origi- 

By all means, let there be overture 
and entr'acte music, but let it be 
alive, vital. 

In the overture and entr-acte 

music there is a large, unexplored 
field. Instead of the brassy, second- 
rate waltzes, instead of the familiar 
medleys, there is a wealth of mate- 
rial, all suitable for the theatre, all 
refreshingly new. There are dozens, 
and perhaps hundreds, of composers 
who are worthy of recognition. The 
present generation of composers 
should be patronized and the use of 
new, modem American compositions 

In the blending of music with the 
spoken word, action on the stage 
naturally will predominate. We 
know, perhaps, that the music is ac- 
companying what we are seeing, but 
we do not analyze our reaction to 
the extent of realizing how abso- 
lutely colorless the presentation 
would be, were there no music at all. 

Wagner understood the close and 
valuable relationship music has with 
the drama and did much to har- 
monize the two. 

The unique position of the Fed- 
eral Theatre Project is not that it 
can, and does, consider music care- 
fully chosen and directed, as essen- 
tial to the production plans of every 
play, but in that it offers opportunity 
in a comparatively new field for 
composers with fresh and imagina- 
tive expression. 

Here is a people's theatre cogniz- 
ant of music's potential contribution 
to the drama culture of America, 
and both willing and able to en- 
courage such contribution. 

Page 10 



Under the very able leadership of 
Carl Elmer, the Delaware Project's 
Civic Orchestra, since its inception 
a year ago last month, has played 
forty-seven consecutive radio broad- 
casts, sixty-one concerts at different 
schools, and state institutions, and 
twenty-one outside concerts. The au- 
dience of the pubhc concerts total 
over 22,000. 

The demand for the negro dance 
orchestra, which is directed by Mrs. 
Lena Waters, has been increasing 
rapidly since its organization last 
September. To date, the orchestra 
has played thirty-eight engagements. 
This group has proven popular with 
the Adult State Board of Education's 
dance and dance classes. Every Mon- 
day night their syncopated tones 
may be heard issuing from the audi- 
torium of the Bancroft Public School, 
and on Thursday evenings from the 
Bayard Junior High School. The 
project has also co-operated on many 
occasions with the NYA by provid- 
ing music for the dances held for 


their students. 

The Delaware project has received 
no word of adverse criticism from 
hundreds of letters and press notices 
received throughout the state. 


"// people continue to accept the mechanici 
continue to ignore the music of their own commt 
play the music of the entire country. 

"Our Federal Music Project has several pm 
sional musician. Another is to make them usefu 
develop and maintain their musical skills. A jot 
communities, a demand for music which in the f\ 

"It is to be hoped that with an education pi 
throughout the country, a new interest and desir 


How the Federal Music Project in 
Trenton, New Jersey, is co-operating 
with the educational authorities is 
illustrated by a program given re- 
cently in the Trenton schools by the 
Trenton Federal Music Project Sym- 
phony Orchestra. The program, 
which included works by Brahms, 
Massenet, Chopin, Albcni;, Percy 
Grainger and Sibelius, was intended, 
beyond its contribution as entertain- 
ment, to afford a more spacious un- 
derstanding of the folk-life of vari- 
ous nations for students in geogra- 
phy and history classes. 

Due to the success of these initial 
concerts in Trenton, several subse- 
quent concerts have been presented 
throughout Mercer County. 


Symphony or concert orchestras 
are now established in Cleveland, 
Cincinnati, Akron, and Toledo. A 
twenty-piece broadcasting orchestra 
is on the air regularly from WSU in 
the Ohio State University in Colum- 
bus, and units of equal size are ser\'- 
ing Canton and Dayton. 

In Akron and Cincinnati, sym- 
phonic groups are giving much at- 
tention to music appreciation pro- 
grams in the public schools. 

The district supervisor in Toledo, 
who is lieutenant on the police force 
and conductor of the Toledo Civic 
Symphony, serves without remunera- 
tion from the project. 

In Dayton, much of the orches- 
tra's work has been associated with 
the local work of the theatre project 
although many programs have been 
given in the parks and institutions. 

In Cincinnati, Cleveland, Colum- 
bus, and Canton, teachers and lead- 
ers of music activities have recently 
been furnished to settlement and 
community houses, providing class 
instruction for those unable to secure 
musical training. 


Folk Songs collected by the Folk 
Song Project of the Kentucky Moun- 
tains are now being distributed to 
other projects. Two Fantasies for full 
orchestra on Kentucky mountain 
songs have been been arranged by 
the supervisor of the Kentucky Proj- 
ect and can be borrowed by WPA 
orchestras throughout the country. 
There are two sets of scores avail- 
able of each. 

City of Bo 
eral Music 
to the dire 
sakis will a 

Under tl 
state Fedei 
quarters wi 
five Massa( 

The stab 
rection of j 
presented 1 
again with 

Club's prij 

Music I 
treated to 
and unusui 
"Jack and 1 
liacci" at I 
on Fcbruar 
is the con 
Bean Stalk 
by Isaac V 

In preset 
Boston pro 
of the Fed 
Federal Th 
were sung 
cially desi| 





xstead of the living orchestra or singer, if they 
more than one hundred men will be needed to 

ne is to provide relief for the unemployed profes- 
immunity while with the WPA. A third is to 
most important, is to attempt to create, in their 
provide them with private employment, 
ing hand in hand with the performing of music 
music will be re-established." 

— Dr. Nikolai Sokoloff. 


December and January showed the 
Federal Music Project in Omaha and 
Nebraska serving the public in all 
walks of life from the smallest school 
children up through the grades and 
on into a wide and varied service to 

Despite the Christmas and New 
Year vacation period, which prac- 
tically eliminated the music apprecia- 
tion concerts in the schools for two 
weeks, 80,000 persons attended con- 
certs in Omaha during December, 
with 121 orchestral and concert en- 
gagements being played by the vari- 
ous units. These engagements do not 
include the vast radio audience 
reached by a great number of broad- 
casts by orchestras and choral groups. 
Lincoln, Hastings, and Grand Island 
projects had hardly recovered from 
a variety of Christmas activities 
when they launched elaborate plans 
for 1937. These include church pro- 
grams, school concerts, programs in 
parks and hospitals, regular civic or- 
chestra concerts, and hundreds of 
presentations by smaller units. 


The Teachers' Project in Indian- 
apolis has had an active month of 
chorus rehearsals, performances, and 
classes in piano, vocal training, voice 
placement, tone production, and 
many other musical activities. 

The Indiana Federal Music Project 
Concert Orchestra, under the direc- 
tion of William Gruelling, averages 
nearly forty performances each 


Recent presentations of the Com- 
posers" Forum Laboratory included 
the works of Henry Hadley and 
Marian Bower late in December. On 
January 15, the works of Daniel 
Gregory Mason were heard amd, as 
usual, the composer was present to 
hear a discussion of his works. 

Miss Bower, one of America's 
foremost women in music, is a recog- 
nized authority on contemporary 
music and musical conditions. She 
has made an intensive research into 
musical history, and has lectured on 
many phases of music before stu- 
dents, organizarions, music groups, 
women's clubs, and private gather- 
ings. For several seasons. Miss Bower 
has collaborated with Harrison Pot- 
ter, pianist, in lecture-recitals. 

Mr. Mason was the twelfth com- 
poser featured in the second series 
of the Composers' Forum Labora- 
tory, which is held in the auditorium 
of the New School for Social Re- 
search. His program included several 
numbers with himself at the piano. 


Orchestra works presented in this 
series are played by the Federal 
Music Project Gotham Symphony 
Orchestra, of which Jules Werner 
is conductor. 



The world of words and music is 
being reborn for deaf and otherwise 
handicapped children through the 
co-operation of Federal Music Proj- 
ect bands and orchestras here. For 
some time the WPA units have been 
used to train pupils in Jackson and 
this service has now been extended 
to Lansing, Flint, Holland and Sagi- 
naw. The Jackson Board of Educa- 
tion has introduced into its classes 
for the deaf a phonographic device 
which enables the students to hear 
with the aid of earphones and a dial 
for adjusting volume. Many of these 
children had never heard music un- 
til, as an experiment, the Federal 
Music Project Orchestra played for 

Page 12 



Forty Symphony Concerts Presented 

Twenty Chamber Music Recitals 

Fifty'two Choral Recitals 
«t « 

Audience Totals Four Hundred Thousand 

Realizing the major aims and pur- 
poses of the Federal Music Project, 
the Oakland unit takes pride in its 
accompUshment during the first year 
of operation. 

Twenty-five project soloists; vio- 
linists, cellists, harpists and vocahsts 
have been presented, as were seven 
guest artists. 

Five noted guest conductors di- 
rected the Symphony Orchestra; 
Joseph Cizkovsky, Modest Alt- 
schuler, Ernst Bacon, Alois Reiser 
and Alexander Stewart. 

The Oakland conductor, Gastone 
Usigli, served as guest conductor of 
the Symphonies of other music proj- 
ects on seven occasions; five in Los 
Angeles, one in San Francisco, and 
one in San Bernardino. 

The first choral concert was of- 
fered on January 14, 19J6, and the 
first Symphony on January 22. From 
the inception of the project (No- 
vember 22, 1935) untU the present 
the following number of concerts 
has been presented: Symphony, 40 
concerts; Chorus (4 with Sym- 
phony), 52 concerts; Colored Chorus, 
29 concerts; String Quartet, 20 
chamber music recitals, 56 orches- 
tral concerts and miscellaneous as- 
sistance to the Theatre Project; 
Dance Orchestras, 430 programs 
(principally for schools and recrea- 
tion departments). 

More than four hundred thousand 
persons attended these offerings. Par- 
ticularly noteworthy was the May 
Music Festival, at which time four 
Symphony Concerts were presented. 

culminating in a Wagnerian offering, 
presenting Symphony, Chorus and 
Soloists. This concert was offered at 
the Scottish Rite Auditorium in 
Oakland and was attended by ap- 
proximately 3000 persons. Project 
units have performed in thirteen 
cities and towns of the district. 
In addition, the Symphony has 

Arnold Schoenberg 
To Lead Orchestra 

Arnold Schoenberg, world famous 
composer whose technical ingenuity 
and imagination have caused him to 
be termed the "Einstein of Music", 
will conduct the Los Angeles Proj- 
ect's Symphony Orchestra in Trinity 
Auditorium on February 17. 

Mr. Schoenberg, whose difficult 
works are feared by many orchestra 
leaders, will conduct his symphonic 
poem, "Pelleas and Melisande", in 
its first Los Angeles hearing. 

Born in Austria, Mr. Schoenberg 
had early triumphs in his native 
country and in Berlin. He has com- 
posed a great number of works and 
is one of the greatest living com- 
posers of the "Imaginative School." 

appeared in San Francisco on two 
occasions, and the String Quartet in 
San Francisco and San Mateo as 
guests of those projects. 

The Symphony Orchestra of thi 
San Francisco Project, under the di- 
rection of Ernst Bacon, has pre- 
sented four concerts in the Oakland 
District, two at the Greek Theatre 
under the auspices of the University 
of California, and two at the Oak- 
land Auditorium Theatre. The pres- 
entation of January 14 was particu- 
larly memorable, offering Bacon's re- 
cently composed Cantata, with the 
San Francisco Municipal Chorus as 
guest artists. 

The Symphony Orchestra has re- 
hearsed and performed 27 sym- 
phonies, 11 concertos, and 106 other 
works, such as overtures and sym- 
phonic poems. The String Quartet 
has presented 16 quartets and quin- 
tets. These 160 works have offered 
a very comprehensive coverage of 
the fields of fine music. 

Five original symphonic works by 
members of the project have been 
rehearsed and performed, including 
Usigli's symphonic poem "Human- 
itas". In all, fifteen American com- 
posers have been represented, in- 
cluding Ernst Bacon, Paul Martin, 
Alois Reiser, Frederick Preston 
Search, Fehx Borowski and Albert 

Throughout, an effort has been 
made to contribute to the musical 
well being of the community, which 
has been rewarded by constantly 
growing public interest and support. 


Page 13 

C OM E - - - 

A Contribution from the 
Nebraska Federal Music Project 

Music is good for what ails one. 
Let us consider some of the potent 
effects that have been noted of its 
influence on the mind by the medical 

Earl Dardes in an article in "The 
Musician" gives sundry examples of 
practical and commercial uses to 
which the inspirational power of 
music has been geared and har- 
nessed. Following are some of the 
examples cited. 

M. Frossart, a member of the Sor- 
bonne, claims it has distinct thcra- 
P'-iitic values as a creative factor in 
simulating certain specific reactions; 
that nervous ailments such as in- 
somnia and derangements of heart, 
lungs or stomach, can be cured by 
listening to good music. 

A prominent obstetrician of South 
Bend has experimented with re- 
corded music, used instead of anes- 
thesia during labor. The result has 
been so satisfactory that he has al- 
most entirely discarded older meas- 
ures of relief from pain during 

Three prominent cases are known 
where neuralgic pain has been re- 
lieved by music; Gladstone, Herbert 
Spencer and the late Empress Eliza- 
beth of Austria. 

The Indian medicine man treated 
physical as well as mental or nerv- 
ous disorders with the aid of music. 
For example, afflictions such as frac- 
ture, headache or children's diseases 
were given distinct musical therapy. 

In their method there was no in- 
tellectual appeal to the emotions. It 
was based exclusively upon the 
power of rhythm. 

Major Frederick W. Mott, British 
Army surgeon with the Fourth Gen- 
eral War Hospital is quoted as say- 
ing, "Music, as a stimulator of the 
emotions, the associative memory 
and a certain feeling of strength, is 
the most powerful agent we have 
available for the restoration of shell- 
shocked soldiers." 

Dr. J. Trachanoff, with a Moss 
dynamo-meter, found that when spir- 
ited music is played a subject can 
lift much more than ordinarily; and 
conversely that with melancholy or 

Dr. SokolofF Gives 

Short Wave Broadcast 

On Saturday, January 30, at 3:00 
P.M., Eastern Standard Time, Dr. 
Sokoloff, National Director of the 
Federal Music Project, conducted 
one of the Boston Federal Music 
Project orchestras in a world-wide 
broadcast over the short-wave sta- 
tion WIXAL. 

In keeping with the international 
scope of the broadcast, the following 
program was presented: Brahms' 
First Symphony, Debussy's "After- 
noon of a Faun", Roemhold's Min- 
uet, and Sibelius' "Finlandia". 

minor music the lifting power suffers 
a decrease. 

The high turnover of one hundred 
beds a month at the Third General 
Hospital of London during the 
World War, was attributed by Sir 
Bruce-Porter to the mental diversion 
afforded by phonographs and con- 

Florence Nightengale, God's gift 
to worn, torn humanity during the 
Crimean struggle, sent out a heart- 
touching appeal for music in the hos- 
pitals. Since her time, doctors of re- 
pute have been won over in increas- 
ingly large nurribers to the treatment 
of nervous and mental disorders by 
establishing carefully arranged pro- 
grams in the hospitals, and where 
possible in the homes, where they 

A chair of music-therapy has been 
founded at Columbia University; and 
as far back as ten years ago, the Na- 
tional Association for Music in Hos- 
pitals was formed and has done in- 
estimable service to date. 

So if you have symptoms of dis- 
ease, if you have a dark brown taste 
in the mouth, or a dark brown out- 
look on affairs about, whether caused 
by physical ailment of "the breaks," 
music as part of your treatment may 
work wonders. 

To see the smiHng appreciative 
faces of a hospital audience — real 
sick people, and their response to 
Federal Music Project programs is 
to know that music among other 
things is a medicine that should be 
on everybody's shelf. The Federal 
Music Project is doing its part to 
put it there! 




Continued fi 

positions chat did uot outlast a first 
hearing. But with the exception of 
the estabhshed composer these new 
American works have been subjected 
to the study of audition boards and 
CO the fire of rehearsal reading before 
their pubhc performance. 

It seems to me Co be unmistakably 
clear thac with the wide diffusion 
of orchesCras under the WPA, che 
democratic standards m the selection 
and performance of music, the 
chance for American composers, and 
the freedom from the need of appeal 
to over ' sophisticated, jaded tastes, 
that the whole base of the American 
audience structure has been almost 
ilhmitably expanded. There is a 
greater famiharity with, and a de- 
mand for, music than the country 
would have known in many years 
had not the Federal government in 
tervened in behalf of che unem 
ployed musicians. And chen this con 
tnved works rehef program ama? 
ingly became a history-making cul 
tural force in the nation. Its pubhc 
is neither biased nor doctrinaire; it 
IS naive, perhaps, but eager and 
hungry for music. 

No one pretends that the problems 
of the unemployed musicians have 
been met in full. Under our present 
system there will be musicians who 
cannot find jobs and there are today 
many of them who should be retired 
under the provisions of Social Se- 
curity legislation. 

We have been hearing a great deal 
since the election about a serious 
shortage among skilled workers. Cer- 
tainly there is no such shortage 
among professional musicians in this 
country. We who are charged with 
the responsibility of the Federal 
Music Project's program can stand 
firm-footedly in our informed experi- 
ence and we can look our critics 
squarely in the eyes and say, "We 
are ready and eager to supply you 
with as many trained musicians as 
you may require; musicians whose 
aptitudes have been sharpened and 
enhanced under a rigorous, practical, 
morale-restoring program." And with 
the other hand we can point to those 
musicians who have left our projects 
to return to preferred, highly paid 
jobs. Six of the great symphony or- 
chestras have taken them on con- 
tracts this season. 

Generally there has been approval 
of the aims and activities of the Fed- 
eral Music Project from all classes, 

m Page Three 
and there is a large body of opmion 
which holds that music should have 
a pubhcly assisted permanent habita- 
tion in our country. Numencally the 
Projects' critics have not been many 
and among the bitterest and most 
vocal of these there have been, I 
am sorry to say, teachers of music. 

There have been more than a mil- 
hon new students from among the 
unemployed and the underprivileged, 
children and adults, who lacked the 
means durmg the unemployment de- 
pression to study music under private 
instruction. The eagerness with 
which they have followed their les- 
sons, promise well for the future of 
American music. 

I believe the teachers who have 
voiced unfriendliness towards these 
activities have been a httle short- 
sighted. Their position is somewhat 
like the boy in primary school who 
wrote in a composition, "Pins have 
saved a great many lives on account 
of so few people swallowing them." 
It is evident that the tide towards 
economic recovery has set in. During 
the depression years these Federal 
Music Project instructors have been 
rigidly prohibited from competing 
with teachers who were self-sustain- 
ing. Now many of these teachers 
who were on WPA rolls have re- 
opened their studios in recent months 
and there is a vast new source of 
pupils for all of you. They will be 
drawn from the classes of the WPA 
Music Centers. 

More than 1,700 teachers of music 
were transferred from the relief lists 
to the rolls of the Federal Music 
Project On December 15, 1,290 
were still on the rolls. Through their 
work a great new consistency was 
discovered, eager for serious music 
study, but untouched by the agencies 
formerly in the field. All instruction 
under the WPA was in classes and 
groups. These teachers had presided 
at community gatherings for talks 
and demonstrations on music appre- 
ciation, history and theory, and they 
are still serving as conductors, in- 
structors and coaches of choruses, 
bands and orchestras. 

Their work has been carried into 
the remotest rural areas and in many 
places the' teachers have acquired 
positions of community leadership. 
Something of tlie spirit of the old 
Athenaeum has been recovered. 

And now in conclusion will you 
let me remind you that many of 

Bach 'Coffee Cantata' 
Repeated by San Diego 

The ovation accorded the San 
Diego Project's presentation of 
Bach's comic opera, "The Coffee 
Canuta" with authentic costumes 
and scenery, for the first time in 
America, on December 14th brought 
many requests for repeat perform- 
ances. In co-operation with the San 
Diego school system, two free per- 
formances of "' fhe Coffee Cantata " 
were presented, with costumes and 
scenery, to the student assembly of 
Point Loma High School on Friday, 
January 8th and two at the Wood- 
row Wilson High School on January 
15th. At both schools it was neces- 
sary to give two performances to 
permit the entire assembly to witness 
the presentation. Several officials of 
the school board attended the Point 
Loma performances and were so en- 
thusiastic over the educational value 
of the cantata that they have re- 
quested performances at all of the 
major high schools of the county. 
An indication of the appreciation of 
the school faculty and student body 
was shown in a letter received by 
supervisor Charles H. Marsh from 
the principal of the Point Loma 

Arrangements are now being 
made to present this dehghtful work, 
by the renowned master Johann Se- 
bastian Bach, at other schools, also 
Vaughn-Wilhams "Benedicite" and 
Debussy's 'Blessed Damosel". All of 
these are short enough to permit 
presentation at the regular time al- 
lotment for school assembly. 

America's greatest leaders are behind 
this Federal Assistance for the Four 
Arts. Unless we are to become an 
inert narion, they say, there must be 
encouragement for the musician, the 
writer, the artist and the actor. Even 
the slender WPA backing, an emer- 
gency measure, has advanced all 
American native art by decades. The 
future historian writing of American 
culture will have to base his thesis 
on the years 1935-19.^6. It is true 
that we have not produced as yet a 
mature and disciplined art, but we 
have stood at the threshold of a 
great new d.iy, and we have learned 
that the spirit of man does matter 
as well as new plumbing gadgets and 
better gas stations. 


Page 15 


It's one of the coldest Fridays in 
the history of San Francisco. People 
hurry across the Square, collars up- 
turned, hands in their pockets, look- 
ing neither left nor right, but intent 
on escaping the icy wind. A snowy 
flock of pigeons wheels about the 
camphor trees. Occasionally, they 
dip into the half-fro?en pool. Now 
and then, they accost a passerby. 
Lunch-time's here, but no one stops 
to feed them. It's much too cold. 

Silently a small group begins to 
congregate at one end of the Square. 
Disguised in heavy overcoats and 
mufflers, they are betrayed by their 
military caps and shiny instruments. 

The Band has arrived. Some fifty 
chairs and stands are set up. Con- 
ductor Search waves his baton and 
the concert is on. 

Gay and entertaining, the colorful 
music of Sousa, Herbert, Search, and 
Cadman, glitters in the wind that 
tosses it high into the air and flings 
it echoing against the stolid City 

One after another, in twos and 
threes, passersby stop. A ring begins 
to grow around the players. Business- 
men, clerks, lawyers, park - bench 
loafers, and laborers of all sorts join 
the crowd. 

"Isn't it too cold to play?" we ask 
Conductor Frederick Preston Search. 
"It is," he agrees, "but I won't keep 
the boys out too long today. We'll 
only stay an hour." 

Gradually the horn-players' ears 
and noses turn red; the clarinetists' 
fingers twitch and trill and tremolo 
involuntarily. But the music goes on 
— cheerfully it mocks the chilly wind 
and the even chillier musicians. 

Carmel Project Has 
Unique Open House 

The Carmel Project, with the com- 
ing of spring and weather that en- 
tices the pedestrian out of doors, is 
planning a weekly Open House. 

Dene Denny, Supervisor of the 
District, has instituted in place of a 
large number of formal concerts, 
which is impossible with a small 
unit, a series of Tuesday afternoon 
Open Rehearsals. 

Between one and four, on any 
Tuesday afternoon, the child on his 
way home from school, the house- 
wife on her way to the village, the 
grocer returning from lunch, or the 
wayfarers coming up from the beach, 
may drop in and hear a movement 
of a Symphony from the Concert 
Orchestra, an "Andante" from the 
Piano Quartet, keep time to "The 
Organgrinder's Swing" with the 
Swing Band, or learn a song of the 
Mexican bull fight with the Tipicas. 

This program is very popular, and 
is doing educational work among the 
school children, in whom it is build- 
ing up a capacity to listen to music 
with understanding. 

"I never miss one of these," con- 
fides eighty-year-old Recorder Goot- 
schalk, leaving the City Hall to join 
the audience. 

"Nor I," admits in turn Judge 
Steiger. "Each time I hear them, I'm 
more impressed. We should have 
such band concerts throughout the 

Every day, be it hot or cold, the 
Band Concert strikes up in some sec- 
tion of the City. We hear them at 
times in a little North Beach park 
at the foot of Telegraph Hill, 
cheered by an enthusiastic audience 
of Tuscan families. Sometimes, in 
Union Square, in the heart of the 
business section; often at the Civic 

"Our weekly audience averages 
between three and four thousand," 
informs Conductor Search. "And we 
play not only in the parks, but in 
the schools throughout the City. Our 
Concert Band, composed of forty- 
five professionals, is unusually well- 
instrumentated, the woodwind sec- 
tion numbering twenty players. And 
our program carries not only Sousa 
marches, but the symphonic over- 
tures of Beethoven, Wagner, and 
Tschaikowsky as well." 

Submerging into the hollows of 
their instruments the last strains of 
Suite Atlantis, the players pack their 
horns, bassoons, and tubas, and 
hurry off, too. The hungry pigeons 
alone remain. 

Page 16 



One of the most interesting ac- 
tivities of some members of the Cali- 
fornia Federal Writers' Project is 
entirely unofficial. In November, a 
group from the San Francisco Writ- 
ers" Project put out a literary maga- 
zine, "Material Gathered". The work 
was done by the writers in their 
spare time, and expenses were borne 
by themselves. The magazine offered 
fiction, poetry, and literary criticism. 
The high standards of this effort are 
attested by numerous favorable re- 
views in national publications, in- 
cluding the "New RepubUc", and the 
Nebraska "Prairie Schooner", as well 
as enthusiastic reviews in many 

The San Francisco Writers" Proj- 
ect expects to issue a second unoffi- 
cial number of "Material Gathered'" 
in February. The second number will 
be printed, instead of mimeographed. 
Members of the Los Angeles Federal 
Writers" Project have announced 
their intention of putting out a 
similar publication. 

The State Director of the Federal 
Writers" Project is Mr. James Hop- 
per, a nationally known novelist and 
short story writer. The State head- 
quarters are in San Francisco. For 
the Writers" Project, California is 
divided into nine geographical dis- 
tricts, of which San Francisco and 
Los Angeles are two. Each district 
office, which is organized much like 
a newspaper office, is under a super- 
visor. Under the supervisor is a staff 
of writers and research workers. The 
research workers go out into the field 
and gather the data necessary for 
the New American Guide, now be- 
ing written, cither by personal inter- 
views with authorities, or by con- 
sultation of records and documents. 
The research workers then bring 
back written reports to the super- 
visor, who gives them to his staff of 
writers for revision. The revised ma- 
terial is then sent to the state office 
in San Francisco, where it is checked, 
finally revised, and sent to Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

The word "music" is of Greek 
origin. Its original meaning denoted 
not merely the tonal art, but an art 
which embraced poetry, dancing, act- 
ting, singing and playing. 


Continued from Page four 

speech, of which parts are here 

The purpose of the Composers' 
Forum Laboratory is manifold in its 
nature. Not only are we interested 
m the composer and his work, per se, 
but in the development of a more 
definite understanUmg and relation- 
ship between the composer and the 

There have been numerous at- 
tempts to foster an interest m the 
work of the American composer, or, 
more broadly speakmg, of the com- 
poser working in America. In spite 
of this fact, as far as the general 
public IS concerned, the American 
composer is an unknown quantity. 
We are hoping that, through these 
evenings in intimate contact with 
composers, we may do our part in 
removing the barrier which has al- 
ways existed between the composer 
and the people who are, or should 
be, the consumers of his goods. We 
shall attempt to assist in sweeping 
away the mystification which has al- 
ways enshrouded the composer and 
his work, which has been the herit- 
age of mankind ever since the origin 
of the mythological conception of 
music being a gift of the gods, which 
was derived from the ancient Greeks, 
and which has had never-ending 
repercussions even to our day. Many 
composers have been influenced in 
turn by this false attitude, and in 
the recesses of their sanctum sanc- 
torum have communed with their 
own souls to the end that their 
works have failed to survive when 
exposed to the light of day and the 
opinion of mankind. 

The influence of the ancient herit- 
age with relation to creative musi- 
cians, which has its roots in antiq- 
uity, has left the public with the 
necessity, in the absence of actual 
knowledge of, or direct relation to, 
composers, of creating an imaginary, 
unreal world for the creative musi- 
cian — either in the present, or in 
the remote past 

In the Composers" Forum Labora- 
tory will be afforded an opportunity 
to observe the composer at work, 
producing for us — his audience. We 
will observe every type of music 
written by competent musicians — 
music expressive of every shade of 
thought and feeling peculiar to this 
moment in history. 



Reprinted from Oakland Tribune of 
January 30 

The symphony orchestra and the 
chorus of the Federal Music Project 
(WPA) of Oakland gave a note- 
worthy performance of Mendel- 
ssohn's "St. Paul" last evening (Jan. 
29) in the Auditorium Theatre be- 
fore a large and appreciative audi- 
ence. It is evident that Oakland 
music lovers like oratorio. 

Gastone Usigli, who conducted 
the performance in place of Fuer- 
bringer who was ill, again showed 
himself not only an able director, 
but also an artist sensitive to every 
tonal color, to form and balance, 
grasping this work of wide scope as 
a unified whole, and infusing the 
performance with a deeply devo- 
tional feeling. He kept the voices 
and the orchestra choirs in perfect 
balance, so that the soloists made 
themselves heard without effort; the 
chorus and orchestra were inteUi- 
gently welded, singing and playing 
fluently with a velvety quality in 
the pianissimos, and a rich warmth 
of tone in even the loudest passages. 
The diction of both the chorus and 
soloists was commendable, and added 
a great deal to the evening's enjoy- 

The soloists were Nelle Rassmus- 
sen, s o p ra n o; William Peterson, 
tenor; Vesta Burroughs, contralto; 
LeRoy Burge, baritone; Mervyn 
Kaney, bass. 

It was a memorable performance, 
reflecting great credit upon the en- 
tire personnel of the local Federal 
Music Project. 

Our attitude with relation to these 
forums must not be a narrow one. It 
is not intended that they be "suffi- 
cient unto themselves." They should 
prove a focal point for the presenta- 
tion of works of vitality in concerts 
of greater scope. But, above all, they 
are designed for the stimulation, in 
direct contact with an intimate pub- 
lic of disinterested participants, of a 
strong, indigenous culture — far re- 
moved from the vitiated atmosphere 
which has been the realm of many 
composers of the day. 


Page 17 



Continual fium Fagc Seven 

claim indignantly, where then is the 
music? The music will still be there, 
but the greater part of it will be 
played by the orchestra for which 
the composer has written it, and as 
an accompaniment to the spoken 
text, which, effectively amplified, will 
be synchronized with it. But, the 
reader will probably still object, what 
becomes of the singing? It, too, will 
still be there, to be negotiated only 
in places or situations in which sing- 
ing can be effectively and consist- 
ently introduced. 

This kind of production should 
constitute the new opera. 

Theories are of minor moment if 
they remain but theories. The writer 
of this article, in company with Mr. 
Jacques Samossoud, the distinguished 
Russian conductor, has put his the- 
ory of opera to the test, and the 
result will shortly be presented to 
the public by the Los Angeles Fed- 
eral Music Project for judgment and 
review. While many people might 
well subscribe to the conviction that 
the older form of opera is often 
stilted and absurd, there are others 
who might have to be convinced, if 
only to clear the path for a better 
form of art. You who read this have 
probably never heard of that short 
dramatic composition, "Fernando del 
Nonsentsico," written by Vincenzo 
Donkey-zetti. The performance of 
that — in the old manner, of course — 
will prove that some better kind of 
opera is greatly to be desired. 

In order to demonstrate what are 
the virtues of the latter, Leonca- 
vallo's "Pagliacci" has been treated 
in the newer way. The plot is extra- 
ordinarily dramatic, but compara- 
tively few people know what it is all 
about. The writer of this article has 
reconstructed the text, and it and the 
music have been synchronized by 
Mr. Samossoud, whose experience of 
the operatic stage is all-embracing. 
Singing? Yes indeed, but only at the 
fitting moments. The orchestra? All 
the way through, from the Prologue 
to the closing bar. Should you attend 
any of the performances of "Punch- 
inello" (which is the English of 
"Pagliacci") you will run no danger 
of missing the cold chills that result 
from a dramatic thrill. The only peril 
that will accrue to attendance on 
"Fernando del Nonsentsico" (which. 


Humperdinck's fairy opera "Han- 
sel and Gretel", produced at the 
Savoy Theatre by the San Diego 
Project on January 27, 28, 29, and 
30, received high praise from three 
San Diego newspaper critics. 

Constance Herreshoff, reviewing 
the production for the San Diepo 
Sun, said in part, "If you would see 
as appealing a 'Hansel and Gretel' 
pair as ever trod the boards and hear 
at the same time the beautiful, spon- 
taneous music of Humperdinck's 
'Fairy Opera' well played by full or- 
chestra, by all means see the Federal 
Music Project's production during its 
Savoy theater run." 


Ruth Taunton, writing in the San 
Diego Union, said, "The perform- 
ance last evening, if short of a 
Metropolitan Opera house produc- 
tion, was nevertheless the best inter- 
pretation of this three-act fairy opera 
that I have ever seen outside of New 

In the San Diego Evening Tribune, 
Frances Imgrund said, "The first of 
five performances of 'Hansel and 
Gretel' by the Federal Music Project 
at the Savoy Theater last night must 
have been a great satisfaction to 
William G. Stewart, production man- 
ager; Charles H. Marsh, choral di- 
rector; Julius Leib, musical director, 
and others responsible." 

After playing to packed houses for 
six performances, including a special 
Sunday matinee showing, the pro- 
duction closed on January 30, and 
the San Diego Project may be 
credited with an outstanding achieve- 
ment to be added to its many for- 
mer successes. 

it is understood, will follow "Punch- 
inello") may lie in the internal dis- 
location that sometimes waits upon 
excessive mirth. 

The symphony orchestra of the 
Sacramento Federal Music Project 
had the honor of playing a concert 
in the rotunda of the State Capitol 
Building in Sacramento at noon on 
January 21 for the assembled Cali- 
fornia state legislators. 

"Carmen Suite" by Bizet, "Trau- 
merei" by Schumann, an orchestra- 
tion by Alfred Hertz, "Valse Triste" 
by Sibelius, and "Mexicali Rose" by 
Tierney were played. "Mexicali 
Rose" is a composition of Assembly- 
man Jack Tierney of Los Angeles. 

As a result of the favorable com- 
ment received on this first concert, 
it has been decided that the Sacra- 
mento Symphony Orchestra will 
play another concert during March 
in the Assembly Chambers. 

On January 26th, the Sacramento 
Concert Orchestra presented a con- 
cert in the Clunie Memorial Audi- 
torium. Regarding the concert Fred 
Noland, writing in the Sacramento 
Union, said: 

"The Sacramento Federal Music 
Project Orchestra, playing in the 
Clunie Memorial Auditorium under 
the baton of its young conductor, 
Leslie Hodge, established beyond 
doubt that it is a musical force to he 
reckoned with in this community. 

"Hodge established himself as a 
sincere, able and dynamic batonist. 
His beat is steady and decisive. . . . 

"An appreciative audience in- 
cluded Dr. and Mrs. Alfred Hertz, 
the Hart House Quartet, and State 
Director Harle Jervis." 

Orange County Project 
Gives School Concerts 

The Federal Music Project in Or- 
ange County recently completed the 
first group of a series of children's 
concerts. Four concerts were given 
in widely separated points in the 
county. Thirty -four elementary 
schools were invited, and the concert 
had a total attendance of 3,400 chil- 
dren from the fourth through the 
eighth grades. 

The Orange County Project co- 
operated with Mrs. Mabel Spizzy, 
superintendent of music in the public 
schools, in these programs. 

The children were given an op- 
portunity to study the program mate- 
rial before hearing the concert. 

Page 18 




Continued from Page Six 

ground ot knowledge and experience, 
an exceptionally keen and agile mind. 
For the past several years he has 
been known chiefly for his adher- 
ence CO a school which we will call 
"hyper-dadaist". His Jesuitical de- 
tense of this theory and the striking 
though seldom comprehensible pic- 
tures which he has painted to but- 
tress it have absorbed more and 
more of his creative energy. 

Some murals are requested for the 
large main room of a municipally 
owned reswurant and, after the usual 
preliminaries, our artist is commis- 
sioned to plan and direct the job, 
wliich includes a complete re-decora- 
tion of the room; removing dark 
paint from beams and woodwork, 
plastering ceiling between beams to 
hghten the room, and the decoration 
of four large and several small wall 
spaces with a combmation of mosaic 
and fresco. What is his reaction to 
the job? He says, "These murals are 
for the people. They are paying for 
them and they are the ones who will 
be seeing them every day. There- 
fore they must be something that 
the people can recognize, understand 
and enjoy." 

Instead of using his great knowl- 
edge of color and design; his fine 
abilities with brush and pallette to 
bolster a highly controversial theory, 
he is using them to bring fine art 
to a large group of plain everyday 
people, who otherwise might never 
even be exposed to it. Furthermore, 
as in the case of the library murals, 
a great number of individuals share 
in the whole process to their own 
and the artist's mutual advantage. 

These people will probably never 
again lapse into the too prevalent, 
half hostile and suspicious attitude 
of the common man toward art and 
the artist. They have seen art in the 
making and found it fascinatingly 
interesting. They have watched an 
artist at work and found him human 
in appearance, at least. They have 
talked to him and found him intelH- 
gent, friendly and understandable. 
All clear gains in artistic literacy for 
both artist and people. 

Such cases could be multiplied, 
with slight variations of kind and 
degree, by as many as there are large 
public mural projects in the country, 
but the point must be clear. And 
this is by no means the only con- 

Constantin Bakaleinikoff, for several years musical director at the Para- 
mount Studio in Hollywood and now employed at the Metro-Goldwyn- 
Mayer studios, conducted the Los Angeles Federal Music Project Symphony 
Orchestra in Trinity Auditorium on February 3 in a concert which featured 
Madame Nina Koshetj, world famous dramatic soprano, as soloist. 

Long heralded as "The Feminine 

tribution the Federal Art Project is 
making in the campaign to abohsh 
cultural ilhteracy in these United 

Our traveihng exhibitions, for ex- 
ample, are taking hvmg, contempor- 
ary, origmal works of art mto ciUes 
and towns where such things were 
previously unknown. Our oil paint- 
ings, water colors, drawings and 
prints are being allocated in kinder- 
gartens, elementary schools, junior 
high schools, high schools and col- 
leges throughout the country whose 
principals write in to project head- 
quarters auid say, "My teachers have 
never seen an original work of art." 

Our classes in creative painting 
for children and young people are 
providmg the soundest of all pos- 
sible backgrounds for the apprecia- 
tion of any art. There is no better 
way to learn to appreciate a picture 
then to try to paint a few yourself, 
finding out in the process what some 
of the painter's problems are and 
what are the Umitations of the tech- 
nical means at his disposal for solv- 
ing them. 

Our lending print galleries are 
making it possible for famihes who 
could never afford an original work 
of art, to rent a fine print by one of 
the best contemporary artists for a 
nominal fee, take it home and hang 
it on the wall for two weeks, or a 
month if they like it well enough to 
renew it. This plan is still in the 
experimental stage but if it works 
satisfactorily, and it is being received 
with a great deal of enthusiasm, will 
probably be extended throughout the 

Thus, although necessarily ham- 
pered in scope by its comparatively 
small size, the Federal Art Project is 
already achieving appreciable results. 
It is pioneering in the discovery and 
testing of new methods that will 
point the way and provide the means 
for the eventual solution of one of 
the most vital of society's current 

Chaliapin" because of the emotional 
depth of her interpretations, Ma- 
dame Koshetz has received acclaim 
from three continents since making 
her debut at the age of seventeen 
as "Isolde" at the Imperial Opera 
of Moscow. Her American debut 
was made in 1920 under the patron- 
age of Ossip Gabrilowitsch. 

Newspaper critics hailed this as 
one of the outstanding concerts of 
the Los Angeles Project. 

Isabel Morse Jones, reviewing the 
concert in the Los Angeles Times, 
said, "The Tschaikowsky concert 
given by the Federal Project Or- 
chestra drew a capacity audience of 
the discriminating. Bakaleinikoff is a 
conductor with knowledge and aris- 
tocratic taste. . . . Koshetz is a musi- 
cian among singers. When she sings, 
the music tells its story. Her voice is 
used with amazing skill. Each song 
becomes a distinct dream of another 
world rich in emotion and quivering 
with hfe." 

On February 10, the Los Angeles 
Symphony Orchestra was conducted 
by Gastone Usigli, Supervisor of 
the Oakland Project, winner of nu- 
merous awards and prizes for his 
conductorship and compositions. Mr. 
Usigli conducted the orchestra in the 
following number; "Fingal's Cave" 
Overture by Mendelssohn, Brahms" 
Fourth Symphony, "Elegy to an Un- 
known Hero", by Paul Martin, 
"Dream Music" from "Hansel and 
Gretel" by Humperdinck, and "Le 
Carnaval Romain" Overture by 

More than one-half million grown- 
up Americans, many of them more 
than eighty years of age, have 
learned to read and write within the 
last three years under the Works 
Progress Administration emergency 
education program. 


Page 19 


No sooner had the American Red 
Cross sent out a plea for funds to 
aid victims of the recent floods than 
the Federal Music Project in various 
California cities began to make plans 
for special performances and con- 
certs. Notable among these were the 
collection of funds at the perform- 
ance of "Hansel and Gretel" at San 
Diego, a special broadcast of the 
San Bernardino Symphony Orches- 
tra over KFXM during which an ap- 
peal was made for funds, concerts 
by various units in San Francisco and 
Oakland, and parades and concerts 
by various units in Los Angeles and 

A special performance of "The 
Mikado", at which time a collection 
for the American Red Cross was 
taken, was presented by the San 
Diego Project on February 3. 

'Chimes of Normandy' 
Opens in Los Angeles 

"Chimes of Normandy," the per- 
ennially popular hght opera, opened 
a two weeks' engagement at the 
Figueroa Playhouse in Los Angeles 
on February 2. 

Under the direction of John R. 
Britz, who has recently conducted 
successful showings of "The Mik- 
ado" and "Pinafore" for the Los 
Angeles Music Project, the cast of 
seventy-five includes such favorites 
as Rena Case, Arthur Godd, Georgia 
Carroll and Jack Henderson. 

San Mateo Features 
American Composers 

As in many other districts in Cali- 
fornia Federal Music Projects, the 
American composer is being recog- 
nized in a series of concerts con- 
ducted by Arthur Gundersen, Super- 
visor of the San Mateo Project. 

The concerts will featxire the San 
Mateo String Ensemble and the Con- 
cert Orchestra, Ely Burszan, Amer- 
ican violinist, and compositions by 
Carl Ruggles, Frederick Preston 
Search, Raisch Stoll, and Toma Yo- 
gadka, American composers. 



By Ernst Bacon 

(Supervisor of San Francisco Pro/eci, 
Vr inner of the Puiilzer Prize in 193} J 

The pianist in careless mo- 
ments contracts habits which 
pile up with interest like a gov- 
ernment with its bonds, and 
its bonds to pay for bonds to 
pay for bonds. A new deal 
then becomes necessary, the 
study of a new work, a new 
phase of music. 

Difficulties of the pianist and 
government will continue to 
grow — they invariably grow — 
until the fear of searching out 
their origin becomes less than 
the fear of their continuance. 

Practicing is the art of learn- 
ing to govern oneself, and gov- 
erning requires tact and pa- 
tience. Were I to admit to my- 
self all that I intend to undo 
and do anew, I would stand the 
same chance of remaining the 
president of my self-esteem, re- 
spectabihty, and habits of con- 
formation as would the national 
president were he to reveal his 
disapproval and antagonism to 
the world of senseless profit 
and oppression that has con- 
sented to his reign. 

The habits of arms and fin- 
gers, of accent, of phrasing and 
tone-making, do not relish up- 
sets. The most they will tol- 
erate is a change here and 
there. A change for the good 
must often be made by inner 

A Marcus Aurelius, who suf- 
fers himself rather than choose 
to govern, a Jefferson, Frank- 
lin, or Washington, bec»me in 
music a Mendelssohn, a Pales- 
trina, or a Bach. Such men 
don't seek authority, but are 
sought. Were they not sought, 
their lives would remain equally 
full. We need men who don't 
need us. Not needing us, they 
are the more likely to respect 
us. I am assured of privacy 
from the man who guards his 

Robert Henri said, "A gov- 
ernment could be built on the 
principles of a Beethoven sym- 


Early in March, the chorus of the 
San Bernardino Project in co-opera- 
tion with two other musical organ- 
izations, the Meistersingers and the 
Glee Club of the San Bernardino 
Junior College, will present Mozart's 
last great masterpiece, the "Requiem 
Mass". The entire ensemble, number- 
ing more than one hundred voices, 
w3l be directed by Vernon Robin- 
son. In order to preserve its full 
beauty, the Mass will be sung in 
Latin, the language in which it was 
originally written. 

San Jose Features 
New Compositions 

"Crossing the Lake," a prize win- 
ning composition by Edward 
Schneider of San Jose, will be given 
its world premier performance at a 
concert to be conducted by Joseph 
Cizkovsky, Supervisor of the San 
Jose Project, late this month. Mr. 
Schneider has written Grove Plays 
for the Bohemian Club of San Fran- 
cisco for a number of years. 

New compositions by members of 
this project and previously conducted 
by Mr. Cizkovsky, include "Cradle 
Song" by Don Lima, "On Siberian 
Plains" by Cizkovsky, and an ar- 
rangement of Bach "Prelude and 
Fugue in C Minor" by Cizkovsky. 

Oakland To Hear 

Weiler Ensemble 

Erich Weiler, Supervisor of the 
Marin County (California) Project, 
through the co - operation of Mr. 
Usigli of the Oakland Project, has 
announced a chamber music concert 
to be played on the 23 rd of February 
at Oakland. The concert will feature 
the Wolf - Ferrari Chamber Sym- 
phony in B Flat Major. 

Many famous, but rarely per- 
formed, works have been played by 
the Marin County Chamber En- 
semble, several of these representing 
first performances in the West. 


E QUOTE .... 

Andreas Dippel, the famous tenor, and for a time 
manager of the Metropolitan Opera House, was noted 
for his amazing versatility. "Life" once had a picture 
of him sitting in his underclothes, surrounded by tenor 
costumes for dozens of operas, ready to jump into any 
of them at a moment's notice. But his versatility did 
not stop here. One day he was asked, "What are your 
favorite roles?" 

"Vienna," he replied. 

One day Rosenthal inter- 
rupted his good friend Eu- 
gene d' Albert in the midst 
of his composing. Seeing a 
number of scores of Wagner 
and Strauss opened on d'Al- 
bert's desk, he remarked, 
"My dear d'Albert, I'm sur- 
prised. I always thought you 
composed from memory." 

In Vienna they tell a story 
of a journalist who once re- 
marked to Brahms as they 
were passing the composer's 
house, "Fifty years hence, a 
Viennese and a visitor will 
walk along here, and the 
Viennese will say, 'In that 
house Brahms — •' " 

"Stop it", interrupted the 
composer, "1 don't like that 
kind of talk." 

"Just let me finish my sen- 

"No, no." 

"But I will! 'In that 
house', the Viennese will 
say, 'Brahms used to live.' 
And the visitor will ask, 
'Who was Brahms?' " 

A composer of San Francisco presented one of his 
early works to Alfred Herts while in Carmel. A few 
days later Mr. Hertz drove to the composer's cottai;e 
and, finding no one home, left the score in the living 
room with a note. Returning, the composer read, "Dear 
Fred: I apologize for entering your house like a thief — 
but I was afraid to leave the score outside the door lest 
it be stolen again." 

"There's music in the 

sighing of a reed; 
There's music in the. 

gushing of a rill; 
There's music in all 

things, if men had 

Their earth is but an 

echo of the spheres' 

— Byron 
("Don Juan") 

"Here is a new idea in the rights of individuals and 
the obligations of society. It comes from Dr. Nikolai 
SokolofF, widely known in past years as an American 
conductor. He is national director of the Federal Music 
Project which has given work to many thousands of 
needy musicians, and has entertained audiences totaling 
50,000,000 people. 

" 'I am most happy,' he 
says, 'to have a part in the 
renaissance of music in the 
United States. This thing 
began with tears and need. 
But I think it will stir the 
people to a sense of musical 
appreciation as nothing else 
has. It is all very well that 
some orchestras and other 
musical organisations are 
privately endowed. But citi- 
zens should not depend on 
the generosity of a few. 
Music is a public right and 

"Many would not call it 
a 'renaissance.' It seems 
rather a new birth than a 
rebirth. Anyway, there is no 
mistaking the present music- 
hunger of the American 
public; and its appreciation 
of good music, rather than 
cheap noise, grows more evi- 
dent right along." 

Chico (Cahf.) Record. 

"Dr. Alfred Hertz did not 
have to be the keen student 
of music and director that 
he is to select young Leslie 
Hodge as his protege. Hodge 
proved to his Woodland lis- 
teners that he is destined 
some day to be ranked 
among the great directors of 
the world." Hodge is con- 
ductor of the Sacramento 
Music Project orchestra. 

Woodland (Calif.) 

"We extend greetings and congratulations to L. F. 
Stoddard and his Federal Music Project band which 
has selected Oceanside as its headquarters. This band 
is outstanding in the music they play. Everyone should 
turn out and lend the band their support. It would be 
time well spent." 

Oceanside (Calif.) News. 







x^^ ^!A 









DR. NIKOLAI SOtCOLOfF, Notioool DIrecWr 

HARRY HOPKINS, Nofionol Administrator 

Vol. 2 

March, 1937 

ELLEN S. WOOOWARD, Assistont Administrotof 

No 3 




State UirectoT 

One of the aims of the Federal 
Music Project in California last year 
was to offer music to as many com- 
munities as possible, especially where 
concerts had never before been pre- 
sented. Our program now is to de- 
vise means of perfecting, intensify- 
ing and enlarging the scope of these 
musical activities. Some of the fol- 
lowing plans have been placed in 
operation already; others will begin 
shortly. These are the goals toward 
which the CaUfomia Music Projects 
are now working: 

1. To become a recognized part of 
the community schedule of 
events by presenting regular 
concerts at specified times of 
the month in central locations. 

2. To institute more intensive edu- 
cational programs in the schools, 
offering more varied and in- 
structive concerts to all grades 
of students. 

3. To work in closer cooperation 
with the Recreation Projects in 
each locality, furnishing appro- 
priate music of high quality and 
trained teachers and leaders. 

4. To collaborate with the Theatre 
Project in productions which 
will stimulate the combined ef- 
forts of members and staff of 
both Music and Theatre Proj- 

5. To develop an experimental op- 
era group which will endeavor 
to evolve new methods of pre- 
senting musical drama. 

6. To exchange the new musical 
works of composers in the West 
with states in other regions so 
that a composition of merit may 
eventually have national hear- 

7. To develop individual talent by 
offering studio and concert re- 
citals, thereby providmg an op- 




Beaux Arts Building 

L« Angdo, GiHL 


By Harle Jervis . . . : 2 

By Ellen S. Woodward . i 

By W-'illhrn Grant Slitl • 4 


By Holger Cahill ... 7 

By R. M. MacAlpin . . 8 

NEWS 9-12 




By R. P. D 1} 


National Youth Administration 
By Ann Whiiiingion 14 

Federal Theatre Project 

By Myra Kinch ... 15 

By Hugh Harlan .... 16 

Concerts, Recitals, Radio 19 



portunity for competent soloists 
to be heaurd by the pubUc. 
To provide opportunities for 
young conductors to direct or- 
chestral and choral groups. 
To enlarge the scope of the 
central exchange library of 
music in Los Angeles so that 
musical scores and parts may be 
exchanged with all States. 
To extend the scope of the Cah- 
fornia Music Project magasine 
"The Baton" to include articles, 
news and activities of Arts Proj- 
ects throughout the country. 
To estabhsh a regular yearly 
Festival of Arts in Cahfomia in 
which the Music, Theatre, Art 
and Writers Projects would par- 
ticipate. This should be a co- 
ordinated program in which the 
four Arts Projects contribute 
their knowledge and experience 
to all performances during this 
Festival Week. 
The above plans for future ac- 
tivities are proposed with one basic 
idea in mind — making a permanent 
place for the musician in his com- 
munity. We will not reach this goal 
until music becomes so integral a 
part of community life that people 
will contribute to the permanent 
maintenance of their own local mus- 
ical talent. 

This concentrated outpouring of 
Art for the first time in America's 
history must bring to artists the pub- 
lic's appreciation and demand for 
their work. The far reaching affects 
of this steady flow of beauty into the 
minds and hearts of the American 
people is the ultimate goal of alt our 


This magazine was printed through the courtesy of a private organization which contribtUed its equipment 
for the furtherance of Federal Music Project activities. 


Page 3 


By Ellen S. Woodward 

(Assistant Administrator W^orks Progress Administration) 

Underlying the policies for the 
rehabihtation and relief of unem- 
ployed musicians there have been 
these thoughts: — "Music for every- 
body according to his desires and 
needs," and, the retraining of musi- 
cians for the contribution of their 
gitts to the community at large 
rather than as a personal expression 
to be enjoyed by a fortunate few. 

We learn from the records of the 
Federal Music Project that 53,000,- 
UOO persons have heard 64,000 con- 
certs, programs or performances in 
the last fourteen months. We begin 
to appreciate that music has ex- 
panded its a u d ie n c e base to un- 
dreamed-of lengths far beyond the 
subscription seat holders of the es- 
tablished symphony orchestras and 
grand opera forces. We reahze that 
activities of the Federal Music Proj- 
ect are attaining the most hopeful 
anticipations we held when the 
Works Progress Administration pro- 
posed projects to retrain and reha- 
bilitate the skills and aptitudes of 
the jobless professional musicians. 

There may be a real significance 
for the future cultural pattern of 
the United States in the fact that 
milHons in these audiences have 
heard the symphonies, the concerti, 
the great lyric dramas and the be- 
loved old oratorios for the first time. 
The evidence is abundant that a vast 
hunger for music existed among 
masses of our people who through 
distance or because of inadequacy of 
income were barred from the con- 
certs and opera of the metropolitan 
centers. Federal music has been taken 
into areas that long were musically 
arid and barren. 

A century ago Robert Schumann 
wrote that music is the greatest and 
most mysterious of the arts. And just 
the other day another wise person 
said that music, of all the arts, is 
the most intimately connected with 
man's physical nature. It is easy to 
believe both propositions — in theory. 
All of us know the stimulus that 

comes to persons taking part in mass 
singing and the energy released by 
the rhythm of military bands. Such 
music sways throngs and beckons to 
new avenues of thought. 

But for millions of Americans to- 
day, while music is no less stimu- 
lating or mood-inducing, it has lost 
some of the mystery of which the 
Romanticist - composer Schumann 
wrote. More than two miUion in- 
dividuals, children and adults, almost 
entirely from the relief population 
and the underprivileged, have had 
instruction in music, have experi- 
enced its warmth and inspiration in 
music appreciation demonstrations 
and in group classes, or have par- 
ticipated in bands, orchestras and 
choruses under WPA music leaders. 

Enrollment in teaching classes 
alone aggregated 201,093 pupils each 
week in December and this figure 
shows a marked decrease from pre- 
ceding months because of infantile 
paralysis and influenza epidemics 
which closed community gatherings 
in several states. 

On February 1 there were 13,607 
individuals on the Project, divided 
into 761 units as follows: 

159 symphony and concert or- 
chestras employing 5,206; 78 bands 
employing 2,417; 88 dance orches- 
tras with 1,345; 28 theater and 
novelty orchestras with 500; 34 
choral groups with 948; four opera 
projects with 519, and 285 educa- 
tional units employing 1,287 teach- 
ers, demonstrators and leaders. 
Twenty - seven chamber music en- 
sembles, one soloist project, 26 units 
for copyists, librarians, arrangers, 
tuners and instrument repairers; 21 
coordinating a n d 1 8 miscellaneous 

projects absorb the others. Of these 
2,275 are women. 

Now just a few words about the 
American composer, — although a 
volume might be pubhshed hsting 
his achievements since he came into 
recogmtion with the Federal Music 
Project's encouragement. If such a 
volume were to leave the press today 
it would name 1,451 American musi- 
cians whose more than 4,000 com- 
positions have been heard at WPA 
programs in the last eighteen months. 
For many years, so indurated were 
we with the European tonal tradi- 
tion, that the American composer 
was the most neglected of all our 
musicians, and there still is surprise 
in the knowledge that we have 43 
American symphonies. 

In New "VTork last month the first 
Theater of Music in America was 
opened by the Federal Music Proj- 
ect. In this theater orchestras, choirs, 
grand and chamber operas, artists, 
lecturers and musicologists are bring- 
ing music within the reach of per- 
sons in the metropoUtan region who 
desire it. The first of ten programs 
illustrative of the history and the 
rhythms of the dance has been given. 
A symphonic program is performed 
every Sunday night, devoted in each 
fourth concert to "new talent" — 
American artists, composers and 

In Boston a Beethoven Cycle was 
started this month in Copley Theater 
in which all of the nine symphonies 
will be performed, and in the famous 
old Boston Opera House 7,185 per- 
sons heard five joint performances of 
PagKacci and Louis Gruenberg's Jack 
and the Beanstalk during the first 
week of February. This brings the 
Boston Project's repertoire to seven 

On February 21 the Philadelphia 
Civic Orchestra, a symphonic unit, 
will devote its program to American 
compositions; the Virginia Sym- 
phony Orchestra has just received 
the sponsorship and support of the 

Cominued on Page Eighteen 

Page 4 



By William Grant Still 


For many years, people engaged 
in all branches of artistic endeavor 
have been hoping for some govern- 
mental recognition of their efforts. 
At last it has come in the form of 
the WPA, with its many £ne proj- 
ects, its splendid musical conductors, 
its opportunities for artistic people 
to come together for the creation of 
works of beauty, and its financial 
support of the artist as on an equal 
plane with those engaged in other 
professions. Truly, such an ideal, 
now reached, not only establishes 
the artist's confidence in himself, but 
is the basis for the formation of a 
remarkable culture — a culture as fine 
as any possessed by the ancients. 

The benefits of the WPA for the 
American composer, then, are indeed 
great. To understand fully how great 
they are, it is necessary to review 
briefly musical history in America. 
In the past, conductors of our sym- 
phonies have programmed American 
works only occasionally, while giving 
the greater part of their attention 
to acquainting the American public 
with classic and modern European 
music. Of course, this is necessary 
too. We should not be ignorant of 
the fine things our musical neighbors 
are accomplishing. But, on the other 
hand, we should not be ignorant of 
what our own composers are doing. 
Europe is not so inconsistent. Its 
loyalty to its own composers is 
staunch. Give a Berlin audience the 
choice between a German and a for- 
eign composition, and it will select 
the local product every time. This 
is true of almost every European 

country. There may be many reasons 
for it, but there can be no doubt 
that loyalty is one of them. 

Among American conductors, 
Howard Hanson has been unique, 
for he alone has dared to present 
American compositions at Rochester 
on a large scale, meanwhile wisely 
not forgetting to play the works of 
others. The result is a fine orchestra 
under the direction of an excellent 
musician (who is also an American 
composer of great prominence) and 
an intelligent audience, sensitive to 
all that is good and to all that is 
merely "acceptable" in American 
music. Ask any one who attends the 
Rochester concerts his opinion of the 
relative merits of any American com- 
poser. You will receive a discriminat- 
ing, thoughtful reply, for he has 
heard them all, played beautifully. 

But, as I say, Howard Hanson is 
unique. Stokowski, Lange and Goos- 
sens (among others) have all done 
excellent work in programming 
American compositions and have 
thus furthered the cause, since their 
approval means a great deal in itself, 
but none of them has done it on 
such a large scale as Dr. Hanson. 

Thus, the value of the WPA to 

the American composer is increas- 
ingly apparent. Now he can actually 
hear his music, played on programs 
devoted solely to American composi- 
tions or, as MacDowell would have 
it, in the company of foreign com- 
posers, so that its relative merit may 
be discovered. Now there can be 
developed a real American school of 
music, for it is only in getting his 
product out to a responsive public 
that any artist can mature. 

Although I have been told that 
my music has been played by Project 
orchestras in the East, it was but 
recently that I was privileged to hear 
it done by such an organization, 
when Vernon Robinson and his Fed- 
eral Symphony of San Bernardmo, 
Calif, played my "Africa" and my 
"Kaintuck" with Verna Arvey at the 
•solo piano. Mr. Robinson has played 
many other American works, some 
of them for the first time. For in- 
stance, he has played Leach's Con- 
cert Overture, Carton's "Concer- 
tino", Gale's "Suite Druid Pete", 
Williams' "Overture Miniature", 
Fredericksen's "Frescoes", as well as 
Gale's Fantasy on a Japanese Theme, 
"Oiwaki". In a recent conversation 
with Modeste Altschuler, I discov- 
ered that he, too, is eager to present 
new American music. The enthusi- 
asm displayed by both Mr. Robinson 
and Mr. Altschuler seems to me to 
be a truly wonderful thing — some- 
thing that other conductors would 
do well to emulate, for thus they can 
serve a great purpose in furthering 
the cause of a great, typically Amer- 
ican, music. 




Arnold Schoenberg, widely dis- 
cussed composer and conductor, pre- 
sided at the podium of the Los 
Angeles Music Project Symphony 
Orchestra on February 17. Dr. 
Schoenberg conducted the Los An- 
geles premiere of his tone poem, 
"Pelleas and Melisande". 

Students of music, followers of 
Schoenberg, and many people num- 
bered among the great in the world 
of music and the arts, filled Trinity 

Reviewing the concert in the Los 
Angeles Times, Isabel Morse Jones 
said, "In this "Pelleas and Melisande' 
the egocentric modernism of con- 
temporary leadership is already ap- 
parent. Schoenberg is an individual- 
ist always and seems to be wholly 
uninterested in the reactions of his 
listeners. He is important because 
he writes his own music without fear 
or favor to any other composer. Los 
Angeles musicians deemed it a priv- 
ilege to hear 'Pelleas and Melisande' 
and to have the composer wield the 

Richard Drake Saunders wrote in 
the Hollywood Citizen-News, "It 
seems surprising that this work has 
so long been neglected on concert 

In the Los Angeles Evening News 
appeared, in part, the following re- 
view under Mildred Norton's signa- 
ture, "Rushing in where angels fear- 
ed to tread, the Federal crew ambiti- 
ously attempted an Arnold Schoen- 
berg number, and put other local or- 
chestras to shame for their weak- 
kneed evasions of the work by turn- 
ing out a thoroughly commendable 
performance. ... It is a magnificent 
work. One wonders why Los An- 
geles had to wait a quarter of a cen- 
tury to hear it. It can stand alone, 
not only as absolute music, but as 
some of the greatest music of this 

Winners in a contest being sponsored by 
the San Francisco Federal Music Project 
for voice, piano, and violin, are promised 
an appearance with the Project symphony 
orchestra, under Ernst Bacon, during Music 

Interested musicians should contact Ernst 
Bacon, San Francisco Supervisor, Federal 
Muiie Project. 



garding future plans for the Cali- 


Felix Borowski 

February 23, 1937. 
Miss Harle Jervis, 
State Director, 
Federal Music Project, 
Los Angeles, Calif. 
Dear Miss Jervis: 

Many thanks for your very kind 
telegram telling me of the success 
of "Fernando", which I received 
this morning. Considering the skill 
and the resources of the organiza- 
tion which you liave built up so 
admirably, and the genius of my 
fiiend, Samossoud (who is, I feel, 
one of the greatest living conduc- 
tors), it would have surprised me 
greatly if your production had failed 
:to make an impression, I am more 
than pleased to know of the tri- 
umph that both of you have 
brought about, and am sorry only 
■ that i was not able to see and heai 
"Punchinello" and "Fernando". It 
gave" jne no little joy to write the 
latter, for I ardently hoped to make 
something worth while out of a new 
idea. I am afraid that "Fernando" 
will shock the serious lovers of 
"grand" opera, but perhaps it will 
do them good, too! 

With renewed thanks and kindest 

Very sincerely yours, 

Felix Borowski. 

fornia Project. 

On Saturday night. Dr. SokolofF 
attended a performance of Felix 
Borowski's adaptation of "I Pag- 
liacci" and his modern satire on 
grand opera, "Fernando del Non- 
sentsico", at the Figueroa Playhouse. 
Dr. Sokoloff said, "This is one of 
the finest productions that has been 
given by a music project in the 
United States". He comphmented the 
cast very highly on the excellence 
of their performance. 

On Monday, he and Miss Jervis 
left for San Diego, where they began 
an inspection tour that will take 
them to all state projects. 

"The California Project, as much 
as I have seen of it, seems to be in 
excellent shape," said Dr. Sokoloff. 

Dr. Sokoloff plans to remain in 
CaUfornia a week or ten days before 
beginning an inspection tour that 
will carry him to music projects 
throughout the Western Region. 

Music lovers and patrons of the 
arts here had hoped that Dr. Soko- 
loff might be heard at the podium 
of one of the California Project 
symphony orchestras, but pressure of 
business and the fact that Dr. So- 
koloff plans to visit the entire region, 
prevented his appearance. However, 
Californians may anticipate Dr. So- 
koloff's return early in the summer, 
at which time he will conduct one 
or two of the larger California Proj- 
ect symphony orchestras. 


Dr. Sokoloff was musical director and 
conductor of the Cleveland Orchestra 
for fifteen years and as a guest conduc- 
tor he has appeared with the London 
Symphony Orchestra, the Academic 
Orchestra of Russia, the Philadelphia 
and the New York Philharmonic 
Symphony Orchestras, and the Chicago, 
Detroit and San Francisco Symphonies 
and the Rochester and Portland Phil- 
harmonic Orchestras. 



Stephen deHospodar 






By Ho/ger Cahill 

(National Dirtctor, Federal Art Project) 

California, as anyone may observe, 
is a vast country. Picked up and 
placed on another continent, it would 
be an empire of its own. With its 
beautiful setting — mountains, forests, 
seashore, lakes — CaUfornia should 
develop an outdoor art because of 
its climate, which is free from great 
extremes of heat and cold, and be' 
cause of its brilliant sunshine. The 
California units of the Federal Art 
Project are tending toward this de- 
velopment of outdoor forms of art. 

California, possibly because of the 
grandeur of its natural setting, goes 
in for the monumental. Hence, large 
mosaics in colored tile and marble, 
well suited to grandiose expression, 
are one of the outstanding activities 
of the CaUfomia units. The mosaics 
are being placed on exterior walls, 
as well as interiors, since California's 
public buildings, in many instances, 
lend themselves so admirably to out- 
door decoration. 

The mosaic technique is being em- 
ployed in a number of styles and 
mediums, — glazed tile, matt or dull 
tile, marble in small fragments and 
in larger cut-out pieces whose vari- 
ous colors and shapes form the out- 
lines of the composition. This last 
style, an ancient one as its Latin 
name indicates, is known as opus 
sectile. It is being used with notable 
success in two large interior panels 
for the lobby of the new Alameda 
County Court House in Northern 

The Long Beach Municipal Audi- 
torium is a splendid example of the 
glazed tile mosaic being created by 
artists in Southern California. On the 
front exterior wall of the auditorium 
a vast arch, thirty-eight feet high by 
twenty-six feet wide, frames a re- 
cessed wall on which 400,000 bits of 
tile are being carefully placed by 
thirty trained craftsmen working 
from designs by a master artist, and 
under his supervision. 

Another distinctive project for 
California is the large sculpture. I 
think we have never developed in 
this country a good school of monu- 
mental and civic sculpture. Archi- 
tecture, with us, has always dwarfed 
the civic monument, and this should 
not be so. 

California is developing some very 
large monuments, some cast, some 
cut directly in stone, and in the 
northern part of the state they are 
working with formed stainless steel. 
It will be interesting to watch these 
many works now being produced by 
the Federal Art Project, to aee 

whether a new school of sculpture 
is being developed. 

The work of the Art Project in 
California is considerably above the 
average. The work done in groups — 
and this is not only my own opinion, 
but the opinion also of other people 
who have watched the artists — is an 
improvement over the work they did 
separately. Artists working in a 
group not only stimulate one an- 
other to do better work, but they 
produce things that cannot be pro- 
duced by individuals. In the Federal 
Music Project you have symphony 
orchestras. They work, not as a 
group of soloists, but as one man. 
If you had to listen to an orchestra 
of one hundred soloists, it would be 
a rather painful experience. On the 
Art Project we also have our sym- 
phonies — groups of trained artists 
and craftsmen working together to 
produce a work which no one artist 
could carry out alone. 

California is significant in its en- 
vironment, both natural and social. 
It has art talent of a remarkably high 
order. Its mural paintings, mosaics 
and outdoor sculptures are distinc- 
tive, and an increasingly high quality 
is readily apparent. California artists 
have the abihty, the technique — and, 
above all, the opportunity — to carry 
art in this part of the country to 
higher levels than it has ever known 




By R. M. MacAlpin 

(lAtmhtr Pasadena Projtel Symphoity Oreitiira) 

An outstanding article in the Feb- 
ruary issue of the BATON called 
attention to the curative powers of 
music. Taken with the closing re- 
marks of Dr. Sokoloff's remarkable 
address, published in the same issue; 
". . . . that the spirit of man does 
matter, as well as new plumbing 
gadgets and better gas stations;"' and 
with the profound references in Dr. 
Altschuler's sketch on the art of con- 
ducting; and with the high moral 
tone of the "New Literacy" article; 
a large morsel of food thought pre- 
sents itself to the philosophic mind. 

There is almost no limit to the 
powers of organized sound and 
rhythm, according to the most com- 
prehensive teachings. In ages long 
before the Christian era we find 
records of the healing power of 
music. All the fire-philosophers of 
the middle ages knew of it. It will 
not be long before we shall have 
our corps of artists in every hospital, 
sanitarium and asylum, practicing 
and studying the finer points of 
musical healing. Musicians of a spe- 
cial type will be developed for this 
work, of course, because the healing 
effect is enhanced a hundred-fold by 
the attitude and the emanated vibra- 
tions of the artists themselves. 

Joshua blowing down the walls of 
Jericho with his trumpet blasts, is 
no fairy-tale either, but a lesson in 
sympathetic vibration. 

It will be a long time before our 
rather materialistic race will evolve 
to the finer uses of humanly pro- 
duced music, but those who wish 
may wonder if the giants who built 
the great Pyramid some 70,000 years 
ago, cemented their stones by atom- 
izing the rocky surface with rhyth- 
mic depolarization? Or levitated the 
great stones into place with a rhyth- 
mic vortex we have yet to relearn? 
Does it not stand to reason that a 
force that will destroy will, if thrown 
into reverse, also create? 

Then there is the stimulation of 

evolutionary growth in the lower 
kingdoms of life by the proper mus- 
ical tones and waves. But all these 

Can You Answer These? 

1. Name any two prominent 
living composers whose 
works have been per- 
formed by the New York 
City Composers' Labora- 

2. What is the meaning of 
the words "cantus firmus"? 

3. Name the composers of 
two famous Requiem 

4. Of what endowed con- 
servatory of music is Josef 
Hoffman the Director? 

5. Who wrote "Fernando del 
Nonsentsico"? (He wrote 
an article for the February 

6. Which is longer, the bow 
of the violin or that of the 

7. What modern living com- 
poser is called the "Ein- 
stein of Music"? He wrote 
"Pelleas and Melisande". 

8. What French composer 
became Director of the 
Paris Conservatoire of 
Music in 1842? He wrote 
"Fra Diavolo". 

9. (a) Who wrote the opera 
"Manon", (b) Who wrote 
the opera "Manon Les- 

10. Who is the Music Editor 

of the New York Times? 

(Aniutra on Page 12) 

interesting possibilities of music as 
a cosmic influence are inferior. They 
are individuahzed departments in the 
larger purpose of humanly produced 

Anything produced by human leg- 
islation, education or industry should, 
according to universal ethics, be con- 
tributory to the Magnum Opus of 
human Being and Becoming; which 
IS "expansion of consciousness" in 
the individual, and hence in the 

Can anyone question the power of 
music to weld human hearts and 
minds into union, or even unity, for 
the rime being at least? Then, if the 
human units who are being bonded 
by the "universal language" — say a 
symphony audience of a thousand 
persons — would hold a single, com- 
monly expressed kindly thought, uni- 
versally applicable, would they not 
exert a great influence in the plan- 
etary field of thought - induction? 
Like purifying a community reservoir 
from which all of us must drink. 
Would such self-conscious intellec- 
tion tend to stop warfare and to 
breed great statesmen? Would music, 
as the synchronizing power, have a 
new relative value in the national 
and planetary consciousness? 

Our Federal Music Projects, as 
among the first seeds of "Govern- 
ment subsidized arts and sciences," 
would seem to be specially adapted 
to this subtle development of cos- 
mic music. For our Federal musicians 
themselves are, so to speak, bonded 
by a common need and purpose; 
whether that purpose be the old-line 
idea of "relief", or the more for- 
ward-going idea of a pioneer effort 
toward new degrees of human Being 
and Becoming. 

A fundamental seed - thought for 
broadcasting into our over-commer- 
cialized consciousness might be: "Let 
us build a civilization on higher hu- 
man value." 


Page 9 


From the Tulsa Tribune 

Tulsa's WPA Symphony orches- 
tra may soon be rated as one of only 
six of its kind in the entire nation. 

With plans already well under 
way for the federal government to 
subsidize six symphonies in as many 
cities of the United States, it was 
indicated Wednesday there is a 
"strong possibility" the Tulsa orches- 
tra, conducted by George C. Baum, 
will be one of the six. 

"The plan," explained Dean Rich- 
ardson, state director of federal music 
projects, "is to select six ochestras 
in the United States and designate 
them as 'federal symphonies', a term 
that can be applied only to those 
WPA symphonies which, because of 
the quality of their work, merit it. 

Richardson said three weeks ago 
the 100-piece New York Symphony, 
formed from all orchestras there and 
conducted by Dr. Nikolai Sokoloff, 
national director of federal music 
project, was designated as the first 
of the six. The others he believes 
will be Philadelphia, Boston, Chi- 
cago, Los Angeles and Tulsa. 

Richardson was profuse in his 
praise of Mayor T. A. Penney, W. 
Dexter Moss, chairman of the Tulsa 
fine arts committee, and Dorothy 
Heywood Reedy, president of the 
City Federation of Music clubs, all 
of whom have taken leading parts 
in supporting the orchestra. 

Ernst Bacon Lauded 

In Chicago Concert 

After an all German program, pre- 
sented on February 18 under Ernst 
Bacon's baton, the San Francisco 
Supervisor left for a short stay at 
Chicago, where, at the invitation of 
Guy Maier, he acted as guest con- 
ductor of the Illinois State Sym- 
phony Orchestra, a Federal Music 
Project unit of that city. 

Ernst Bacon conducted the orches- 
tra in the Second Movement of his 
D Minor Symphony, for which he 
was awarded the 19,^? Pulitzer Prize 
in music composition. Other numbers 
on the program included Beethoven's 
Overture to "Coriolanus". Reforma- 
tion Symphony (No. 5), by Men- 
delssohn, and Mozart's Concerto in 

"The Baton" is grateful to 
the following State Directors, 
who have kindly consented to 
contribute features and news 
items to the magazine -each 

Erie Stapleton, North Carolina 
Harry Whittemore, New 


Ira S. Pratt, Kansas 
Frederick Rocke, New Jersey 
William I. Pelz, Indiana 
Wilfrid Pyle, Virginia 
William Meyers, Nebraska 
William V. Arvold, Wisconsin 
Karl Wecker, Michigan 
George Crandall, New York 

Frederick W. Goodrich, 

Dean Richardson, Oklahoma 
Rene Salomon, Louisiana 

Helen Chandler Ryan, New 

Mrs. John F. Lyons, Texas 
Reginald Bonnin, Maine 
Vaughan Cahill, Ohio 
Clarence Carter Nice, Florida 
John J. Becker, Minnesota 
William Haddon, Massachu- 
Albert Goldberg, Illinois 


E Flat Major, which featured Guy 
Maier at the piano. 

Glenn Dillard Gunn, reviewing the 
concert for the Chicago Herald and 
Examiner, wrote: "(Bacon) ... is 
one of the conductors who should, 
but will not, replace some of the re- 
cently imported second - class Euro- 
peans now active in Minneapolis, 
Rochester, Philadelphia, and other 
American cities. The impression of 
his talent, as exhibited in Beet- 
hoven's 'Coriolanus' overture and the 
Mozart accompaniment, was one of 
authority based on knowledge. His 
gifts as composer were interestingly 
displayed in a movement from his 
first symphony. . . ." 

Mr. Bacon has now returned to 
his activities as Supervisor of the 
San Francisco Project. 

Chalmers Clifton, Professor of 
Music Conducting at Columbia Uni- 
versity, has been selected to head the 
Federal Music Project in New York 
City by Dr. Nikolai Sokoloff, na- 
tional director. 

Mr. Clifton succeeds Lee Pattison, 
who announced his resignation as of 
February 15. Mr. Pattison will be in 
charge of the next popular spring 
season at the Metropolitan Opera 

Mr. Clifton served as the project's 
director in New York City from 
September, 1935, to January, 1936. 
He was succeeded by Mr. Pattison. 
When he resigned as regional di- 
rector, Mr. Clifton continued his in- 
terest in the project's activities in 
both advisory and musical capacities. 
On numerous occasions, he has 
served as guest conductor of Federal 
Music Project symphony orchestras, 
and last year he took an active part 
in the project's festival of American 
music. He was born in Jackson, Mis- 
sissippi, in 1890, and studied music 
at the Cincinnati College of Music 
and Harvard University, later con- 
tinuing his musical education in Paris 
with V. d'Indy and A. Gedalge. 

New American Works 
Played By Projects 

American compositions performed 
by Federal Music Project units dur- 
ing the first two weeks in February 
included Arthur Shepherd's "Hori- 
zons", Roger Sessions' orchestral 
suite from "Black Maskers", Theo- 
dore Cella's "Carnival", in New 
York City; Aurelio Giorni's "Pas- 
sacaglia", in Buffalo; Reginald 
Beales' "Soliloquy", in Salt Lake 
City; John Powell's "Snowbirds on 
the Ashbank" and "Green Willow 
Quincy Porter's "Dance", and John 
Cianciarulo's "Fete Champetre", in 
Philadelphia; John Leight's "Sym- 
phony", and orchestral excerpts from 
Fleetwood Diefenthaeler's opera 
"Philemon and Baucis", in Mil- 
waukee; Arnold Schoenberg's "Pel- 
leas and Melisande", and Paul Mar- 
tin's "Elegy to an Unknown Hero", 
in Los Angeles; Ernst Bacon's 
"Country Roads — Unpaved", in San 
Francisco, all written for the orches- 
tra; and Ernest Bloch's "Schelomo", 
in San Francisco, for violincello and 

Pa^e 10 



The Works Progress Administra- 
tion Theatre of Music opened late 
in January uith a concert by a hun- 
dred - piece Federal Symphony or- 
chestra directed by Dr. Nikolai Sok- 

The new Theatre of Music occu- 
pies the building formerly known as 
the Gallo Theatre on West 54th 
Street where seven performances 
each week are now being given, in- 
cluding grand and chamber opera, 
symphony concerts and choral per- 
formances. The admission price 
ranges from twenty-five to fifty 
cents. The programs of the Com- 
posers' Forum Laboratory are given 
in the Theatre on Wednesday nights, 
and are free to the public. Sunday 
nights are devoted to symphony pro- 
grams. One performance each month 
is known as a "New Talent" per- 
formance, when young American 
musicians have opportunities to ap- 
pear as conductors and soloists. 
These programs also present com- 
positions of native composers. 


February 26 marked the last in a 
series of five Friday evening con- 
certs devoted to the music of Mojart 
and Haydn. 

The Madrigal Singers, under the 
direction of Lehman Engel, conclud- 
ed a series of five concerts devoted 
to choral music on Sunday, February 
28. The choral works presented 
ranged from the sixteenth century to 
the present. 

The third subscription series, con- 
sisting of twenty programs, was be- 
gun on February 7, and alternates 
with the Madrigal Singers' concerts 
on Sunday afternoon performances. 
These programs illustrate "The 
Sources of Dance Rhythms and 
Form," tracing their development 
and contribution to American liter- 
ature from the sixteenth century to 
the present. Outstanding dance and 
concert groups are appearing in this 
series. Mr. Chalmers Clifton is the 
new regional director of the New 
York City Project. 


The first Theatre of Music in America was 
by Dr. Nikolai Sokoloff. who also conducted the 
chestra. The opening of the Theatre of Music i 
Project. It is hoped that other similar units wii 
story in the first column on the left. 


The Federal Music Project of New 
Hampshire has cooperated with edu- 
cational leaders throughout the State 
in an effort to bring concert pro- 
grams of merit and interest to the 
young people of New Hampshire. 
By working directly with school mu- 
sic supervisors, it has been possible, 
on these programs, to feature orches- 
tral numbers which the students have 
been analyzing in Music Apprecia- 
tion classes. The Federal Music Pro- 
ject's thirty-piece concert orchestra 
has given this type of program in 
twenty-five cities and towns and has 
filled many return engagements. 

Other units in New Hampshire 
functioning through the Federal Mu- 
sic Project are a twenty-piece band, 
a twelve-piece dance orchestra, and 
a teaching project which employs 
twenty-nine teachers and instructs 
over one thousand students from re- 
lief and underprivileged families. 


The Chicago Project started its 
second year recently with eight units 
comprised of five hundred singers 
and instrumentalists. These units 
are the Illinois Symphony Orches- 
tra, under the direction of Izler Sol- 
omon; the American Concert Or- 
chestra, under the direction of Dr. 
Gustave Ronfort; the Illinois Con- 
cert Band under Max Bendix; the 
Illinois Philharmonic Choir, under 
Walter Aschenbrenner; the Colored 
Concert Orchestra, under Norman 
L. Black; the Colored Jazs Orches- 
tra, under Zilner Trenton Randolph; 
the Jubilee Singers, under James A. 
Mundy, and the Great Northern 
Theatre Orchestra, under Edward 

A composers" forum has recently 
been established by Albert Goldberg 
in which the works of many promi- 
nent Chicago composers are being 
performed and discussed. 



Page 11 


n Janjmry 24 by the New York City Project, and 
'red-piece New York City Project's Symphony Or- 
a long cherished atnbition of the New York City 
nized throughout the United States. See complete 


Two major concerts presented by 
the Indiana Federal Music Project 
were given by the Clinton Band, 
under the direction of Paul Fidlar, 
on February 19, and a Festival Night 
in Indianapolis on February 23. The 
latter concert was in the nature of a 
miniature music festival, and was 
produced for the purpose of giving 
a cross section of the Indiana Federal 
Music Project activities. Composi- 
tions by Mabel Daniels and Thomas 
Griselle were given their first In- 
dianapoUs performance at this con- 

January marked the beginning of 
a series of Federal Music Project 
broadcasts originating from Station 
WIRE in IndianapoHs. These pro- 
grams are presented each Tuesday 
and Friday afternoons from 4:15 to 
4:30, and include selections by the 
concert orchestra, the string quartet, 
the trio, and the two-piano team of 
Pels and Whetstine. Each broadcast 
features a composition written by a 
contemporary American composer. 


Federal Music Project units in 
Kansas include two concert bands in 
Kansas City, one of which is com- 
posed of negroes. The white band 
is entering a series of weekly con- 
certs and studies in music apprecia- 
tion in the various schools in Kansas 

In addition to these major groups 
there are now teaching groups in 
six counties in Kansas and, accord- 
ing to Ira S. Pratt, State Director, 
three or four more teaching groups 
will be organized this month. 



Miss Anne de Guichard, one of 
the country's professional woman 
bassoonists, is the only one of her 
sex among the seventy-five members 
of the State Symphony Orchestra. 
This popular unit is now engaged m 
a series of concerts being presented 
at the Copley Theatre in Boston on 
Sunday evenings, under the baton 
of Alexander Thiede. 

The Copley Theatre series is of 
special interest to students and lov- 
ers of good music as a cycle of Beet- 
hoven's great symphonies is now 
being given. One Beethoven sym- 
phony is presented each Sunday and 
shares the program with the work 
by a contemporary composer and a 
guest soloist. 

Wilham Haddon, Massachusetts 
state director, recently announced 
that Bizet's famous opera, "Car- 
men," under the direction of Isaac 
Van Grove, will shortly be present- 
ed by the Boston Project. 



Foremost among the activities of 
the Federal Music Project in Nebras- 
ka has been the series of music ap- 
preciation concerts for children now 
being presented in the elementary 
schools in Omaha. To date the or- 
chestra, in four months time, has 
played to a total audience of over 
72,000 students. 

These concerts, originally planned 
by state director WilUam Myers, 
were accorded such enthusiastic re- 
ception that the project office has 
since been kept busy booking en- 
gagements in practically every school 
in Omaha. Dante Picciotti, director 
of the Omaha Civic Orchestra, has 
been conducting these concerts. 

In addition to this activity in the 
schools, the Omaha project is at 
present conducting music composi- 
tion contests among the school chil- 

Page 12 





In cooperation \with the Oregon 
federation of music groups, the Ore- 
gon Federal Music Project is plan- 
ning the presentation of a spring fes- 
tived of music to be given in Port- 
land next month. Gaul's Cantata, 
"The Holy City," is being consider- 
ed for an outstanding feature of the 
festival. For this purpose a large 
number of the members of the Port- 
land Symphony Chorus, in addition 
to many women now being trained 
under project teachers, will be used. 
It is also planned to have the Port- 
land Civic Orchestra accompany this 

A proposed musical festival on the 
occasion of the dedication of Mount 
Hood Timberlme Lodge is also con- 
templated. Such choral numbers as 
Beethoven's "God's Glory in Na- 
ture," Schubert's"The Omnipotent," 
"The Song of the Marching Men," 
from "The New Earth" of Henry 
Hadley, and the "Hail Bright 
Abode" of Wagner are being con- 
sidered for presentation at this fes- 

National Music Clubs 
To Meet April 23-29 

The National Federation of Music 
Clubs will hold its Biennial Conven- 
tion in Louisville, Kentucky, April 
23 to 29, according to an announce- 
ment recently made by Mrs. John 
Alexander Jardine of Fargo, North 
Dakota, national president. 

After conferring with distinguish- 
ed American artists relative to their 
appearance at the Twentieth Bien- 
nial and American Music Festival, 
Mrs. Jardine announced that Mrs. 
H. Carroll Day, chairman of the Bi- 
ennial program, had already assigned 
places on the program to choral and 
instrumental groups from twenty- 
nine states. 

Mrs. Jardine announced as special 
features of the Twentieth Biennial a 
"Junior Day" on April 24, when 
performers up to the age of high 
school graduates will appear, and a 
"College and University Day" on 
April 27. 

From the Golden Gate to Tide- 
water, Virginia is a far-flung terri- 
tory but not too great to be com- 
passed by the activities of the Fed- 
eral Music Project. It seems this 
splendid enterprise is serving to 
bring together in a common endeav- 
or states in all parts of the Union, 
and to arouse an infinitely greater 
interest than hitherto. It is gratify- 
ing that there are publications of the 
various projects in which an ex- 
change of information serves as a 
tremendous stimulus to one's partic- 
ular aspirations. 

In Virginia, the Project is per- 
forming in both city and hamlet, 
mountain fastness and coast town, 
with equal enthusiasm and accom- 
plishment evidenced in every local- 
ity. There are few cities, none of 
which is over 200,000 inhabitants — 
the rest of the state is made up 
largely of agrarian communities. 
Four bands and one full-fledged sym- 
phony orchestra during the past six 
months have given 332 perform- 
ances to audiences aggregating over 
102,459 persons, and teaching pro- 
jects boast 140 recitals with an at- 
tendance of 58,553. The latter rep- 
resents the work of only 28 teachers 
in four sections of the common- 
wealth with an enrollment of 3,705 
pupils, young and old. 

Journeying west from the Atlantic 
coast, through the Blue Ridge moun- 
tains to the hill country of South- 
west Virginia, we find the teachers 
accomplishing more in the way of 
aesthetic elevation than elsewhere 
in the state, because there are many 
illiterate mountaineer families whose 
first contact with the practical beau- 
ties of music has been unbeset by 
the distractions of more urban influ- 
ences. Even the schools do not have 
music courses, a denial which is off- 
set by the efficient work of the Fed- 
eral Music Project. 

The response on the part of pu- 
pils and audiences has given proof 
that there is no lack of appreciation 
and gratitude for the extraordinary 
work in progress, which gives to the 
underprivileged as well as entire iso- 
lated and musically-starved commun- 
ities the opportunities they have 
never known. 

During the past month, Wisconsin 
has been concentrating on Milwau- 
kee, in order to show the citizens of 
that city the possibilities of its fine 
symphony orchestra. From a con- 
cert orchestra of some thirty mem- 
bers, the Wisconsin Symphony of 
eighty players has now been devel- 

With the help of regional director 
Guy Maier, a series of important 
concerts was arranged. The first of 
this series was held on January 29 
with Jerzy Bojanowski acting as the 
guest conductor and Guy Maier as 
soloist. The second of the series was 
held on February 28 with Mr. Boja- 
nowski, the dynamic young conduct- 
or of the Illinois Symphony, again 
acting as guest conductor, and with 
Margaret Diefenthaeler and Roland 
Dittl, the popular piano team of 
Milwaukee, doing the honors as 
guest soloists. 

The remaining two concerts of 
the series will find Rudolph Gans 
and Dr. Nikolai Sokoloff appearing 
as guest conductors. 


To Questions on Page S 


Henry Hadley, Lazare 

Saminsky, Werner Josten, 

Edgar Stillman Kelley, 

Maurice Levenson, Mabel 

Wood-Hill, Rosalie House- 

man, William Schumann, 

Roy Harris, Daniel Greg- 

ory Mason, Lehman Engel, 

Isadore Freed, Virgil 

Thomson, Henry Cowell, 

Frederick Jacobi, David 



The Plain Song, or Chant. 

Verdi, Mozart. 


Curtis Institute, Philadel- 



Felix Borowski. 


The bow of the violin. 


Arnold Schoenberg. 


Daniel F. E. Auber. 


(a) Massenet, (b) Puccini. 


Olin Downes. 


60 Passing 

70 Good 

80 Excellent 

90 You're a musician 

100 You peeked 


Page 13 


By R. P. D. 

Federal Music Project musicians 
are returning to private employment 
in increasingly large numbers. 

Individual musicians and, in many 
instances, whole units have left the 
project for work with private or- 
ganizations, so that project rolls have 
been reduced by more than one 
thousand persons throughout the 
United States since January 1 of 
this year. 

Lee Pattison, former regional di- 
rector for seven New England states, 
left the Federal Music Project on 
February 15 to become director-in- 
chief of spring and summer produc- 
tions at the Metropolitan Opera 
House. Mr. Pattison will succeed 
Edward Johnson during the latter's 
leave of absence. 

Ernest Hoffman, former director 
of the Boston Project opera unit, has 
been called to Houston, Texas, to 
direct that city's privately supported 
symphony orchestra. Mr. Hoffman 
achieved considerable success on the 
Boston Project as the director of 
several operas. 

From Guy Maier, regional director, 
comes the following letter: "Slowly 
but surely we are arriving at the ulti- 
mate result for which the Federal 
Music Project operations were in- 
tended. In Cincinnati last week we 
lost three musicians to private em- 
ployment. During the past month 
our pianist at the Bellaire, Ohio 
Project resigned to take private em- 
ployment, and in Cleveland we have 
recently had two such resignations. 
Also in Cleveland, we have had a 
very fine gypsy unit which resigned 
at the close of last week's payroll 
period to take work in a St. Louis 
restaurant. This is the first instance 
we have had where an entire unit 
has been absorbed by private em- 
ployment; and the surprising thing 
is that they are being paid a very 

attractive salary." 

The gypsy unit of which Mr. 
Maier writes has been given a long 
term contract, and their pay will re- 
store them to the union rate. 

Gerard Dougherty, formerly a 
regular member of the choral group 
of the San Diego Project, who 
showed aptitude while assisting stage 
director WilHam G. Stewart, was re- 
cently selected as stage director of 
the San Diego State College's pro- 

Current Competitions 

A chamber music prize of five 
hundred dollars is offered for a string 
quartet to have its world premiere 
at the Festival of Pan-American 
Chamber Music to be held at Mexico 
City in July, 1937. Details may be 
had from Hubert Herring, Director, 
Committee of Cultural Relations 
with Latin America, 289 Fourth 
Avenue, New York City. 

* * * * 

A choral drama prize of five hun- 
dred dollars is offered by the Amer- 
ican Choral and Festival AlHance, 
for a work in this form by an Amer- 
ican citizen. Entries close April 1, 
1937; and full particulars may be 
had from Rudolph Ganz, 64 East 
Van Buren Street, Chicago, Illinois. 

* * * * 

The Philharmonic-Symphony Or- 
chestra of New York offers a prize 
of one thousand dollars for an or- 
chestral composition ranging from 
twenty minutes to full symphonic 
length, and a second prize of five 
hundred dollars for an overture, 
suite or symphonic poem not longer 
than ten to twenty minutes. Entry 
blanks and full information may be 
had by writing to the Philharmonic- 
Symphony Orchestra, 113 West 57th 
Street, New York City. 

duction, "The Student Prince." 

Ervin Nyiregyhazi, brilhant pianist 
of the Los Angeles Project, gave his 
farewell project concert to a large 
audience assembled in the Los An- 
geles Trinity Auditorium on Febru- 
ry- 24. Mr. Nyiregyhazi has been 
booked by a New York agent for an 
extended concert tour of New York 
and the New England states. 

Several musicians of Federal Music 
Project units have signed contracts 
recently with five subscription sym- 
phony orchestras in MetropoHtan 
cities and with two of the estabUshed 
opera companies. 

Members of the Oakland and San 
Francisco Project symphony orches- 
tras were called upon to augment 
the San Francisco Symphony during 
a recent opera. Several players from 
these project orchestras were re- 
tained for regular employment with 
the San Francisco Symphony. 

In several recent instances civic 
groups comprised of art patrons and 
lovers of music have been organized 
to perpetuate music project units 
when Federal assistance is with- 
drawn. The Symphony Society of 
Hartford, Connecticut, with many 
distinguished names on its director- 
ate and membership, was created last 
month "to sponsor at all times 
morally, and when necessary finan- 
cially, the excellent work of the 
Hartford Project Symphony Orches- 

Indications from many projects 
through the United States point to 
the fact that Federal musicians are 
being, and will continue to be, re- 
turned to private employment in in- 
creasingly large numbers. 

Page 14 


The Dance 


By Anne Whittington 

(SMpfvisor, NY A Danct Group, City and County of San Francisco) 

The NYA Dance group of San 
Francisco, being the only federally 
sponsored dance unit of this district, 
has taken a professional outlook in 
its standards of material and per- 
formance. It has worked in a most 
sincere effort toward achievements 
that could be measured by any 

The necessarily experimental na- 
ture of the project at first has been 
justified, I sincerely believe. While, 
admittedly, there have been flaws in 
performance, from the enthusiasm 
voiced by our audiences we are rea- 
sonably certain that we are bringing 
an important art form to the people 
which has been too rarely presented 
and for which there is a definite 
need and desire today. 

The group, which is composed of 
16 dancers, commenced rehearsals in 
Tanuary, 1936, under my direction 
and has been working together 
steadily since that time. The girls 
then were totally inexperienced in 
Modern Dance in the art form. 
Dance to them consisted of the pop- 
ular types of movement such as tap, 
acrobatic, ballroom, etc. There were 
three things in common between my- 
self and the group: a sense of 
rhythm, a desire to learn, and en- 
thusiasm for something new. Our 
creates! handicap was the fact that 
these youths, never having had the 
opportimity to see modem dances in 
any form, much less any concerts by 
leading exponents of Modern Dance 
such as Martha Graham or Mary 
Wigman, had not the vaguest notion 
of what we were driving at until 
they began to react kinesthetically 
and emotionally themselves. This in 
a way was also an advantage because 
these young dancers are now making 
a contribution which is expressive of 
this particular group and not in im- 

itation of dancers that have been 
seen and whose movements were un- 
consciously adopted. 

By September, 1936, the group 
had sufficient technique to begin a 
professional performance schedule. 
We have given since that time per- 
formances at schools, P. T. A.'s, 
Community Centers, and colleges 
with a repertoire that is steadily 
^rowing and improving, discarding 
numbers that have been outgrown 
through advancing technique and 
changing and maturing concepts of 
dance art. The present repertoire 
consists of fourteen dances, and 
there are three dances in the process 
of creation that will be added or 
substituted for older dances in our 

The project has been very for- 
tunate in having since September, 
1936, as Its musical director Pasquin 
Bradfield, a composer and pianist 
well equipped for the important 
work of providing suitable and en- 
hancing scores for the dances. Music 
for all group dances has been writ- 
ten and played by Mr. Bradfield. A 
narticularly thrilling composition has 
been his music for "March" in which 
he uses percussive tone clusters with 
e.xciting dissonance. The girls in the 
croup have also been trained in per- 
cussion, and a percussion dance using 

11 people is included in our concert 

Costuming of the group has been 
another problem that has been quite 
adequately solved. The most inex- 
nensive materials were necessarily 
used such as cotton flannel and un- 
bleached muslin which, when dyed, 
make excellent costumes. Desert 
cloth in colors was also used al- 
though it is more expensive. The 
"roup uses a unit costume of ex- 
treme simpUcity for its larger group 
numbers. It is a long, full gored, 
sleeved costume, tile in color. There 
are three girls employed on the 
nroject to act as seamstresses and 
wardrobe mistresses. 

We now have a wardrobe of about 
80 costumes which are kept in order 
and ready for use. The costumes 
have been designed by several per- 
sons who, in most cases, would see 
a dance and become interested in 
creating the costume for it. Kath- 
rine Wagner's costumes for 
"Gothic," one dance in our series of 
three "Medieval Sketches" are par- 
ticularly good, using classic line and 
simplicity with full, rich colors. The 
material used is cotton flannel. 

Sometimes I am amazed at the en- 
thusiasm with which our group has 
been received; but when, in retro- 
soect, I look at these dancers as they 
were a year ago and then see them 
in rehearsal today I am not so sur- 
nrised. Each individual in the group 
has achieved not only bodily poise 
but a mental attitude toward life and 
art that has completely changed since 
her introduction to this type of ex- 
pression. Collectively the individuals 
in the group have learned the joy of 
enthusiastic and harmonious work 
in a field in which they unanimously 
wish to continue professionally. 


Page 15 




By Myra Kinch 

(Director, Dance Unit, Los Angeles Federal Theatre Project) 

Attempting to summarize the aims 
of an undertaking as comprehensive 
in its scope as the Dance Unit of 
the Federal Theatre Project in Los 
Angeles presents many difficulties in 
a limited allotment of words. 

Many days were spent in the pre- 
liminary try-outs and in the selection 
and segregation of the dancers into 
their various groups, and then, when 
this was satisfactorily completed, the 
Dance Unit went into immediate re- 
hearsal for its first production. This 
production, the Revue of Reviews, 
which met with immediate popular- 
ity, was first presented in Hollywood 
for a month's run, then transferred 
to a Los Angeles theatre to accom- 
modate those who had been unable 
to attend the Hollywood production. 

The first and most immediate serv- 
ice of the Dance Unit is to furnish 
dancing for all the various divisions 
of the Federal Theatre Project. All 
plays, operas or revues needing inci- 
dental or structural dances are fur- 
nished these numbers through the 
Dance Unit. But this service, while 
of great importance, should not be 
the Dance Unit's ultimate goal. 

Just as the Drama Unit strives 
to present fine plays, and the Music 
Project supports a splendid sym- 
phony orchestra, so does the Dance 
Unit hope to present the finest con- 
cert dancing to the general public 
at a popular tariff. 

In order to do this well, an ex- 
tensive program of re-training is be- 
ing arranged. Because of the wide 
variety in the types of dances the 
members of the Dance Unit must 
be able to do, it will be necessary 
for many of them to learn new tech- 
niques. Some of the dancers who 
apply for Relief have been trained 
in ballet, tap, acrobatic and conven- 
tional theatrical dancing; others have 

had only modern dance technique or 
have combined modern and ballet. 
All of these dancers will be trained 
in the type of dancing they have not 
previously studied, thus enabling 
them not only to be of greater use 
on the Dance Unit, but better equip- 
ping them for positions apart from 
the Unit. Constantly the good the- 
atrical positions are being given to 
dancers who know many types of 
dancing, and so this educational pro- 
gram will be of great benefit to all 
the members of the Unit. 

Another aim of the Dance Unit 
is to experiment constantly with new 
ideas in both concert and revue 
dance. This r e q u ir e s the whole- 
hearted assistance of all the other 
related departments, as the entire 
Project is based on departmental co- 
operation. This cooperation naturally 
results in unusually well unified pro- 

Many opportunities for interesting 
experiments in the technical field will 
be offered through Dance Unit pro- 
ductions. Lighting and settings for 
the dance are fields rich in such 
opportunities. The Federal Theatre 
Project is an ideal place to experi- 
ment with the new ideas in stage 
production, for, in the Federal The- 
atre there is the constant ideal of 
education of both public and players, 
and there is no better way to do this 

than by the use of contemporary 

The publicity departments have a 
distinct contribution to make in the 
use of the new ideas in theatrical 
photography. The recent discoveries 
in lighting and composition, the use 
of shadow prints and many other 
technical devices can add a different 
note to the lobby displays and news- 
paper pictures, and thus prepare the 
public for the new productions. 

The contribution of the music de- 
partment is one of the most helpful 
to the Dance Unit, as there is noth- 
ing so essential to the presentation 
of dance as the accompaniment. In 
fact, the accompaniment can make or 
mar the most carefully planned 
dance. The musicians have perhaps 
the most difficult task, as most danc- 
ers are exacting. So many dances 
now are built on very complicated 
rhythmic patterns, and are accom- 
panied by music which is written 
in modern tonalities — and such music 
is not at all easy to play. So the 
dancer owes many thanks to her mu- 
sicians when her accompaniment is 
good, and is certainly at a disadvan- 
tage when it is not. 

As the Dance Unit grows we hope 
to arrange the production schedule 
so there will be an alternate group 
free for daily technical rehearsal. 
The dancers must be kept in tech- 
nical trim and must be constantly 
acquiring a greater movement vo- 
cabulary, if the finished productions 
are to rise above mediocrity. 

Those who are most interested in 
the Dance Unit wish to build, on the 
Pacific coast, a group that will con- 
tribute creatively to contemporary 
dance, a group not dependent on any 
other country or section of this coun- 
try for its inspiration, but deriving 
its ideals directly from the west. 

Page 16 



A Discovery of the Federal Writers' Project 

By Hugh Harlan 

(Supervisor Federal Writers' Project for Southern California) 


In search of data for inclusion in 
the American Guide, the workers of 
the Federal Writers" Project have 
found much in the musical develop- 
ment of Los Angeles that is of in- 

One article concerns itself with 
the "Symfonet," a musical instru- 
ment that is claimed to be the 
world's newest. It was invented by 
Harry F. Noake, of 585 Manzanito 
Avenue, Sierra Madre, and is unlike, 
in color and quality of its tones, in 
its name and its style, any other mus- 
ical device ever produced. It is the 
first development of a new principle 
in musical instruments of major im- 
portance, since the piano and the 
violin were invented. 

The symphonet is the first threat 
to a position comparable to the pi- 
ano, organ or violin, which consti- 
tute, and have for the past 500 years, 
constituted our three musical instru- 
ments reaching the largest number 
of musicians in the world. 

Outwardly somewhat resembling a 
small upright piano, the Symphonet 
incorporates several basic piano prin- 
ciples in its construction, notably in 
the keyboard, action and hammers, 
and, to some extent, in the pedal 
mechanism. The instrument has a 
range of 56 notes — from C-16 to 
G-71 on the piano keyboard. (Note 
— Mozart and Liszt composed many 
immortal compositions on the piano 
of only 61.) 

In operation, the Symphonet is 
played exactly as a piano. The tone 
is produced through the medium of 
hammers striking upon a perfectly 
tuned series of special chromium 
plated alloy tubes, graduated in size, 
to produce a uniform volume. The 
touch of the keyboard is lighter than 
that of the piano, being similar to 
that of the pipe organ. The action 
is designed to eliminate, as far as 
possible, any noise of a mechanical 
nature which might detract from the 
instrument's normal tone when used 
for making transcriptions, phono- 
graph records, or during radio broad- 
casting. In the construction of a spe- 
cial hammer rail, all noise has been 
eliminated. To facilitate playing, the 
keyboard is built with a slight arc. 

similar to the console of the pipe 
organ. There are two sets of damp- 
ers, the finest imported felt hammer 
heads, fool-proof and nothing to get 
out of order. 

In normal operation, the Sym- 
phonet has the volume of an Italian 
harp, or a piano played with a light 
touch. This volume is insured by in- 
dividual sound chambers behind each 
of the 56 tubes. A damper release 
enables the musician to sustain vibra- 
tions, and pedal control regulates 
loudness and softness. Additional 
volume may be secured with an elec- 
trical pick-up and loud - speaker at- 

Incased in either walnut or ma- 
hogany, the Symphonet is 58 inches 
wide at the back, sloping to a width 
of only 39 inches in front, 45 inches 
high and 29 inches deep. Its weight 
is approximately 180 pounds. The 
front panel consists of a special grill 
cloth, backed by wire screen, which 
insures utmost in tone escapement, 
as does a trap door below the music 
rack and an opening in a lower 

The Symphonet already has been 
used in broadcasts, in making phono- 
graph records, electrical transcrip- 
tions, and one was recently pur- 
chased by Metro - Goldwyn - Mayer 
Pictures Corp., and may be heard in 
the productions, "The Good Earth" 
and "Love on the Run". 

The Symphonet is suitable for the 
home, church, mortuary, hotels, 
ships, both symphony and dance or- 
chestras, radio stations, and so forth. 
It is a serious instrument, designed 
to take its place along with the or- 
gan, piano, and violin, and becomes 
equally important, being worthy of 
the professional as well as the be- 

The Symphonet was born on May 
5, 1934, the only known musical de- 
vice without an ancestor. Its inventor 
received the suggestion for its ulti- 
mate development by experimenting 
with striking an ordinary piece of 
gas pipe and noting the sound effect. 
Its first public showing was on Oc- 
tober 1, 1936. Patents and trade 
name protection have been apphed 

Shakespeare's "Merchant of Ven- 
ice" will be given an elaborate pro- 
duction by the Los Angeles Federal 
Theatre Project at the Hollywood 
Playhouse on March 25. Estelle 
Winwood, well-known for her for- 
mer stage appearances in Southern 
California, will appear as guest ar- 
tist m the role of Portia. Other well- 
known names in the cast are Alex- 
ander Carr and Garet Hughes. 

Marc Connelly's play, "Wisdom 
Tooth", opened at the Musart The- 
atre on March 4 and will continue 
until March 28. 

"Blind Alley," opening at the 
Mayan on March 26, follows a suc- 
cessful showing of the current 
"House of Connelly". 

San Francisco audiences are now 
enjoying the Federal Theatre's pro- 
duction, "Touch of Brimstone", 
which opened at the Columbia The- 
atre on March 4 for an indefinite 

The road show production of the 
hilarious comedy "Help Yourself" 
may be seen in Santa Barbara on 
March 13, San Maria on March 15, 
and San Luis Obispo on March 16. 
Playgoers of Carmel may view the 
play on March 17 and 18, and the 
following two days the production 
will be seen in San Jose. "Help 
Yourself" will open in San Francisco 
on March 22, playing until April 3, 
after which it may be seen in 

"Re\'ue of Reviews" continues to 
draw crowds to the Mason. After a 
previous long run in Hollywood, it 
is now scheduled to close on March 

"Roaring Girl," now at the Holly- 
wood Playhouse, is also scheduled 
for final showing on March 21. 

"Hansel and Gretel," at the Beaux 
Arts Children's Theatre, continues 
to thrill children with amusing week- 
end showings of "Hansel and 


Page 17 

Los Angeles Hears 
'Humanitas', Usigli 

Gastone Usigli's symphonic poem, 
"Humsinitas", was given its first Los 
Angeles performance at the Trinity 
Auditorium on March 3, with the 
composer wielding the baton. 

The composition, which had pre- 
viously received enthusiastic hear- 
ings in San Francisco and Oakland, 
was written, according to the com- 
poser, "in comphance with my ar- 
tistic creed that no particular com- 
position should arouse specific emo- 

The work has been considered by 
many critics to be one of the out- 
standing modern compositions. 

Other numbers conducted by Mr. 
Usigli were Beethoven's Overture 
"Leonore III", Sinigaglia's Overture 
"Le Baruffe Chio^zotte", and 
Franck's Symphony in D Minor. 




"Fra Diavolo," Auber's most fa- 
mous opera, will open at the Mason 
Opera House in Los Angeles on 
March 23 as a major production of 
the Los Angeles Federal Music Proj- 
ect, with Dr. Alois Reiser conduct- 

The cast of eight principals, ballet 
of sixteen, twenty-five soldiers, and 
peasants, beggars, maids, caretakers, 
and townspeople, will be all-colored, 
taken from the ranks of Carlyle 
Scott's famous Los Angeles Project 
colored chorus. The principals in- 
clude: "Fra Diavolo," J. Smith; "Lor- 
enzo," James Miller; "Lord Allcash," 
Daniel Scott; "Matteo," Septimus 
Silas; "Beppo," Seivert Hannibal; 
"Giacomo," Jones Williams; "Zer- 
lina," Bernice Randolph; and "Lady 
Allcash," Mayme Titus. 

The opera, which concerns the 
romantic antics of a "devil bandit", 
is being produced by Emil de Recat 
and is scheduled for a two weeks' 
run at the Mason. 


For several months it has been a definite part of the schedule of the 

Federal Music Project to present the new works of American composers. 

This policy disclosed a wealth of material that might otherwise have gone 


An elaboration of this policy has recently been inaugurated in the Los 

Angeles Project. A Board of Judges, consisting of Gastone Usigli, Director 
of Music, Los Angeles County; Mod- 
est Altschuler; Alois Reiser and 
Jacques Samossoud, conductors of 
the Los Angeles Project, and Hans 
Bleckschmidt, famous Wagnerian 
conductor, has been selected for the 
purpose of judging new orchestral 
compositions of American compos- 
ers. Members of this Board will meet 
once a month at the Los Angeles 
headquarters, where a thorough ex- 
amination will be made of all com- 
positions submitted. 

Those found inadequate will be 
returned to the composer with a let- 
ter giving advice and suggestions 
relative to the work. Other works 
will be either recommended only for 
rehearsal, to which the composer will 
be invited, or will be given public 
performance in Los Angeles. At 
these pubhc performances, a ques- 
tionaire will be submitted to the 
audience, at which time questions 
about the composer and the work 
will be answered by the composer. 
Compositions already selected for 
performance with the Los Angeles 
Symphony include Dr. George Lieb- 
ling's "Kinder Und Die Wehrheit" 
and Mary Carr Moore's "Totem Vi- 
sion". A number of other composi- 
tions have been recommended for 
rehearsal and performance by other 

Felix Borowski's new satire on 
Grand opera, "Fernando del Non- 
sentsico", and his modern adaptation 
of Leoncavallo's "I Paghacci" were 
given an ovation at the Figueroa 
Playhouse in Los Angeles, where 
they opened on February 22. 

"Pagliacci" was conducted by 
John R. Britz, and "Nonsentsico" by 
Jacques Samossoud. 

"There is a laugh in practically 
every phase of Felix Borowski's op- 
eratic satire . . . now at the Figueroa 
Playhouse," wrote Carl Bronson in 
the Los Angeles Herald Express. 

Critics opinions regarding the Los 
Angeles production of Borowski's 
works are summed up in a review 
which appeared in the Los Angeles 
Illustrated Daily News, by Sara 
Boynoff. Miss Boynoff said, "Fer- 
nando, if translated into a foreign 
language and presented by the Met- 
ropolitan opera singers, could be 
palmed off as a work of one of the 
old masters." 

The cast for "I Pagliacci" included 
Theo Pennington, John Hamilton, 
Charles Henri de la Plate, Eugene 
Conterno, Rodair Swanson, and 
others; and for "Fernando del Non- 
sentsico" Emil Labaqui, John Ham- 
ilton, Esther La Naye, Saul Silver- 
man, George-Ellen Ferguson, Jean- 
nette Gegna, Enrico MartineUi, Eliz- 
abeth Klein, Charles Henri de la 
Plate, John Radio, and Court Ladies 
and Lords, Ethiopian Hordes, etc. 

The dance direction and choreo- 
graphy for "Nonsentsico", which lit- 
erally "stopped the show" at all per- 
formances, was conceived and di- 
rected by Myra Kinch, through the 
courtesy of the Federal Theatre 


A prize of one hundred dollars is 
offered in a Young Composers' Con- 
test for compositions suitable for 
high school and amateur musical 
organizations. Only composers under 
thirty-one years of age are eligible. 
For full particulars, write the Gamble 
Hinged Music Company,. 228 South 
Wabash Avenue, Chicago, Illinois. 

Page 18 


Requiems Featured 
Over Lenten Period 

Sacramento Gives 

School Concerts 

In commemoration of the lenten 
season in California, several projects 
have presented and plan to present 
works of an Ecclesiastical nature. 
Most noteworthy among these were 
the San Francisco Project's presenta- 
tion of Verdi's "Requiem" on Febru- 
ary 23, and the San Bernardino Proj- 
ect's presentation of Mozart's "Re- 
quiem" scheduled for March 17. 

GiuHo Silva headed the San Fran- 
cisco Project chorus and symphony 
orchestra when the Verdi Mass was 
presented at the High School of 
Commerce Auditorium. 

Mozart's work will be given in an 
elaborate manner by the San Ber- 
nardino Project on St. Patrick's Day. 
A chorus of 125 voices will combine 
with the symphony orchestra for 
this hearing of Mozart's "Requiem". 
Sponsors for the concerts are the San 
Bernardino High School, in con- 
junction with the Adult Education 
Division of San Bernardino Junior 

A number of lesser-known choral 
works are to be presented before 
churches and other organizations be- 
tween now and Easter. 

Continued from Page Three 

Richmond Academy of Sciences and 
the Fine Arts, looking to its perma- 
nency; in Hartford a group of citi- 
zens has assumed sponsorship for 
the WPA Symphony Orchestra, and 
in Tulsa, the Tulsa Orchestral Foxm- 
dation has been created to retain the 
WPA Symphony Orchestra after 
Federal aid is withdrawn 

A Chicago audience will hear its 
first performance of Ernst Bacon's 
Symphony in D Minor on February 
28 with that young San Francisco 
musician at the conductor's desk. 
This symphony will be one of 19 
major American compositions on this 
orchestra's program so far this 

These are a few of the recent 
events showing certain trends in 
American music since there has been 
Federal assistance for musicians. For 
the retrained, rehabilitated musician, 
enhanced in his skill and with a re- 
covered stalwartness in morale, the 
WPA has meant vastly more. In re- 
cent months more than a thousand 
of them have been reabsorbed into 
private employment. 

Last week the Sacramento Project 
Orchestra, under the direction of 
Leslie Hodge, began a series of half 
hour concerts particularly suitable 
to Junior High Schools, through the 
cooperation of Mary Ireland, super- 
visor of music, and Leo Baisden, 
assistant superintendent of the Sac- 
ramento public schools. Mr. Hodge 
describes the work to be played to 
the Junior High School auditors and 
illustrates some of the themes by 
having them played on different in- 
struments. He talks briefly about the 
less known instruments before pre- 
senting the musical program, which 
may consist of one movement of an 
operatic suite or an overture. 

The dates scheduled for these con- 
certs are March 2, Lincoln Junior 
High School; March 4, Sutter; 
March 10, Kit Carson; March 12, 
Stanford; and March 16, California 
Junior High. 

Orange County Unit 
On Admission Basis 

The first of a series of symphony 
concerts on an admission basis is 
scheduled by the Orange County, 
Cahfornia, Project on March 12. 

The concert, under the direction 
of Leon Eckles, Orange County 
Supervisor, will be presented at La- 
guna Beach and will feature Duci 
de Kerekjarto, well-known Hungar- 
ian violinist virtuoso as soloist. 

Following the inauguration of the 
admission policy by this project, 
other concerts featuring the sym- 
phony orchestra will be presented in 
Santa Ana, Fullerton, and other 
towns in Mr. Eckles' territory. 

Project Orchestras 
Combine in Concert 

A concert, featuring the combined 
orchestras of the San Jose and San 
Mateo, California, projects, was pre- 
sented in Redwood City on March 2. 
Arthur Gunderson, Supervisor of 
the San Mateo Project, conducted 
the concert, which was the first of 
a series of exchange concerts be- 
tween these two projects. 

A concert, featuring the combined 
Sacramento and Stockton concert or- 
chestras, is being planned by these 
two California projects for Music 

Altschuler Conducts 
Two Project Groups 

Leaders of San Bernardino's civic 
hfe greeted Modest Altschuler upon 
his arrival in San Bernardino last 
week, where he conducted the Proj- 
ect's Symphony Orchestra on March 

Mr. Altschuler was welcomed by 
the secretary of the San Bernardino 
Chamber ol Commerce, Mr. Arnold; 
Mayor Johnson; the president of the 
Argonauts Breakfast Club, Mr. 
Rowe; and several press photogra- 
phers. Shortly after his arrival, Mr. 
Altschuler was special guest at the 
Breakfast Club, and the following 
day was guest of honor at the Na- 
tional Orange Show. 

Among the numbers which Mr. 
Altschuler played before an enthusi- 
astic audience in the San Bernardino 
Junior College were Maurice Arn- 
old's "American Plantation Dances", 
Mozart's Symphony m A Major, 
Rimsky - Korsakoff's "Capriccio Es- 
pagnol", Herbert's "Irish Rhapsody", 
Grunn's "Dream", Liadow's "The 
Enchanted Lake", Ghere's "Sailor's 
Song", Altschuler's "Soldiers' Song", 
and Tschaikowsky's "Marche Slav". 

Mr. Altschuler was guest con- 
ductor of the San Diego Project's 
Symphony Orchestra on February 
15. One report on this concert says, 
"The audience was the most en- 
thusiastic we have ever had at a 
symphony. People stood up and 
cheered, and there were many vo- 
ciferous "bravos' ". 

Oakland Presents 

Intimate Recitals 

The success of the intimate recitals 
given at the Webster Little Theatre 
by the Oakland Project has lead to 
its continuance throughout March. 
The first concert in the March series 
offered an eminent guest artist, Claire 
Upshur, soprano, appearing on the 
same program with the string quar- 
tet. A second recital with Louise 
Cox, soprano, and Graham Dexter, 
tenor, is scheduled for next week. 

Other attractions planned for this 
intimate recital series include oflFer- 
ings by the colored chorus, the 
woodwind ensemble, and the male 


Page 19 






March lO-AprU 10 


Following is a list of outstanding musical 
broadcasts presented regularly each week 
at the time designated, over the station or 
network indicated in parenthesis. 

MDL indicates Mutual-Don Lee Broad- 
casting System, comprising the following 
western stations: KHJ, KFRC, KGB, 
KVOE. and KXO. 

CBS indicates Columbia Broadcasting 
System, with the following western sta- 
tions: KLZ. KNX, KOY, KOIN, KOH, 

NBC indicates National Broadcasting 
Company, which has two networks. Red 
and Blue. Stations broadcasting Red Net- 
work programs are: KDYL, KFI, KGHL, 
KTAR, and KPO. Those broadcasting 
Blue Network programs are: KECA, KEX, 

9:30 A.M. 
12:00 M. 

1:30 P.M. 

2:00 P. M, 
5:00 P. M, 

6:00 P. M. 
7:00 P. M. 

6:00 P. M 
7:30 P.M. 

11:00 A.M. 
12:30 P.M. 
1:30 P.M. 

8:ir P. M. 
11:00 A.M. 


— Radio City Music Hall Sym- 
phony Orchestra, with solo- 
ists, (NBC-Blue) 

— New York Philharmonic - 
Symphony; Artur Rodzinski 
conducting (CBS) 

— Josef Cherniavsky's Musical 
Camera (NBC-Red) 

—Marian Talley (NBC-Red) 

,— Nelson Eddy; Nadine Con 
ner, Josef Pasternack's Or 
chestra (CBS) 

— Ford Sunday Evening Hour 
Victor Kolar (CBS) 

— General Motors Concert 
Symphony Orchestra con 
ducted by Erno Rapee 

— Voice of Firestone; Mar- 
garet Speaks; guest conduc- 
tors (NBC-Red) 

— Nino Martini; Andre Kos- 
telaneti' Orchestra (CBS) 

— Gladys Swarthout; Frank 
Chapman; Robert Armbrust- 
er's Orchestra (NBC-Red) 

— Standard School Broadcast 

— Eastman School Symphony 
Orchestra (NBC-Blue) 

— Metropolitan Opera Guild, 
discussions of MetropoUtan 
Opera's Saturday matinee 
productions (NBC- Blue) 

—Standard Symphony (NBC- 


— NBC Music Appreciation 
Hour, Dr. Walter Damrosch 
conducting (NBC-Blue) 


MARCH San Prandsco Symphony; Monteux 

10 conducting, San Francisco. 

San Francisco Project Symphony; 
Bauer conducting, San Fran- 

Los Angeles Philharmonic; Klemp- 

erer conducting, San Diego. 
San Frandsco Symphony; Stravin- 
sky conducting, San Frandsco. 
Los Angeles Project presents "Fra 
Diavolo'^ all-colored cast, Los 

Trudi Schoop and Ballet, Pasadena. 

San Frandsco Symphony; Monteux 
conducting, San Frandsco. 

San Bernardino Project Symphony; 
Vernon Robinson conducting, 
BJverside, Cahf. 

Los Angeles Project Symphony; 
Modest Altschuler conducting; 
Stravinsky, guest of honor, Los 


Trudi Schoop and Ballet, Los An- 


San Francisco Project Symphony; 
Ernst Bacon conducting, San 

Oakland Project Symphony Orches- 
tra; Walter Hornig conducting, 

Los Angeles Philharmonic Orches- 
tra; Stravinsky conducting; Pe- 
trouchka Ballet. 

Trudi Schoop and Ballet, Los An- 


Repeat all Stravinsky program, Los 

Trudi Schoop and Ballet, Los An- 


Los Angeles Philharmonic Orches- 
tra; Klemperer conducting, 
Claremont, Calif. 

Trudi Schoop and Ballet, San Fran- 

Combined San Jose and San Mateo 
symphonies; Joseph Cizkovsky 
conducting, Palo Alto, Calif. 

Mozart's "Requiem"; Vernon Rob- 
inson conducting, San Bernar- 


Los Angeles Philharmonic Orches- 
tra; Klemperer conducting, Los 


Los Angeles Philharmonic Orches- 
tra; Klemperer conducting, Los 

12:30 P. M.— Cindnnati Symphony Or- 
chestra; Eugene Goossens 
conducting (CBS) 
2:30 P.M. — San Francisco Symphony; 
Monteux conducting (NBC- 
7:00 P.M.— Philadelphia Orchestra; Eu- 
gene Ormandy Conducting 

1 1 :00 A.M. — Metropolitan Opera; Marda 
Davenport, commentator 


Los Angeles Project Symphony Or- 
chestra; Altschuler conducting, 
Los Angeles. 
San Frandsco Project Chorus; Silva 
conducting Palestrina "Stabat 
Mater", San Frandsco. 
Bach*s "St. John's Passion"; Los 
Angeles Philharmonic Chorus; 
Dr. Lert conducting, Los An- 
San Francisco Project Symphony; 
Ernst Bacon conducting, San 
Oakland Project Symphony Orches- 
tra, Oakland. 

Los Angeles Philharmonic Orches' 
tra; Klemperer conducting, Los 

Repeat Los Angeles Philharmonic 

Orchestra, Los Angeles. 
San Frandsco Project Symphony; 
Ernst Bacon conducting, San 

San Frandsco Symphony; Ernest 
Schelling conducting, San Fran- 
Ted Shawn and Male Dancers, Los 

Ted Shawn and Male Dancers, San 

San Francisco Project Symphony; 
Ernst Bacon conducting, Mo- 
desto, Calif. 

Repeat Ted Shawn and Male Danc- 
ers, San Frandsco. 
Los Angeles Project Symphony Or- 
chestra; Usigli conducting, Los 

Oakland Project Symphony Orches- 
tra and chorus, Oakland. 
San Francisco Project Symphony; 
Ernst Bacon conducting, San 
John Charles Thomas, Los Angeles. 

Page 20 



The arena of the Oakland Auditorium adjacent to 
the theatre is often used for wrestling shows on the 
same night symphony concerts are presented in the 
theatre. On two recent occasions, inebriates purchased 
concert tickets and then sat expectantly waiting for the 
symphony players to start wrestling with each other. 

Haydn's Farewell Symphony in F Sharp Minor, 
representing a musician's 
strike during a performance, 
in which one player after 
another leaves until the con- 
cert master remains alone, 
was once given a strange 
adaptation by Fahrbach. 

In fact, at a rehearsal of 
a court band in the Royal 
Palace in Berlin, of which 
Fahrbach was conductor, the 
reverse happened. When re- 
hearsal time arrived, the 
music stands were empty. It 
was suddenly discovered that 
the wrong date had been 
given to the musicians. 

Fahrbach sent messengers 
in all directions for his men, 
then began to play a solo on 
his violin. Within the next 
half hour, the players one 
by one strolled in. 

"Art is the most impor- 
tant means of human 
culture. Culture begins 
the moment you start 
working above your 
needs, and because of a 
something compelling 
you to work in that di- 

— Paderewski 

"An ovation was given Dr. Modest Altschuler and 
San Diego's federal symphony orchestra last evening 
in the Savoy Theatre, where a program of some of the 
world's loveliest music was played for an enthusiastic 
audience that could not be kept away on account of 
rainy weather. 

"Dr. Altschuler came to San Diego from Los Angeles, 
as guest conductor of the 
fifty-piece orchestra that has 
had the benefit of extensive 
training under the local di- 
rector, Juhus Leib. 

"In Mozart's 29th sym- 
phony, 'A Major', the or- 
chestra earned laurels par- 
ticularly its own. ... It was 
a heroic performance of 
sheer musical merit." 
Ruth Taunton 
San Diego Union. 

A characteristic story of 
Josef Hofmann is told by 
Alexander Fink in "Musical 

On a trans - continental 
tour, for which he had pre- 
pared three programs, Hot- 
mann made his appearance 

in the concert hall of one city without previous reference 
to the program. After adjusting himself at the piano, it 
occurred to him that he did not know what to play. 

Bending over the edge of the platform, he asked the 
astonished lady in the front row if he might not see her 
program for a moment. He looked the program over 
gravely, returned it with thanks, and began his recital. 

"Great credit goes to Con- 
ductor Erich Weiler, for the 
splendid work he is getting 
from his orchestra and for 
the opportunity being given 
local musicians and music 
lovers to hear chamber music 
at regular inter\'als through- 
out the year." 

Marin (CaUf.) Journal 

"The concert offered by 
the orchestra of the Fresno 
Federal Music Project at the 
Kerman Union High School 
was one of the best offer- 
ings the writer has heard in 
many years. ... If we 
should be so fortunate as to 
have another opportunity to 
hear this group, it would be 
advisable to remember the 
date and that it would be 
an opportunity to hear music 
that most certainly would be 
worth while." 

Kerman (Calif.) News. 

"It is good to sec the Federal Music Project in San 
Francisco presenting new native music. That seems 
like such a proper function for a Government-sponsored 
enterprise. Our native composers deserve their chance 
to be heard and the Government is giving it to them." 
San Francisco Chronicle. 









H y^ 





-itf . 

DR. NIKOLAI SOKOLOFF. Notionol "Pireclof 

HARRY HOPKINS, Notionol Administrator 

ELLEN S WOODWARD, Assistont Admmistrotor 

Vol 2 

April, 1937 

No. 4 



State Director 

Everywhere musicians are asking 
these questions of themselves, each 
other, and me: What will happen 
to us after June 30th? Is the WPA 
to be dissolved gradually, or wilt it 
be a permanent program? Will mu- 
sicians be subsidized by the Govern- 
ment? No one can answer those 
questions with a yes or no. Yet one 
cannot help wondering what is in 
store, and it is only natural and wise 
to want to know in order to be pre- 
pared. We may just as well face the 

Let us take the first question. Sup- 
pose the WTA will be dissolved 
gradually; who will be the first to 
be separated from the Music Project? 
Of course, the less competent mu- 
sicians. These people either must find 
employment in some new trade or if 
possible resort to relief assistance. 
Certainly it has been established that 
there are few jobs for them as mu- 
sicians in private employment, and 
those few jobs will be occupied by 
the most competent. 

Second, if the WPA becomes a 
permanent program, do you think it 
will support permanently ALL the 
musicians for whom work was cre- 
ated as an emergency relief measure? 
If some of these musicians have not 
created a demand for their music in 
their community, why maintain them 
in the music profession? Here again 
the incompetent musician and leader, 
who has not sold himself and his 
music to his community, wilt have 
no part in a permanent work pro- 
gram as a musician- 

The question, "Will musicians be 
subsidized by the Government," 
should start some introspective but 
constructive thinking. If the Govern- 

ment decides to support musical 
groups, it will no longer be limited 
by relief ehgibility, but will select 
Its personnel from the first-rank mu- 
sicians. Looking at yourself honestly, 
do you think you would be one of 
the few chosen for this carefully se- 



Beaux Arts Building 
Loi Aogdes, Calif. 


By Harle jertii .... 

A Portrait 
By William Kozlenko . 


By Dr. Thaddeus Rich . 





By Erich Weiler .... 


By Alfred Keller .... 








By Leon Eeiles .... 


lected group? 

No matter which of these possi- 
bilities becomes a fact, if you wish 
to remain in the music profession, 
you must be a first-rate musician and 
you must sell your music to your 
community. If the community re- 
ceives you indifferently, you can be 
sure that it is not because the people 
are stupid, but because they do not 
like what you have to offer. It is 
easy to blame a lack of interest in 
music on the people's indifference 
rather than on the musician's incom- 
petence. Give them something out- 
standingly good, whether it is jazz, 
symphony, or band music, and they 
will welcome you. 

Practice, practice, practice. Our 
first-rate musicians did not arrive at 
their efficiency by having the gift 
of genius. They practiced more in- 
telligently, worked harder, thought 
more seriously about their work. 
And these same musicians are still 
practicing — during rest periods, be- 
fore and after Project hours. Invari- 
ably it is the musician who needs 
practice most, who does the least. 
Just norice this in your own group. 
In most cases you will see that the 
mediocre musician will seldom touch 
his music or his instrument after 
Project working hours. 

The conclusion is this: If you wish 
to remain a musician, you must work 
like one, seriously and diligently. 
Second-rate musicians v^ill have no 
place in the music profession any 
longer. It is time to take stock of 
your skill, to take inventory of your 
qualifications and to determine where 
you stand in this forward-going mu- 
sic movement, no matter which di- 
rection our program may take. 

This magazine was printed througA the courtesy of a private organization u/hich contributed its equipment 
for the furtherance of Federal Music Protect activities. 


Page 3 


A Portrait 

By fVUliam Kozlenko 

(ReprinleJ from the Cheslerian, London, EngUnJ) 

In a witty and succinct essay, 
Gerald Cumberland speaks of Ni- 
kolai Sokoloff, former conductor of 
the Cleveland Orchestra, in a man- 
ner which vouchsafes critical accu- 
racy and astute perception. Cumber- 
land describes him, among other 
things, as a "born conductor, a born 
leader and manager of men. He has 
an air," he continues, "of engaging 
frankness — of a man who puts his 
cards down on the table before he 
even begins to think of talking." 
This natural manifestation of frank- 
ness, of guilelessness, is indeed a sig- 
nificant phase of Sokoloffs person- 
ality; yet, aside from these subjec- 
tive qualities which make him a 
charming and gracious individual, he 
is heir to a profound talent for or- 
ganization. Indeed, to study the life 
of this man is to study a vivified 
chronicle of constant and unremit- 
ting organization. 

Born in Kiev, 1886, he later 
toured with the Municipal Orchestra 
as a boy violinist. He emigrated to 
America in 1898, and joined the 
Boston Symphony Orchestra. He re- 
turned to Europe for further musical 
study, and then came back to the 
United States in 1916, where he as- 
sumed his first important conduc- 
torial job, as head of the San Fran- 
cisco Symphony Orchestra. But two 
years at the helm of this ensemble 
seemed to have been sufficient. The 
instinct for organization drove him 
on. In 1918 we find Sokoloff organ- 
izing the Cleveland Orchestra, build- 
ing it up step by step to one of the 
most important orchestras in the 
States. Years of constant practice, 
of unflagging devotion to his artistic 
ideal, helped establish an orchestral 
model comparable to the best. After 
having seen his orchestra grow, after 
watching it become one of the most 
positive forces in the musical life of 
his new country, Sokoloff resigned, 
and dedicated himself to the task of 
organizing new artistic endeavors. 

Today he is director of perhaps 
the largest musical experiment in the 

world: The Federal Music Project, 
under whose aegis thousands of un- 
employed musicians, music teachers 
and dancers have been organized 
into symphony orchestras, chamber- 
music ensembles, operatic-societies, 
educational institutions, dance- 
groups, etc. Certainly, a man with 
less vision, with less abihty to over- 
come hundreds of intrigues and ob- 
stacles — plus the mere prospect of 
coordinating such huge projects 
themselves — would have been dis- 
mayed by such a staggering task. But 
then, Sokoloff seems to be made of 
sterner stuff. He did not stop until 
he succeeded in realizing what he 
had set out to do, and today, within 
a period of several months, he has 
created one of the largest and most 
imposing government organizationsof 
its kind in the world. No matter in 
what form municipal music is ex- 
emplified, Sokoloff has had his share 
of contributing to its solid integra- 

Asked once how he achieved his 
success as a conductor, he replied: 
"By dint of hard work!" And "hard 
work," as applied to him, is certainly 
no figure of speech. 

He is an extremely cultured man, 
something of an anomaly among mu- 
sicians. A voracious reader, he finds 
time — in spite of his manifold activi- 
ties — to keep abreast of contempo- 
rary movements in literature, art and 
poetry. He reads constantly, prefer- 
ring such succulent subjects as philo- 
sophy, economics and biography. At 
a time when few professional dra- 
matic critics knew who Eugene 
O'Neill was, Sokoloff was already 
going around enthusiastically singing 
the praises of this "unknown" dra- 
matic genius. And as for "first per- 
formances" of significant musical 
scores, one will see more of them 
acknowledged to him than to any 
other conductor in America, with 
the exceptions perhaps of Koussevit- 
sky and Stokowski. 

Yet, despite this practical equip- 
ment, he is by nature an idealistic 
person. Modest and for the most 

part reticent, he speaks softly, but 
his words are uttered in a manner 
which connotes confidence and in- 
tellectual security. In appearance, he 
hardly resembles the proverbial con- 
ductor: bushy hair, violent actions, 
"temperamental" mannerisms. In 
fact, he looks more like a quiet busi- 
ness executive, yet his dark eyes be- 
lie the smug look of a practical per- 
son. Even though he wears horn- 
rimmed goggles — which lend an aus- 
tere and highly intellectual aspect to 
his face — there is manifest a certain 
softness, an expression of idealism 
about his eyes which is highly mag- 
netic. It is the look of a visionary, 
one might say, but a visionary who 
invariably succeeds in practical un- 
dertakings. He has the instinct to 
combine his ideas, his wishes, with 
the processes of dynamic action. 

As a conductor, Sokoloff has the 
singular ability to search out many 
hidden secrets of the score, and to 
embellish what he fmds with a rut- 
urally strong emotional character, 
thereby enriching his readings with 
a deeply felt yet finely wrought pas- 
sion. His interests in music are cath- 
olic. From Beethoven to Brahms, 
from Wagner to Stravinsky, the mu- 
sic of these men is analyzed with 
the same intellectual acumen and 
projected with the same emotional 
fire. He has an apprehension, cer- 
tainly intuitive, of what the com- 
poser seeks to express in his music. 
It was Dostoyefsky, the great seer, 
who once said that the "Russian 
feels life, never thinks it. That is 
why Russia, which has produced 
great emotional writers, has never 
yet given birth to a Kant or a Spi- 
noza." It may be this feeling for 
life, translated into music, that gives 
Nikolai Sokoloff that gracefulness, 
that sumptuous elegance — achieved 
by instinct rather than by cerebra- 
tion — in his musical interpretations. 
It is for these manifold reasons that 
we must reckon him as one of the 
most dominant musical personalities 

Page 4 




By Dr. Thaddeus Rich 

(Regional Director for Eastern Stales, 
Federal Music Project) 

'There have been many reactions to the 
Cycle of Beethoven Concerts which the 
Newark Civic Symphony Orchestra, a WPA 
sponsored unit of the Federal Music Proj- 
ect, is presenting weekly. 

"Some critics have said they have never 
heard better symphonic playing in this city. 
Some are astonished by the ability of the 
orchestra to present such a full cycle in six 
weekly programs. Some point proudly to 
the fact that the personnel is drawn with 
few exceptions from the citizens of Essex 
County. Some express appreciation to the 
WPA for making possible these concerts at 
a small admission price. Some are grateful 
to the excellent artists who contribute their 
services as soloists. And some marvel al the 
response of the public, eager, and enthusi- 
astic and undeterred by uninviting weather 
— the student, following the playing with 
his scores; the seasoned concert-goer, and 
the average citizen who comes, not out of 
habit, not out of technical interest, but be- 
cause the music of Beethoven strikes fire in 
the depths of his soul." — Newark (N.J.) 
Ledger, May 25, 1936. 

The foregoing article illumines a 
part of the record of the Federal Mu- 
sic Project's place in the community 
life in Region II. It is one of many 
tributes from the press. There are 
areas in these five states on the East- 
ern Seaboard where the services of 
the musicians on the WPA rolls 
have become integral elements in 
new civic programs. Since July first, 
6,604,000 persons have heard pro- 
grams and performances in this re- 
gion, and of the 13,607 individuals 
on the Music Project roster on Feb- 
ruary first, 2,157 reside in these 
states or the District of Columbia. 

What is true in other sections of 
the country is true also in Region 11. 
There has been an enhancement and 
sharpening of the skills of musicians 
left jobless with the economic de- 
pression and the technological ad- 
vances of sound production; there 
has been encouragement for the na- 
tive composer, and music has been 
brought to an audience larger than 

this territory had ever known before. 
The great symphonies and choral 
works, opera and operetta, the inti- 
mate loveliness of the chamber en- 
semble literature have been heard 
by many thousands for the first 

Today in increasing numbers mu- 
sicians who have been retrained and 
rehabilitated under the WPA works 
program are returning to private em- 
ployment and teachers assigned to 
the educational units are reopening 
the studios they closed when pupils' 
fees dwindled to the vanishing point. 
Not only can we count a vast new 
audience but we can number our 
music pupils at an unparalleled fig- 

Out of the seventy-six educational 
and musical units in Region II, three 
symphony orchestras and an opera 
project with several smaller orches- 
tras and bands appear to have some 
certainty of municipal or civic per- 
manence when Federal assistance is 

During January there were 637 
concerts or programs in New Jersey 
which were heard by 288,381 listen- 
ers, while in Philadelphia alone dur- 
ing the month audience figures to- 
talled 132,475. This clearly indicates 
a desire for music on the part of the 
"average man." 

In the libraries of Patterson, Cam- 
den and Newark, N. J., and in Phila- 
delphia, copyists, arrangers and .\- 
brarians have been at work for more 
than a year turning out thousands of 

music scores for the use of WPA 
units or to serve as nuclei of perma- 
nent music libraries. In the Library 
of Congress m Washington, and m 
the Public Library at Baltimore, 
copyists have made transcriptions of 
many rare manuscripts and have sup- 
plied missing parts from master 

The great majority of unemployed 
musicians were in New Jersey and 
Pennsylvania. On February 1 they 
were found in the following units: 

NEW JERSEY— 821 men and 82 
women assigned to one symphony 
orchestra, 1 1 concert orchestras, four 
bands, 13 dance orchestras, one 
opera project and four copyists 
projects. A Brahms Cycle in New- 
ark duplicated the success of the 
earlier Beethoven Cycle and the 
opera forces have produced repeated 
performances of "Martha" and 'Tra 

PENNSYLVANIA— 1,077 men 
and 43 women are assigned to 36 
units. Both of the symphony orches- 
tras in Pittsburgh and Philadelphia 
have included many American com- 
positions in their programs. 

The National Coordinating Unit op- 
erates with 11 persons and the 
Analysis Unit of the Project employs 
12. Teaching and dance units in the 
Capital give employment to ten men 
and eight women. 

DELAWARE— 21 men and 3 wo- 
men are assigned to a concert orches- 
tra and a dance band. 

MARYLAND — The single re- 
maining project in this state has 15 
men assigned for orchestral pro- 

WEST VIRGINIA — Orchestras 
in Clarksburg, Huntington and 
Wheeling give employment to 47 
men and 6 women. 


Page 5 


Dr. Nikolai Sokoloff, National Di- • 
rector of the Federal Music Project, 
who arrived on March 6th to inspect 
the California projects, left San Fran- 
cisco on April 4 to visit other west- 
ern projects, from whence he will 
continue to Washington. 

Among the more prominent activi- 
ties honoring Dr. Sokoloff's visit 
were luncheons in Los Angeles on 
March 19, which the Southern Cal- 
ifornia supervisors attended, and in 
San Francisco on March 22, attended 
by supervisors from Northern Cali- 
fornia. He was also guest of honor 
at a luncheon given by the Los An- 
geles Ebell Club. 

After a trip to San Francisco to 
attend the project luncheon on 
March 22 and to hear various units 
of the Oakland and San Francisco 
projects, Dr. Sokoloff returned to 
Los Angeles to resume the task of 
making recordings of several groups 
of the Los Angeles Project at the 
RCA Studios of Hollywood. 

Some of the groups recorded and 
the selections used include three 
movements from the "Nutcracker 
Suite," Preludes One and Two from 
"Lohengrin," Overture to "Oberon" 
and Nocturne from "Midsummer 
Night's Dream," all with Dr. Soko- 
loff conducting the Los Angeles 
Project Symphony, the Prelude to 
"Tristam and Isolde," Overture to 
"Merry Wives of Windsor," Sine- 
galia's "Le Brusse Chivotte" and 
Usigli's "Humanitas,' all with Gas- 
tone Usigli conducting; Tschaikow- 
sky's "Andante Cantabile" for strings, 
Dillon's "Chinese Suite" and the 
Scherso from Tschaikowsky's Sym- 
phony No. 1, all conducted by Mod- 
est Altschuler. Recordings were also 
made of Felix Borowski's "Fernando 
del Nonsentsico" with Jacques Sa- 
mossoud conducting. A production 
of this operatic satire was recently 
given by the Los Angeles Project 
and received praise from critics. 

Recordings were also made by the 
concert band, under the direction of 
Arthur Babich, Carlyle Scott's col- 
ored chorus, Ted Sherman's dance 
band, and the A Cappella choir, un- 
der the direction of Hal Grain. These 

Dr. Nikolai Sokoloff, Federal Music Project National Director, Miss Harle 

Jervis, California State Director, and Gastone Usigli, Los Angeles County 

Director, at a luncheon given for Dr. Sokoloff in Los Angeles 

recordings will soon be ready for 
release to radio stations throughout 
the country. The Los Angeles sta- 
tions who will use these transcrip- 
tions are: KECA, KEHE, KFAC, 
KHJ, KMTR and KRKD, and in 
Long Beach KFOX and KGER. The 
recordings were made under the su- 
pervision of Guy Bolte, who accom- 
panied Dr. Sokoloff from Washing- 

Dr. Sokoloff was decidedly im- 
pressed with the caliber of the Cali- 
fornia project. In his speech at the 
San Francisco luncheon, he said, 
"Mr. Hopkins and Mrs. Woodward 
will be glad to know how I feel 
about you here in California, because 
I am the one whose business it is to 
tell them what you are doing. They 
know I will not give them lovely 
pictures that are not true. If I 
thought you were being careless or 
indifferent I should so report to 
them, but this has certainly not been 
the case. I can go back feeling that 
they were right in this plan, and 
that my hopes were right; and 
through Miss Jervis, whose splendid 
efforts in the State have been so suc- 
cessful, I feel content and happy 
that you will carry on." 

A similar sentiment was expressed 
by Dr. Sokoloff in his Los Angeles 
speech before the assembled super- 

Before his departure, the National 
Director revealed his plan to return 
to California in June and personally 
conduct several of the California 
project symphony orchestras. 


Official confirmation of the ap- 
pointment of Gastone Usigli as Di- 
rector -of the Los Angeles Federal 
Music Project was announced on 
March 15 by Harle Jervis, Califor- 
nia State Director. 

At the same time, an official an- 
nouncement was made concerning 
the appointment of Loren S. Greene, 
who will be assistant to the state 
director, in charge of business ad- 
ministration for the California Proj- 

Mr. Usigli established an admir- 
able record as supervisor of the Oak- 
land Project and conductor of the 
Oakland Project Symphony Orches- 
tra. Mr. Greene, before his promo- 
tion to the State Office, was Direc- 
tor of the Los Angeles Project. 


Stephen deHospodar 


Page 7 


By Erich Weiler 

(Supervisor, San Rafael, California Federal Music Project) 

When the layman tries to criticize 
new or unfamiliar music he is usually 
in a quandary, j'et there are some very 
simple rules which, if followed, will 
lead him out of the morass of pre- 
tense and the bog of cheap praise. 
The first question the listener should 
ask himself is an easy one to answer, 
provided it is asked honestly. It is 
a simple query of three parts: Does 
the music please him? Is it unpleas- 
ant to his ears? Does it leave him in- 
different? At first hearing of a work 
the answer to these questions is very 
easily given. 

Rimsky-Korsakoff, on hearing re- 
peatedly works of a great modern 
composer whom he disliked, said to 
a pupil, "Stop playing this music or 
I will begin to hke it." A similar 
thought was expressed recently by 
Deems Taylor in a radio broadcast. 
In advocating a more receptive atti- 
tude to modem music he said that 
if a new and great composer should 
appear among us it would be a cer- 
tainty that we would not like his 
music at first. 

Let us, therefore, qualify the an- 
swers to the above three questions 
by saying, "I like or do not like this 
music AT PRESENT." The next 
thing to do is to learn through re- 
peated hearing whether the work be- 
comes significant or tiresome to us. 

Persons who at first hearing know 
whether the work will improve with 
further acquaintances are extremely 
rare. Snap judgments are the rule 
among careless listeners and critics 
alike. This leads us to our second 
and more important question: Is the 
music good or bad? 

The answer to this question is 
something fundamentally different 
from the so easily determined like, 
dishke, or indifference. It is a well 
known fact that musical audiences 
sometimes showed their superiority 
to academic and conventional critics 
by enthusiastically endorsing works 
which were condemned by the critics 
as vulgar, amateurish or inferior. 

Haydn and Mozart were more often 
condemned by musicians and critics 
than by audiences. One needs only 
to read Mozart's letters to find veri- 
fication for this fact. 

Some of the greatest music critics 
have been unable to give just and 
intelligent judgment of great new 
works when they were first pre- 
sented. Hanslick, who wrote one of 
the finest books of musical criticism 
("The Beautiful in Music") was 
dead wrong in his judgment of Wag- 
ner; and for those who think that 
only the artist can understand and 
appreciate the artist, history has 
shown time and time again that com- 
posers are notoriously wrong in judg- 
ing the work of their contemporaries. 
Tschaikowsky could not bear the 
music of Brahms, Gounod depre- 
cated Cesar Franck, Wagner disliked 
most of his contemporaries, Rossini 
laughed at Wagner, Spohr and 
Weber thought the works of the 
later Beethoven inferior and worth- 
less. These judgments were not judg- 
ments of jealousy or animosity — they 
were the sincere expressions of their 
genuine dislike of the music of the 
other composer. 

Of one thing we may be certain — 
we all agree to call that music good 
which becomes more enjoyable with 
repeated hearing. The rule never to 
pass judgment on music after first 
or second hearing should, therefore, 
hold good for professional musician, 
layman and professional critic alike. 
Whether a work will live or die no 
man can predict. 

All these leave the amateur con- 
cert goer the one sure road to mu.s- 
ical appreciation, the simple expedi- 
ent of consistently withholding criti- 
cal comment until the work has been 

listened to at least a dozen or more 
times. This repeated listening should 
be spread over a long time; before 
a work unfolds its beauties, before 
new forms are appreciated, before 
new harmonic and orchestral com- 
binations sound pleasant to the ear, 
frequently much time must pass. 

Even after this has been faithfully 
done we cannot pass final judgment. 
All we have done is to clarify our 
own personal reactions. A judgment 
can seldom give more than the feel- 
ings aroused by a particular music 
m a particular hearer. 

A conscientious critic should, of 
course, be able to judge whether a 
new composition is of inferior work- 
manship, the work of an amateur or 
beginner. However, this judgment 
should be passed only after a careful 
perusal of the score; but since, in 
this article, I have reference only to 
works already promoted and backed 
by the good opinion of responsible 
conductors and musicians, we need 
not concern ourselves with this par- 
ticular kind of criticism. Let us also 
not forget that a work might become 
stale through too many hearings and 
still remain good music. Many hack- 
neyed compositions are really great 

I have stated before that the best 
critic is unable to tell definitely 
whether a new composition will Uve 
or not. Therefore, our saying "I do 
not like this music after all," should 
imply that the listener REGRETS 
his inability to gain enjoyment from 
it. Not being able to appreciate a 
new work is cause for regret; it 
should not be an occasion to exult 
in one's contempt for it. It should 
also be more widely known that the 
ability to appreciate the many differ- 
ent periods and schools of music is 
very rare. The finest musicians dif- 
fer in their preferences, in their likes 
and dislikes. 

There are two kinds of bad criti- 
cism which we often find in news- 
papers, magazines and books on mu- 

(Please lurn lo fas' Elcjhtefn) 

Page 8 



BylAlfred Keller 

(Violinist; Supervisor of Chamber Music, San Francisco Project) 

Because of the new emphasis given 
to chamber music on the San Fran- 
cisco Music Project, a few com- 
ments on the nature and value of 
this type of music, which to the lay 
mind seems so austere and forbid- 
ding, may be appropriate. 

To begin with — let us attempt a 
definition of "chamber music". It is 
music of a number of string instru- 
ments, or of wind instruments, -or 
a combination of the two, playing in 
concert. However, the distinctive 
feature of chamber music, that which 
distinguishes it from orchestral music, 
is that each player in the combina- 
tion is a soloist as well as an en- 
semble player. That is ^rarely, if 
ever, does more than one individual 
play the same identical part. There- 
fore, it is immediately perfection both 
in the music itself and in its execu- 
tion. Nicety of detail, polish, an ar- 
tistic blending of individual musical 
lines, then, characterizes chamber 
music, as contrasted to the more dif- 
fused conglomeration of sound com- 
prising orchestral music. 

How easily such a type of music 
as chamber music falls into the latter 
eighteenth century, the period when 
it has its most characteristic develop- 
ment and function — the age of 
Voltaire, Benjamin Franklin, Mozart 
— the "age of Reason", with its cos- 
mopolitanism, sophistication, individ- 
ualism; the age when sharpness of 
wit, refinement and perfection in 
craftmanship were the intellectual 
and artistic goals. This age that ante- 
dated the turbulent emotionalism and 
dynamism of the nineteenth century 
was well satisfied to listen quietly in 
its salons to a few instrumentalists 
playing music, crystal-clear and per- 
fect in form, albeit small in scope and 
something less than vivid in color. 

The nineteenth century, although 
a time of prolific output of chamber 
music, relegated it to a place of im- 
portance secondary to symphonic 

music. The hmited but well ordered 
horizons of the eighteenth century 
had been blasted by the Industrial 
Revolution with its concomitant so- 
cial unrest, nationalism and imper- 
ialism. Passing over the romanticists, 
the nineteenth century was an age 
of Titans in music, — Beethoven best 
typifying the turbulent and dramatic 
spirit of the age; Wagner typifying 
the "gigantism" of the age with its 
dreams of greatness and power, a 
gigantism gone slightly berserk in 
Mahler and Bruckner. It can readily 
be seen that the robustness and vigor 
of such an age could hardly be ade- 
quately expressed by an instrumen- 
tality of such small bore as chamber 
music. Beethoven, of course, wrote 
a great deal of chamber music — 
nevertheless, much of even his cham- 
ber music, particularly his later string 
quartets, is imbued with a dramatic 
and emotional content that strains 
impatiently at the hounds of the in- 
strument of expression. Only Brahms, 
in this period, maintained the seren- 
ity and calm of a former day. Brahms, 
in the nineteenth century, is the true 
heir of the classic spirit — the re- 
flective, philosophical seeker of meta- 
physical reality. In his music is not 
found the strife and conflict of the 
mundane, but the peace of the in- 
finite. Just as Plato and Kant found 
the absolute in their philosophies, so 
has Brahms achieved the absolute 
in music. 

So the music of Brahms is perhaps 
the most ideal subject for chamber 
music, in consonance with the oft 
expressed concept of chamber music 
as being the purest form of absolute 

music. Both the music of Brahms and 
the fundamental concept of chamber 
music are concerned with the es- 
sence of music rather than its out- 
ward form — with the ultimate mean- 
ing of music rather than with vivid- 
ness of portrayal — with the things 
of the mind rather than with the 
material. In short, both are fourth 

The twentieth century has been 
and is a period of experimentation 
in music. The scientific spirit en- 
gendered in the nineteenth century 
has activated the modem musician 
in his search for new tonal fields. 
In such an analytical endeavor, many 
have become so engulfed in their 
experiments that they have lost 
touch with the inner significance of 
music as music. Their products lack 
the synthesis that makes for an in- 
tegral whole. After all, in music as 
in art in general, the whole must be 
something more than merely the sum 
of the parts. However, these men 
have served the admirable purpose 
of laying the groundwork, of fash- 
ioning the tools, to be used by their 
successors in the creation of a new 
art form with more significance as 
art. The inadequacy of such music, 
in its present stage, as a vehicle for 
chamber music, which depends for 
its value either on the pure stylism 
of the eighteenth century or the es- 
sential quality of absolute music 
achieved by such composers as 
Brahms, is quite apparent. 

However, some contemporary com- 
posers have been able to keep their 
heads above water and preserve the 
essential values of music as music — 
these men have been and are keep- 
ing alive the fine flicker of classic 
idealism in music. Such men as 
Schoenberg and Hindemith are to- 
day creating the absolute music of 
the future. 

THE .^a-T.q;^ 

, Page 9 



Chicago school children are being 
given an unusual opportunity to ob- 
tain first-hand information regarding 
band and orchestra instruments and 
musical literature through free music 
appreciation concerts instituted by 
the Chicago Federal Music Project 
in Chicago schools. 

These programs incorporate dem- 
onstrations of solo instruments, fol- 
lowed by a number illustrating the 
instruments shown, in an effort to 
fix the instrumental timbre thor- 
oughly in the children's minds. In 
some instances, children's songs are 
played, the conductor inviting the 
audience to sing each tune as it is 
recognized. The conductor or a com- 
mentator precedes various numbers 
with a short analytical and biogra- 
phical analysis. 

Vocal music is presented to the 
school audiences by the Illinois Phil- 
harmonic Choir and the Jubilee 
Singers. Instrumental units include 
the American Concert Orchestra, Il- 
linois Concert Band, Balalaika Or- 
chestra, Colored Concert Band, Or- 
chestra and Concert Trio. 


With the Mayor and the City 
Council of St. Paul acting as coop- 
erating sponsors, the Twin Cities 
Civic Orchestra, a Federal Music 
Project unit, is inaugurating a series 
of five symphony concerts in the St. 
Paul Municipal Auditorium. These 
presentations are known as "educa- 
tional programs devoted to musical 
personalities" and a prominent mu- 
sician or critic acts as commentator 
at each performance. 

The first program with Walter 
Pfitzner, pianist, as soloist, included 
the First and Third Symphonies and 
the E Flat Concerto of Beethoven. 
Guest conductors will include Luigi 
Lombardi, Gabriel Fenyves, Daniel 
Saidenberg and William Muelbe. 


The Federal Music Project of New 
York City has inaugurated, in their 
new Federal Theatre of Music, a se- 
ries of ten fortnightly programs, 
tracing the history and dealing with 
the related forms of music and dance. 
Beginning with the primitive sources 
of both arts, the programs are copi- 
ously illustrated with authentic 
dances, accompanied whenever pos- 
sible by the original music played 
on the instruments of the time. 

This correlation of music and 
dance forms has been described as 
unique, and to the authentic histori- 
cal records there is added all the col- 
ort'ul and dynamic appeal of the 

In the latter half of the series, 
there will be presented such general 
subjects as the development of the 
operas out of the ballet, the suite 
as the forerunner of the sonata. 
Nineteenth Century trends and the 
close relationship of music and the 
dance today. Outstanding dancing 
concert groups are appearing in this 

Sunday night performances in the 
new Theatre of Music are devoted 
to symphony programs. One each 
month is known as a "New Talent" 
performance, when young American 
musicians are given opportunities to 
appear as conductors and soloists. 
These programs also present compo- 
sitions of native composers. Among 
those recently presented were: Seth 
Bingham's "Tame Animal Tunes;" 
Arcady Dubensky's arrangement of 
the Bach Chorale-Prelude "Vater 
Unser Un Himmel-Reich;" Hadley's 
"Angelus" from the Symphony No. 
3 ; John Powell's "Rhapsodic Negro" 
for piano and orchestra, with the 
composer as soloist, and Lamar 
Stringfield's symphonic ballad "The 
Legend of John Henry." 

Composers and their works re- 
cently presented by the New York 
City Composers' Forum-Laboratory 
included David Stanley Smith, Miss 
Rosy Wertheim and Dr. Paul Amad- 
eus Pisk. 


For the first time in many years, 
the Majestic Theatre in Boston has 
opened its doors to grand opera 
when the Federal Music Project pre- 
sented five days of "Carmen" and 
"The Blind Girl of Jerusalem," be- 
ginning March 16. As in other Fed- 
eral operas, all scenery and costumes 
for these productions were designed 
and executed by project workers. 
Mischa Richter of the Federal Art 
Project was responsible for the col- 
orful Spanish scenery and wardrobe, 
Forty-five seamstresses and fitters of 
the WPA sewing project turned out 
the costumes. The sturdy exterior and 
interior sets and all properties were 
built by government employed car- 
penters, painters and sceni cartists. 

With the Majestic Theatre as its 
new playhouse, the Boston Music 
Project is making elaborate plans for 
future presentatons there. On April 
4, the Sunday evening Symphonies 
were transferred from the Copley 
Theatre to the down-town Majestic. 
At this concert Burle Marx, brilhant 
young musician and former con- 
ductor of the Philharmonic Orches- 
tra of Rio de Janeiro, was guest con- 


Late in February, the Wisconsin 
Symphony Orchestra presented the 
first performance in Milwaukee of 
Fantasie for two pianos and orches- 
tra, by Nicolai Beresowsky, with 
Diefenthaeler and Dittl, the famous 
duo-pianists; "Donna Dianna" Over- 
ture by Reznicek; and the tone poem, 
"In the Tatra Mountains," by Ze- 

On March 20, Rudolph Ganz con- 
ducted the Wisconsin Symphony Or- 
chestra and appeared as soloist on 
his own program. 

On Friday, April 23, the Wiscon- 
sin Symphony Orchestra, of which 
Jerzy Bojanowski is conductor, will 
be honored by having Nikolai Soko- 
loff, national director of the Fed- 
eral Music Project, at the podium. 


P^e 10 



Approximately three months ago, 
the St. Louis Concert Orchestra 
started a series of instrumental dem- 
onstration concerts in the St. Louis 
schools. Since that time, 150 per- 
formances in 60 public schools have 
been given to a total of over 50,000 
students. Mr. Eugene Hahnel, super- 
visor of music in the public schools, 
has taken an active part in this work 
and has contributed much to the suc- 
cess of the school concerts. It is said 
he has a perfect understanding of 
child psychology and can impart mu- 
sical knowledge to children, both of 
which have figured largely in the 
success of the educational programs. 

Plans are now being formulated 
to enter the St. Louis Ck)ncert Or- 
chestra in a series of music apprecia- 
tion concerts in the high schools. 

Several benefit performances for 
flood relief victims were played by 
the project units in St. Louis during 
February and March, proceeds being 
turned over to the American Kei 




Under the direction of Lieutenant 
Arthur F. Never, dean of New 
Hampshire band masters, the com- 
bined New Hampshire band units 
presented a performance late in Feb- 
ruary at the City Auditorium in 
Concord. This concert was spon- 
sored by the city of Concord. The 
regular twenty-piece project band, 
the concert and dance orchestras, 
combined with all band men from 
the concert and drama orchestras 
caused the Concord Monitor to 
write: "The work of this organisa- 
tion was most creditable and showed 
the result of careful training and 
much rehearsing." 

Under the Federal Music Project, the young t 
twelve major orchestras in the United States toda 
ect groups now playing symphonic music, not only 

"We are having a new approach to music. It is 
been turned into recognition and increased interes 


On April 7, the Little Symphony 
Orchestra had a concert under the 
direction of Michael Arenstein, guest 
conductor. Dorothy Garbovitsky ap- 
peared as pianoforte soloist, playing 
the Lisjt E Flat Concerto. 

To date, 115 concerts have been 
given in 63 public schools in and 
near Portland. Reports say that stu- 
dents respond to the concerts with 
tremendous enthusiasm. Principals 
beg for repeat concerts, stating the 
children are "hungry" for good mu- 
sic. Before a school concert, a short 
description of each number to be 
played is sent to the principal. These 
descriptive notes are written in sim- 
ple language and a reading of the 
notes precedes a demonstration on 
the instruments to be used. In con- 
nection with these school concerts, a 
contest for children's compositions is 
now being conducted. 

The Symphonic Band, now under 
the conductorship of Misha Pelz, 
gives regular concerts and is rapidly 
adding works of symphonic nature 
to its repertoire. A concert of works 
by Oregon composers was recently 

Other symphonic programs pre- 
sented by this unit have included 
compositions by Goldmark, Chopin, 
Brahms, Liszt, Lully, Bach, Tschai- 
kowsky, Beethoven, Franck, Lalo, 
Jaernfelt, Grieg and Humperdinck. 


In a letter addressed to Siegfried 
Vollstedt, director of the Eau Claire 
Symphony Orchestra, Governor 
Phihp F, La Follette recently ap- 
plauded the orchestra's "exception- 
ally fine performance" in a concert 
played at Stanley, Wisconsin. Gover- 
nor La Follette was the principal 
speaker at the dedication of the new 
high school gymnasium of that city, 
and heard the orchestra play at those 



Page 11 


re given a chance to perform. There are only 
f are one hundred sixty-seven Federal Music Proj- 
but with a new spirit. 

?h to national spirit. What seemed tragedy has 
— Dr. Nikolai Sokoloff. 


Results of a music composition 
contest conducted in the schools for 
children of all the elementary grades 
are now being brought to a successful 
conclusion. From many compositions 
first turned in by the children to 
their teachers, "best" compositions 
were forwarded to the Federal Mu- 
sic Project for selection of the win- 
ner. Winners have probably been an- 
nounced by the time this is read. 
Project judges include state director 
William Meyers, district director El- 
mer Sutton and Bernard Ledington, 
composer. To the child submitting 
the winning composition out of one 
hundred works considered will go a 
portable radio set, and to the school 
represented a five-tube combination 
radio and phonograph set provided 
by Wilham SchmoUer, Omaha civic 

In Joslyn Memorial, the 
$3,000,000.00 Omaha art center, 
opera programs presenting excerpts 
from operas, commemorating and 
recognizing musical anniversary 
dates, were presented by Madame 
Thea M oeller-Herms. These in- 
cluded excerpts from Mozart's op- 
eras, a George Bizet program, and a 
Frederick Chopin program, all with 
introductory remarks by leaders in 
musical affairs. 


The Tulsa Federal Music Project 
will play a major part in the enter- 
tainment of the National Federation 
of Women's Clubs convention to be 
held in this city from April 26 to 
April 30. On Tuesday night, follow- 
ing a formal reception, there will be 
a dance in the ballroom of the Mayo 
Hotel, and later the Tulsa Sym- 
phony Orchestra will be heard in a 
concert. Preceding this, several other 
units of the Tulsa Project will be 
heard by representatives at the con- 



At the University of Pennsyl- 
vania, the Civic Symphony Orches- 
tra of Philadelphia recently devoted 
an entire program to American com- 
posers. Included were: Chad wick's 
Overture "Malpomene;" MacDow- 
ell's Second Piano Concerto, the Fi- 
nale of Samuel L. Laciar's Symphony 
in B Flat; two excerpts from Henry 
Hadley's "The Atonement of Pan;" 
a dance from Frederick Woltmann's 
Suite "Four Faces of Siva;" the over- 
ture to Frank Patterson's opera, 
"Mountain Blood," and orchestral 
transcriptions by Bernard Morgan 
for Cecil Burleigh's "Village Dance" 
and "Imps." 

During the month, Philadelphia 
audiences also heard four perform- 
ances of James Francis Cooke's 
"Grand Processional at Avignon;" 
Livingstone Snedeker's "Polonaise;" 
Wilham Bendix's "The Dervishes," 
and Hadley's "Spirit of the Trees." 



West Virginia has three units, 
each a concert orchestra, located in 
Huntington, Wheeling and Clarks- 
burg. The scope of the activities of 
these units has broadened gradually, 
since their inception in 1936, until 
now it includes weekly broadcasts 
from local radio stations, state in- 
stitutions, community centers, school 
assembhes, churches, hospitals and 
social gatherings. These concerts are 
all free to the public. 

Natonal Music Week will find 
each engaged in special activities. 

Wheeling will join Oglebay Park 
for a music festival. Clarksburg will 
give a music history of Stephen 
Foster and Huntington will present 
a pageant consisting of a series of 
episodes describing the march jf 
music as it pertains especially to the 
history of Cabell County, in which 
Huntington is situated. 





In Yonkers the last of a series of 
four Sunday afternoon concerts by 
the Westchester Philharmonic Or- 
chestra was recently presented there. 
Numbers played during this series 
included Beethoven's Seventh Sym- 
phony, John Powell's "Natchez on 
the Hill," three pieces from "The 
Damnation of Faust" by Berloij, 
Schubert's Unfinished Symphony, 
Sibelius" "Finlandia" Overture, and 
many other works familiar to con- 
cert goers. 

In Albany the Concert Orchestra 
has recently presented programs at 
the Albany Institute of History and 
Art, the New York State Vocational 
Institute, the Russell Sage College, 
and several high schools and acada- 
mies and music clubs. 

Late in February, the Symphony 
Orchestra of the Syracuse Project 
presented an all-American program 
at the Syracuse Unversity with 
Andre Polah conducting. Local critics 
were profuse in their praise of the 
orchestra and Mr. Polah's use of the 

Plans are being formulated for the 
organization of a Composers' Forum- 
Laboratory in Syracuse. Six local 
composers have been contacted and 
have responded enthusiastically to 
the idea. The Rochester Concert Or- 
chestra, the Rochester Band, and the 
Male Quartet have been most active 
the past month. Mr. Joseph Man- 
jione, second tenor of the quartet, 
recently won a competitive audition, 
which will give him a full scholar- 
ship to the Eastman School of Music. 

The Niagara Falls units, as well 
as the Buffalo units, received only 
the highest critical praise for a num- 
ber of concerts presented through- 
out the month. The Civic String Or- 
chestra of the Buffalo Project con- 
fined its work solely to Therapeutic 
Institutions in Buffalo, and played 
for the patients on fifteen occasions 
during February. 


The follouing story, submitted by Albert 
R. Albinger, conductor of the orchestra of 
the Wheeling, West Virginia Music Pro/- 
ect, has been authenticated by the matron 
and attendants at the Allenheim Home for 
the aged in Wheeling. 

On November 24, a call was re- 
ceived for the Wheeling, West Vir- 
ginia, Music Project to play a con- 
cert at the Altenheim Home for the 
Aged in Wheeling. As usual, the 
men assembled and began to play. 
Before many bars, an attendant 
brought in an old lady, well over 
eighty years of age, in a wheel-chair. 
She was totally deaf and was brought 
in solely for the purpose of viewing 
the visitors and changing her sur- 

This old lady, who no doubt 
danced to the strains of a Strauss 
Waltz, or hummed Stephen Foster's 
melodies, sat watching while the rest 
of her friends listened. 

Then, of a sudden, something 

For the first time in two years, 
this old lady became conscious of 
sound, and sat spell-bound while 
she heard the entire program. 

She later requested that the fol- 
lowing message be delivered to the 
Federal Music Project musicians: 
"Tell them that concert gave me one 
of the greatest pleasures I have had 
on earth." 


Due to a reduction in quota. Fed- 
eral Music Project activities in Louis- 
iana have been slightly curtailed, but 
State Director Rene Salomon is now 
realigning and making quality sup- 
plant quantity. Chief activities in 
Louisiana at this time are community 
singing and concerts by the Little 
Symphony Orchestra. 


Ten grand operas and a series of 
light operas and symphony concerts 
are being featured in the great state- 
wide music program of the Federal 
Music Project in Florida, accordmg 
to Dr. Clarence Carter Nice, state 

With grand opera staged every 
Friday night in Bayfront Park, Mi 
ami, the state opera company ha: 
scheduled productions in J ackson 
ville, Tampa, St. Petersburg, De 
Funiak Springs, and Tallahassee 
"Carmen," "Madame Butterfly,' 
"Rigoletto," "Cavalleria Rusticana," 
"Martha," "Aida," "Faust," "Han 
sel and Gretel," "Pagliacci," "Tra 
viata" and a new opera, "Sightiess' 
will be produced during the season 

Also included in the schedule is 
a series of Gilbert and SulUvan pro 
ductions conducted by the St. Peters- 
burg Light Opera Company and the 
opera projects of Tampa and Key 
West. Staged on an elaborate scale, 
the operas have attracted thousands 
of Gilbert and Sullivan fans from 
all parts of the country. 

The Florida program of instruc- 
tion and appreciation now in- 
cludes a winter series of public 
school programs with the full sym- 
phony orchestras of Miami, Tampa 
and Jacksonville, and weekly sched- 
ules in eighteen detention homes, 
settlement houses and public institu- 

More than 25,000 persons are ac- 
tive in weekly study and employ- 
ment programs of the Florida Fed 
eral Music Project Dr. Nice, who 
was formerly music director of the 
Philadelphia Grand Opera Com- 
pany, said in announcing that a total 
audience of more than 2,000,000 
persons attended performances dur- 
ing 1936. 



Page 13 


An elaborate schedule of perform- 
ances has been arranged by Music 
Projects throughout California in 
commemoration of National Music 
Week, May 2-9. 

All of Cailfornia's fifteen projects 
will present concerts, recitals, and 
light and grand operas in many 
cities of their districts, and in some 
instances small units from neighbor- 
ing projects are combining for pres- 

The Music Week schedule of the 
San Diego Project will open with 
a special band concert with the male 
chorus at Ford Bowl in Balboa Park, 
San Diego, on Sunday afternoon. 
May 2. 

The operetta, "The Mikado," will 
occupy the Savoy Theatre on Mon- 
day night. May 3. On Tuesday 
night, the symphony orchestra will 
feature the music of San Diego com- 
posers including the works by Leo 
Scheer and Robert Hester, project 
members, and Paul Cheatam, Gene- 
vieve Hodapp and Charles Wake- 
field Cadman. 

"The Geisha," a Japanese musical 
operetta, will be the attraction at 
the Savoy Theatre on Wednesday 
night. May 5. 

A choral concert at the Savoy 
Theatre on Thursday night will fea- 
ture American composers: Damrosch, 
Loeffler, Bingham, and others. Hum- 
perdinck's opera, "H a n s e 1 and 
Gretel," which will be the feature 
attraction at the Savoy Theatre on 
Friday night, will be repeated for a 
special children's matinee on Satur- 
day afternoon. , 

San Diego's Music Week activities 
will conclude at the Savoy Theatre 
on Saturday night. May 8, with the 
presentation of Parker's Oratorio, 
"Hora Novissima," and Bach's "Cof- 
fee Cantata," with costumes and 

A comprehensive schedule is now 
being arranged for free performances 
at schools, recreation centers and 
public affairs by other San Diego 
units including concert and dance 
orchestras, the chamber music group. 

Spanish orchestra and colored 

The San Bernardino project's Mu- 
sic Week schedule will open with 
the presentation of the Verdi "Re- 
quiem Mass" at Redlands Univer- 
sity in Redlands, California, on May 
2. This concert will also feature the 
Redlands University choir. 

Other concerts throughout the 
week will present the symphony or- 
chestra, band, mixed chorus and 
Mexican Trouba d o u r s presenting 
music to audiences assembled in high 
schools, CCC camps, the Riverside 
Mission Inn, churches and hospitals 

The symphony orchestra will pre 
sent five programs during the week 
including the Verdi Mass. The Riv 
erside Mission Inn concert, sched 
uled for May 7, will feature the 
string ensemble and a soloist to be 
announced later. Other symphony 
concerts during the week are sched- 
uled for the Mill Creek CCC camp 
at Mentone, the San Bernardino Au- 
ditorium and the Riverside Junior 

The Carmel Project is planning 
daily one-half hours of music to be 
given in public schools. Other activi- 
ties will include one-half hours of 
music in the historic Carmel Forest 
Theatre on Sunday afternoon, May 
2, daily park concerts, and an or- 
chestra concert in Sunset School Au- 
ditorium in Carmel, which wnll fea- 
ture two guest artists, one to be an- 
nounced later, and the other Noel 

A series of five evening concerts 
will be given during Music Week 
by the Stockton Project with an en- 
tire change of program each evening. 
Among the soloists scheduled for 
these concerts will be Grattan Guer- 
in, Jr. and Josephine Miramontes, 

violinist, and William Peron, trum- 

Present plans include two concerts 
featuring the combined Sacramento 
and Stockton project orchestras, one 
to be in Stockton with Grattan Guer- 
in conducting and the other in Sac- 
ramento with Leslie Hodge conduct- 

The Orange County Project plans 
for Music Week consist of concerts 
by the orchestra, band, and chorus 
in the various cities, parks and 
schools th that vicinity. 

A full program has been arranged 
by the Santa Barbara Project for the 
occasion. On May 1, the concert or- 
chestra will furnish the music for 
the May pole dance to be given in 
the sunken gardens of the Court 
House grounds. The Tipica Orches- 
tra will present a Mexican and Span- 
ish program on May 2nd. At the 
Plaza Del Mar in the afternoon of 
May 3, the concert orchestra will 
play Viennesse Cafe Music. On May 
4, the dance orchestra will play in 
the Shell during the afternoon, and 
in the evening the string quartette 
will present a program featuring the 
first public performance of Super- 
visor Antoni van der Voort's work, 
"Quartet in F." The concert orches- 
tra will again play on Wednesday 
afternoon in the "Rockwood" Wo- 
man's Clubhouse. The Santa Bar- 
bara Choral Union will cooperate 
with the project orchestra on May 
6 to present a choral and orchestral 
evening. On the following evening a 
popular concert will be given at 
Plaia del Mar, and the activities will 
end on May 8 with an "open house" 
in the afternoon and a street dance 
in the evening. 

Music Week in Los Angeles will 
see all units performing. The Week 
will open officially with a concert 
featuring the combined choral units 
and the bands to be given on the 
steps of the City Hall in Los An- 
geles on Monday, May 3. Other con- 
certs scheduled include symphony 
concerts at Trinity Auditorium, 

(PImsc turn lo Page Filteen) 

Page 14 




Effective April 1, 1937, Mr. Buck- 
ley Mac-Gurrin was appointed Di- 
rector of the Los Angeles County 
Federal Art Project. He succeeds 
Mr. S. Macdonald-Wright, who has 
been in charge of the Los Angeles 
County activities of the Art Project 
for the past year and a half. In view 
of the splendid record made by Mr. 
Wright, his resignation was accepted 
with deep regret. 

A native of Kalamazoo, Michigan, 
Mr. Mac-Gurrin received much of 
his art training in California, at the 
University of California and at the 
Berkeley School of Arts and Crafts. 
He also studied in Paris, at the 
Colarossi Academy, and has lived 
and worked in France for a number 
of years. His paintings were exhibit- 
ed at the Salon d'Automme in 19.^0 
and at the Salon des Tuileries from 
1927 to 1932. 

Sponsored by the Junior College 
of San Francisco, the San Francisco 
Federal Art Project is now exhibit- 
ing pictures and sculptures from Cal- 
ifornia artists at 434 Post Street. 

Among the San Francisco artists 
represented are John Garrity, John 
Holland, Don Kingman, George 
Post, Andre Rexroth and Herman 

Santa Barbara and Los Angeles 
artists also are represented by ex- 
hibits. Sculptures, hammered copper, 
wood engra\'ings, lithographs and 
etchings are included. 

The exhibit will continue until the 
end of the college year. 

An ancient form of mural being 
revived with success in Southern 
California is that of tile mosaic. The 
largest work of this kind now un- 
der way is that for the exterior of 
the Long Beach Municipal audito- 
rium. Thirty craftsmen are at work 
on this huge project under the di- 
rection of Albert Henry King, an 
expert in ceramics. 

P. G. Napolitano, whose mural 
painting in egg tempera for the sci- 
ence building of George Washington 
High School at Long Beach was un- 
veiled on Washington's birthday, is 
now engaged on a mural in fresco 
for the Beverly Hills High School. 


By Myra Kinch 

(Dance Director, California Federal 
Theatre Project) 

The main efforts of the Los An- 
geles Dance Unit, at the moment, are 
being directed toward rehearsals for 
a concert to be given some time in 
June. The Concert Group, which in- 
cludes ten girls and four men, have 
been working on a dance cycle titled 
"Theme of Expansion" (American 
Exodus) . This is divided into several 
parts: "The Trek," "Estabhshment," 
"Burden," "Nostalgia," "Tryst" and 
"Festal BJiythm." The music for this 
suite was composed from the move- 
ments of the dance by Manuel Galea. 
Further activities include the 
dance movements for the forthcom- 
mg production of "Johnny Johnson" 
by Paul Green. The music for this 
play was composed by Kurt Weill. 

With the close of "Revue of Re- 
views," after an additional run at the 
Mason Theatre in Los Angeles, daily 
classes in technique are being given 
for all the dancers not in current 
productions. Tap instruction is un- 
der the expert supervision of Elmer 
Maiden. There are, at present, forty- 
two dancers m the unit, and these 
classes enable them to acquire a gen- 
eral foundation for the many types 
of dancmg needed in various the- 
atrical productions. Many of the 
dancers have been working by them- 
selves at the Unit to try out their 
own Choreographic ability. 


Random House, New York puhlishing 
firm, is offtrhig a prize for the best essay 
of three hundred words or less on the sub- 
ject of whether Madame van Meek was in 
love with Tschaikowsky's music or with 
Tichjikoiisky, whether her infiuence and 
financial patronage helped or hindered his 
inspiration, and why she eventually severed 
her connections with the composer. 

Many letters passed between the com- 
poser and the lady and are available for 
the contestants. Further information may he 
obtained from the Random House, New 
York City. 


Shylock with red hair is a startling 
novelty to Shakespearean addicts 
who have never seen "The Mer- 
chant of Venice" treated as a mod- 
ern comedy. Gareth Hughes, silent 
cinema star, plays the part of the 
Venetian money-lender in the Shake- 
spearean production now playing at 
the Hollywood Playhouse. Miss Es- 
telle Winwood plays the command- 
ing role of Portia. 

Music and dancing, much em- 
ployed in ultra-modern stage tech- 
nique, are used in "The Merchant 
of Venice" to set the moods of light 
and shadow Shakespeare intended. A 
complete musical score accompanies 
the play. 

Ideahsm fighting in the modern 
world is the theme of Clifford Odets' 
"Awake and Sing," which opened 
April 1 in the Musart Theatre, Los 
Angeles. Performed in Yiddish by 
the Jewish unit of the Federal Thea- 
tre Project, under Director Adolph 
Freeman, the play deals with a fam- 
ily in the Bronx, New York City. 

"Magic Strings" moved to the 
Beaux Arts Theatre on April 1, 
where the Federal Marionette Play- 
ers transported their wooden dolls 
any tiny stage from the Theatre of 
the Magic Strings to play a two 
weeks' engagement of James Steph- 
ens' "The Crock of Gold" and the 
pirate yarn, "Captain Kidd." 

"Blind Alley," by James Warwick, 
previously seen at the Pasadena 
Playhouse under the title of "Smoke 
Screen," is now entertaining Mayan 
Theatre audiences in Los Angeles. 
"Blind Alley" is a study of gangster 

The San Francisco Federal Theatre 
Project will take a spurt ahead on 
April 15 with the opening of the fa- 
mous Alcajar Theatre on OTarrell 
street. A gala opening savoring of a 
Hollywood premiere is planned. Max 
Dill's "Swing Parade," an original 
revue with a cast of seventy-five, for 
which practically all of the music was 
written by members of the project, 
will be the initial showing in the new 

The Alcazar Theatre will be occu- 
pied on Monday nights with regular 
presentations of the San Francisco 
Federal Music Project. 

''R'*. T n V 

P-ige n 

5an Mateo, San Jose 
Orchestras Combine 

Followinf; the success of thr sym- 
phony concert given by the com- 
h'ncd orchestras of the San Mateo 
,\r\A San Jose projects in Redwood 
City on March 2 under the direc- 
tion of Arthur Gunderson, Super' 
visor of the San Mateo Project, the 
same program was heard in a con- 
cert at San Jose on March 25. Tlie 
second in this series featuring the 
combined orchestras was conducted 
by Joseph Cizko-'.-sky, San Jose Sxi- 

Due to the gratifying reception 
accorded these concerts, others are 
being planned. 

The program, which wa.": thi~ same 
in both cities, included Mosart's 
Overture to "Marriage of Ficarn" 
and "Symphony in G Minor;" Max 
Bruch's "Ko! Nidrei," which fea- 
tured Norma Letroeadec, 'cellist; 
two of Frederick Preston Search's 
compositions, "I^rghctto" and "Ex- 
hilaration," and Johann Strauss' 
"Tales From the Vienna Woods." 

C'aliloniia IVcparcs 

For Music WecU 

r. ntinued from Poge Thirl -tn 

Dr. Sokoloff to Jud^e 
Federation Contest 

Musicians of national and world- 
wide note will ser\'e as iudges for 
the Young Artists' and Student Mu- 
sicians' Contests of the National Fed- 
eration of Music Clubs, which will 
climax the Twentieth Biennial Con- 
vention and American Music Festival 
of the National Federation of Music 
Clubs in Indianapolis April 23-29. 
Mrs. Ruth Haller Ottawa^' of New 
York, first vice president of the fed- 
eration and chairman of the contests, 
announced today. 

Included among the judges will be 
John Charles Thomas, baritone; Dr. 
Nikolai Sokoloff, former conductor 
of the Cleveland Symphony Orches- 
tra and National Director of the Fed- 
eral Music Project; Rudolph Ganz, 
conductor and pianist, and Beryl 
Rubenstein, pianist. 

Participants in the concerts in In- 
dianapolis will be the winners in 
piano, violin, voice, and opera voice 
classifications in the fourteen con- 
test districts into which the country 
has been divided. 

cliambcr music recitals, light operas 
and- excerpts from grand operas, in- 
cluding the second act of Aida and 
the third act of the Meistersingers. 

Activities for Music Week will 
extend throughout the nonth in Los 
Angeles, assuming the proportions of 
a major music Arrangements 
are nov/ being completed whereby 
Rudolph Can:, famous pianist, will 
conduct the Los Ange'cs Symphonv 
Orchestra and appear as soloist at 
Trinity Auditorium. Jacques Samos- 
Eoud and Gastone Usipli are other 
conductors already scheduled for 
four weekly concerts, Mav .'i, 12, 19 
and 26. One of these evenings will 
be devoted to works of American 
composers. Several famous conduc- 
tors residing in Los Angeles will con- 
duct. Another evening will he de- 
voted entirely to excerpts of famous 

Meanwhile, more than twenty-five 
Los Angeles units will be perform- 
ing before schools, clubs, churches, 
CCC camps, hospitals and civic or- 

The San Francisco Project will in- 
augurate Music Week with festi^'ities 
in their recentlv acquired theatre, 
the Alcaaar. A revival of the mu- 
sical hit, "Take Your Choice," is 
being contemplated, as well as a .se- 
ries of major symphonic presenta- 
tions, choral concerts, band concerts 
in public squares, and performances 
by smaller units. 

The Marin County chamber en- 
semble will feature a series of pres- 
entations for Music Week. These will 
include little-known, but famous, 
works for chamber orchestras and 
will be presented in San Rafael and 
a number of nearby towns. 

The Oceanside Project has plan- 
ned a series of band concerts of ma- 
jor proportion to be presented in the 
beach cities. 

The Oakland Project orchestra 
and chorus will present a variety of 
concerts at local theatre? and high 
schools during Music Week, featur- 
ing special American, Italian and 
International programs. 

The prize mnning work oj the 7936 
Elrz-iherh S/tr^guc Coolu^t^e content h^tJ 
ill firil public /leriormance at the fes- 
tival oj chamher music in the Library oj 
Conj^rrii in WashinRton, D.C.. April 9-21, 
1937. The work is a string ijuartet by Jerzy 
Pitelberg. a native of Poland. 

Project Musicians Buy 
Many New Instruments 

Bv Lnn K' klex 

(Stifcrriinr. Orange County, Calif. 
Falerjl Music Project) 

An interesting side light on the 
matter of the rehabilitation of musi- 
cians is the number of new instru- 
ments that have been purchased by 
musicans on the Federal Music 

During the years of the depression 
many musicians, like other workers, 
v;ere unable to replace or repair the 
tools of their trade that had become 
worn or out of condition. In many 
cases musicians had been forced to 
sell their instruments for money with 
which to buy food; consequently 
m.any persons showed up for work 
on the Federal Music Project with 
inadequate instruments. However, as 
soon as they got on their feet they 
began to improve this condition. 

The writer was interested in mak- 
ing a check on the number of instru- 
ments that have been purchased in 
the past year by workers on this 
project. The check revealed the 
amazing fact that a total of fifty- 
nine instruments have been bought 
by the members of the symphony 
orchestra, the band, and the dance 

These purchases include ten 
trumpets, six saxophones, five trom- 
bones, snare drums and basses, four drums, and many others. 

This check makes no mention of 
money spent for repairs, bows, cases, 
or other accessories. 

Probably thirty per cent of these 
sales were for used instruments, and 
in several cases the workers first pur- 
chased a used instrument and later 
traded it in on a new one. 

The survey showed that through 
the agencies of the Federal Music 
Project not only has the musical 
talents of a large number of people 
been preserved, but also these musi- 
cians are now equipped with ade- 
quate instruments and are ready for 
any private jobs that may show up. 
It also showed that one group of 
people cannot be helped without ma- 
terially stimulating business in many 
hnes. If our experience in Orange 
County is indicative of conditions 
throughout the country, the Federal 
Music Project has not only helped 
musicians; it has also helped music 
dealers and the makers of musical 

Page 16 


Arnold Schoenberg To 
Repeat Composition 

A complete program of contem- 
porary works will be the next offer- 
ing of Los Angeles Federal Music 
Project Symphony orchestra on 
April 14 at Trinity auditorium. Arn- 
old Schoenberg, one of the world's 
leading modernist composers, and 
Gerald Strang, his teaching assistant 
at the University of California at 
Los Angeles, will appear as guest 

Acceding to r e p e at e d requests, 
Schoenberg will again present his 
tone poem, "Pelleas and Melisande," 
which was given its Los Angeles pre- 
miere about six weeks ago by the 
Los Angeles Project orchestra under 
the composer's baton. 

Gerald Strang, prominent young 
leader in New Music circles, will 
conduct the first performance of the 
Second Movement from his own 
Suite for Chamber Orchestra, a five 
movement work now in the process 
of completion. 

Another first performance is in- 
cluded on the program with the 
playing of a Nocturne by Oscar Le- 
vant, pupil of Schoenberg's, now one 
of the galaxy of leading composers 
called by Hollywood for motion pic- 
ture scoring. 

A "Scherzo Jassozo" entitled 
"American Life" by Adolph Weiss, 
and Passacaglia by Anton von We- 
bern will complete the program. 

Can You Answer These? 

1 In what opera is "The Last 
Rose of Summer" jourtd? 

2. Who wrote the opera "Fra 

i. What Russian exponent of mod- 
ernism in music wrote the bal- 
let "Petrouchka?" 

4. (a) How many white keys are 

there on the modern piano? 
(bj How many black? 
}. What is the name of Beeth- 
oven's ONLY oratorio? 

6. In what opera did Caruso make 

his last public appearance? 

7. from the following list, select 
the operas written by Verdi: 

"La Traviata," "Faust," Er- 
nani," "Don Carlos," "The 
Masked Ball." 

5. What are the following musi- 

cians — singers, composers vio- 
linists, conductors, or pianists? 
I Marie Jeritza. 2. Guy Maier. 
3. Albert Spaulding. 4. Alfred 
Hertz. }. Ellis Levy. 
9 What name was given to the 
Greek god of music? 
10. Who wrote the song "At Dawn- 

California Projects 


For the lirst time in hght opera history, an all colored cast of eighty- 
five artists turned its song and dance gifts to "Fra Diavolo," the famous 
opera by Francois Aubcr, which had an elaborate opening at the Mason 
Opera House in Los Angeles on Tuesday, April 6, as a production of the 
Los Angeles Federal Music Project. 

Special adaptation for this produc- 
tion has been made with added dia- 
logue and comedy written by Sada 
Cowan, well-known playwright, and 
Emile de Recat. M. do Recat, for 
merly of the Paris opera-comique, di- 
rected and staged the elaborate pro- 
duction for which every opening 
night seat was occupied. 

Dr. Alois Reiser, concert and op- 
eratic conductor and winner of nu- 
merous musical awards, was musical 
director. Following the opening of 
the gay opera, which concerns the 
antics of a romantic bandit, a re- 
viewer in the Los Angeles "Times" 
commented as follows: "Like some- 
thing enchantingly, piquantly new, 
is the ancient comic opera, 'Fra 
Diavolo," which opened last night 
at the Mason Theatre as a Federal 
Music Project production, with a 
capacity audience in attendance. 
That an all Negro cast presents it 
is also a novelt)', and the mellow 
voices of principals and male chorus 
do full justice to the Auber music . . 
Action is never lacking and, strange 
to say, even the humor does not al- 
ways seem outmoded, while the two 
comedians, Siebert Hannibal and 
Buddy Williams, are very funny. 

"The ballet numbers are delight- 
ful. So also is the opening tableau, 
the figures of soldiers and principals 
at the inn, quietly posed through the 
playing of the overture, being very 

"Jewel Smith as Diavolo is mag- 
netic, mocking and handsome as he 
should be. Bernice Randolph's Zer- 
lina is full - voiced and pleasing: 
Mayme Titus deserves credit for 
playing Lady Allcash with dainty 
coquetry instead of burlesquing it; 
James Miller has a pleasing voice, 
and the others, Daniel Scott, Sep- 
timus Silas, Herbert Skinner and 
Ethel Jackson, are commendable." 

"Fra Diavolo." Niokcd for a two- 
week run at the down-town Mason, 
has been held over indefinitely. The 
cast is composed entirely of members 
of Carlyle Scott's famous colored 
chorus, a unit of the Los Angeles 
Federal Music Project. . . 

The above map shows the location of the 
fifteen music projects in California. Long 
Beach, Glendale, and Pasadena are under 
the jurisdiction of the Los Angeles Project. 
Comparative sizes are indicated by the cir- 


An announcement has just been 
made of a return engagement of 
"Fernando del Nonsentsico," Borow- 
ski's musical satire, which was re- 
cently given its world premiere by 
the Los Angeles project. 

The satire on grand opera is sched- 
uled to open at the Philharmonic 
Auditorium in Los Angeles on April 
22, with Jacques Samossoud conduct- 
ing. The cast will be practically the 
same as the one which received high 
commendation from critics during 
the Figueroa Playhouse engagement. 

Transcriptions of "Fernando del 
Nonsentsico" were recently made in 
Hollywood and will shortly be dis- 
tributed to thirteen Southern Cali- 
fornia radio stations. 


Page 17 

Bacon Conducts 

Oakland Concert 


San Bernardino Gives 
"Mozart and Salieri" 

Ernst Bacon, Supervisor of the 
San Francisco Music Project, con- 
ducted the Oakland Project sym- 
phony orchestra in the Oakland Au- 
ditorium on April 9 in a program 
which featured Douglas Thompson, 
pianist of Oakland, San Francisco 
and Berkeley, playing the Tschai- 
kowsky piano Concerto in B Flat 

As conductor and composer, Ernst 
Bacon has achieved national recogni- 
tion. His recent appearance in Chi- 
cago as conductor of the Illinois 
Symphony brought him acclaim 
from many critics. Herman Devries, 
Dean of American critics, wrote: "In 
both capacities Ernst Bacon shines 
with a light destined to bring him 
further recognition and even re- 
nown." Glen Dillard Gunn spoke of 
Bacon's "charming definition of 
style and expert baton." 

In 1933 Bacon won the Pulitzer 
Prize for his Symphony in D Minor, 
and last year was awarded a Mac- 
Dowell fellowship. 

Modesto, California, heard the 
Federal Symphony of the San Fran- 
cisco Project on Tuesday, April 6, 
at the High School Auditorium. 
Ernst Bacon, conductor-supervisor of 
the San Francisco Project, shared the 
program with Ben Bauer, assistant 
conductor. Gordon Onstad, tenor, 
was soloist. The Eroica Symphony of 
Beethoven, and the Siegfried "Idyll" 
of Wagner were the two major 
works featured. Mr. Onstad sang the 
Adelaide of Beethoven and the tenor 
aria II mio tesro intanto from Don 

Santa Barbara Gives 
Latin Music Program 

The Tipica Orchestra, a popular 
unit of the Santa Barbara Federal 
Music Project, furnished a program 
to the people of Santa Maria on 
March 15, at which time Los An- 
geles' famous Olvera Street was 
reproduced in miniature by the 
Tipica director, Mr. Fransisco Rosas. 

Senor Juan and R o s i t a Cota 
danced several Spanish numbers, 
while Miss Mimi Marcou interpreted 
Mexican dances. 

"The Geisha," a Japanese musical 
play in two acts, by Sidney Jones, is 
to be the next operatic offering by 
the San Diego Federal Music Proj- 
ect. A performance will be given at 
the Savoy Theatre in San Diego on 
the night of May 5, after which sev- 
eral performances will follow. 

"The Geisha" score will offer 
great opportunities for the San Diego 
opera chorus of sixty voices, twenty- 
two principals and the symphony or- 
chestra of fifty. 

It is the story of the visit of a 
group of sailors from an EngHsh 
Cruiser anchored in Japanese waters, 
to a Japanese tea house, and their 
flirtations with the Geisha girls there. 
This will be the fourth Hght opera 
produced by the San Diego project 
during the current season. 

Julius Leib will conduct, WiUiam 
G. Stewart is the producer, costumes 
are by Helen Beth Jarmuth, and 
scenery by Eugene McCoy- — all mem- 
bers of the San Diego project staff. 
• • • • 
To have had an audience of one 
million people, the goal of the San 
Diego Federal Music Project, seems 
certain to be realized this month. Ac- 
cording to Charles H. Marsh, San 
Diego Supervisor, records as of 
March 20 show the project units 
have given 1,223 public perform- 
ances to audiences totaling 784,069 
persons. Included in these figures 
were 274 performances in public 
school auditoriums, 108 for school 
recreation programs, and 113 orches- 
tral performances for the Federal 
Theatre Project. 

In all probability, the record of 
a million person audience will have 
been achieved before this issue of 
The Baton goes to press, as San 
Diego units have had a heavy sched- 
ule the past few weeks. San Diego 
hopes to uphold California's efforts 
to greatly increase the fifty-three 
million national audience mentioned 
by Dr. Sokoloff during his recent 
west coast visit. 

The world premiere in English of 
"Mozart and Salieri," presented on 
March 17 by the San Bernardino 
Music Project at the San Bernardino 
Senior High School, was acclaimed 
by a large audience as one of the 
outstanding events of the San Ber- 
nardino concert season. 

The musical and dramatic produc- 
tion was written by Alexander Push- 
kin, Russia's greatest poet, whose 
cent ennial is being celebrated 
throughout the world. 

The play, built around the legend 
of Mozart's poisoning by SaUeri, a 
jealous, rival musician, preceded the 
performance of Mozart's "Requiem 
Mass," conducted by Supervisor 
Vernon C. Robinson. The Mass was 
sung by a chorus of 150 voices, ac- 
companied by a symphony orchestra 
of sixty. 

Solo and quartet parts were sung 
by Ruth La Gourgue, soprano; 
Beatrix Mayo, contralto; Russell 
Horton, tenor, and Sten Englund, 

During the intermission, Leslie I. 
Harris, member of the project ad- 
visory board and prominent San 
Bernardino business man, introduced 
Gregory Golubeff, who recently 
made the English translation of "Mo- 
zart and Salieri." 

Conductor Robinson and the en- 
tire cast have been invited to present 
the Mass at the University of Cali- 
fornia at Los Angeles. 

Oakland Presents 

School Concerts 

On March 19 the symphony or- 
chestra of the Oakland Project, un- 
der the direction of Walter Hornig, 
presented a successful school con- 
cert at Oakland High School before 
an unprecedented audience of 3200 
students. This is believed to be the 
largest school group to attend a con- 
cert in the bay area. 

The engagement was one of 
twenty similar concerts scheduled 
during March and April. On April 
16 the Oakland Symphony will pre- 
sent an evening concert at the Ala- 
meda High School with Walter Hor- 
nig again conducting. According to 
available records, this will be the 
first symphony concert ever present- 
ed in Alameda. 

Page 18 



Continued from Pagt; Seven 

3ic, against which I would like to 

guard the layman. The first type of 
criticism shows that the critic dis- 
hked the music first and then went 
in search of faults to substantiate 
this purely personal feeling. This 
type of criticism seldom holds water. 
Usually there are many examples 
elsewhere in good music showing 
precisely the same faults, and these 
works containing them are great 

The second kind of criticism is 
worse. I would like to call it "dic- 
tionary criticism." Every critic has 
read somewhere that Grieg, Dvorak, 
Raff or Rubinstein are known as 
minor composers; he will, therefore, 
form his criticism from such prem- 
ises, whether he likes the composi- 
tion or not. If a law were passed for- 
bidding the names of composers ap- 
pearing on concert programs, one 
might be inclined to consider such an 
innovation a blessing for the future 
of music. It certainly would take the 
wind out of the newspaper critic's 

This type of criticism comes un- 
der the heading of musical snobbery 
against which the intelligent listener 
ought to guard himself with all his 
might. There arc thousands of fine 
works buried in oblivion worthy of 
revival, new works worthy of accept- 
ance for performance, written by 
composers unknown because critics, 
conductors, artists and the public 
mostly go by names, reputations 
and classifications. 

The layman should never forget 
that every new chord added to the 
vocabulary of harmony first sounded 
strange or disagreeable to the ears 
unaccustomed to it. Every instru- 
ment which was added to the or- 
chestra was first in disrepute with 
the critics and was introduced amidst 
their disapproval. Every innovation 
was decried. People, for instance, 
who deprecate the introduction of 
jazz elements in modern symphonic 
writing forget that the minuet, the 
polonaise and many other sym- 
phonic movements were dance music 
or grew out of it. What a riot it 
caused when Strauss waltzes were in- 
troduced on symphony programs! 

All music that we now consider 
classic was once considered modern 
music. Charles Lamb wrote in a let- 
ter that his sister had a cold "as hard 
to get rid of as a lover of the mod- 

ern music of Mozart trying to induce 
an old Handelian to like it." Haydn 
was attacked for vulgarity and for 
using the "common folk tunes" as 
themes in his symphonies. Mozart 
was attacked as late as 1810 for "try- 
ing everything to put the players out 
of tune with modem chords." Hard- 
ly a composer escaped these con- 
demnations and, sad to say, most of 
them came from responsible critics 
and musicians. It is amusing to listen 
to people who attack Respighi for 
daring to introduce the record of a 
nightingale (for a few bars) in a 
symphonic poem; they forget that 
every percussion instrument ever 
used in the large orchestras — tri- 
angle, tambourin, bells, castanets, 
cymbals, etc. — are, in themselves, 
silly mechanical contraptions succes- 
sively introduced to heighten the ef- 
fect by composers from Haydn to 
Richard Strauss. (Richard Strauss 
uses a rattle in "Till Eulenspiegel.") 
As early as Beethoven various effects 
were used, even on the stringed in- 
struments. The mute is a mechani- 
cal contraprion used to make stringed 
instruments sound nasal. Beethoven, 
in his string quartets, uses 'ponti- 
cello' (scraping the bow near the 
bridge). Beating the strings with the 
wood of the bow (col legno), piz- 
zicato, harmonics, the wind instru- 
ments with their "flutter tongue" — 
all these are mechanical means in- 
vented by obscure, forgotten musi- 
cians, which the composer intro- 
duced in order to produce startling 
effects on the listeners. Why get ex- 
cited when someone now introduces 
a saxophone or trumpets with jazz 
mutes? Yet critics and audiences 
alike invariably raise objections. 

What should the layman do to 
gain insight into unfamiliar works? 
He should refuse to pass final judg- 
ment on modern works. He should 
listen to them willingly and repeat- 
edly. He should study musical theory, 
harmony, musical form and the his- 
tory of music. 

In his eagerness to appreciate 
modern music he need not fall in the 
opposite error of gushing over all 
and any modern works, calling them 
masterpieces simply because he hears 
strange chord combinations or be- 
cause he thinks to gain distinction as 
a modernist. He should not go oy 
what he has read in papers and dic- 


Offering once more their tribute 
of devotion to the Martyred Man 
of Calvary, thousands of Califor- 
nians attended Easter sunrise ser- 
vices on March 28, for which a num- 
ber of Federal Music Project groups 
supplied the musical portion of the 

In Hollywood Bowl the entire Los 
Angeles Project Symphony Orches- 
tra played "Good Friday Spell" 
(from Parsifal) by Wagner, "Prayer 
and Dream Music" by Humperdinck, 
and "Les Preludes" by Liszt, under 
the conductorship of Gastone Usigli, 
and an augmented choir of 250 
voices from the Los Angeles Chora) 
Unit raised its voice in "The Lord's 
Prayer," musical setting by Jose- 
phine Forsyth, "Lord Ever Victori- 
ous" by Mascagni, and "Hallelujah 
Chorus" from the "Messiah" by 
Handel, as dawn came over the Hol- 
lywood hills. 

These services were broadcasted 
over a coast to coast network of the 
Mutual- Don Lee Broadcasting Sys- 

The San Diego Project Symphony 
Orchestra participated in the Easter 
services at Mount Helix. These ser- 
vices were broadcasted over station 
KGB, San Diego, and from there to 
54 coast to coast radio stations of the 
Mutual-Don Lee network. 

The seventy-piece symphony or- 
chestra of the Pasadena Project, un- 
der the direction of Maurice Koeh- 
ler, added an impressive note to the 
sunrise services held in Altadena 
Park, which is north of Pasadena. 

Music for the sunrise services m 
Santa Barbara was supplied by the 
Federal Music Project orchestra of 
that city on Easter Sunday. The 
Santa Barbara Concert Orchestra, di- 
rected by Antoni van der Voort, 
played before thousands who had 
gathered at dawn in the new Santa 
I5arbara Bowl. 

A number of other services were 
held at dawn on Easter Sunday 
throughout the State at which Fed- 
eral Music Project groups partici- 

If he is musical, if he is honest, 
if he remains tolerant to works 
which do not please him, he will, in 
time, become as good a critic as 
most of those who swing the big 
stick in our newspapers. 


Page 19 





St. Olaf Lutheran Choir, Long 

Los Angeles Philharmonic Orches- 
tra; Klemperer conducting, Los 

San Francisco Symphony; Monteux 
conducting, Ernest Schelling, pi- 
anist, San Francisco. 

St. Olaf Lutheran Choir, Pasadena. 

San Francisco Symphony; Ernest 
Schelling conducting, Berkeley. 
(Young People's concert.) 

Lawrence Tibbett, Los Angeles. 

San Francisco Project Symphony; 

Bacon conducting, San Francisco. 


Marion Kerby, interpreter, Los An- 

Los Angeles Project Symphony Or- 
chestra, Schoenberg and Gerald 
Strang conducting, Los Angeles. 

San Bernardino Symphony; Shultis 

conducting, San Bernardino. 


San Diego Project presents Leh- 
mann's "Persian Garden" and 
"Cavalleria Rusticana"; Leib con- 
ducting, San Diego. 

Oakland Project Symphony; Hor- 
nig conducting, Alameda. 

San Francisco Symphony; Monteux 
conducting, John Charles 
Thomas, soloist, San Francisco. 

San Diego Project presents Leh- 
mann's "Persian Garden" and 
"Cavalleria Rusticana"; Leib con- 
ducting, San Diego. 

San Bernardino Symphony; Robin- 
son conducting, San Bernardino. 

Martha Graham and dancers; Los 

Santa Ana Project Symphony pre- 
sents "All Tschaikowsky" pro- 
pram, Santa Ana. 

Los Angeles Philharmonic Orches- 
tra; Klemperer conducting, Los 

San Francisco Symphony; Ernest 
Schelling conducting, San Fran- 

John Charles Thomas, San Fran- 

San Diego Project presents Leh- 
mann's "Persian Garden" and 
"Cavalleria Rusticana"; Leib con- 
ducting, San Diego. 
San Diego Project presents "Hansel 
and Gretel"; Leib conducting, 
San Diego. 

San Francisco Project Symphony 
Orchestra, Ernst Bacon conduct- 
ing, Eduard Steuermann, soloist, 
San Francisco. 

Lawrence Tibbett, San Francisco. 

APRIL 10~MAY 10 


San Francisco Symphony; Monteux 
conducting, Sylvia Lent, violin- 
ist, San Francisco. 

San Bernardino Symphony; Robin- 
son conducting, Pomona, Calif. 

Los Angeles Project presents Bor- 

owski's "Fernando del Nonsent- 
sico," Los Angeles. 

Oakland Project Symphony Orches- 
tra; Oakland. 

San Francisco Symphony; Monteux 
conducting, San Frandsco. 

San Bernardino Symphony; Robin- 
son conducting, ArUngton, Calif. 

Los Angeles Philharmonic Orches- 
tra; Klemperer conducting, Los 

San Francisco Symphony; Ernest 
ScheUing conducting (Young 
People's concert), San Francisco. 

San Francisco Symphony, Monteux 
conducting, San Rafael. 

San Francisco Project Symphony; 
Bacon conducting, San Fran- 


Los Angeles Project Symphony Or- 
chestra, conductor to be an- 
nounced, Los Angeles. 

Nino Martini, San Francisco. 

San Francisco Project Symphony 
Orchestra; Bacon conducting, 
San Francisco. 

Philadelphia Symphony Orchestra; 
Iturbi y Ormandy conducting, 
Los Angeles. 

San Bernardino Symphony; Kirst 
conducting, (school concert) Vic- 
torviUe, Calif. 



Philadelphia Symphony Orchestra; 






Daniel P. E. Auher. 


Igor Stravinsky. 


(a) n. (h) 16. 


"Tie Mount of Olives." 


"La Juive." 


''La Traviata," "Ernani," ''Don 

Carlos," "The Masked Ball." 


1 Singer. 2 Pianist. 3 Violin- 

ist. 4 Conductor, i Composer. 




Charles Wakefield Cadman. 

Iturbi y Ormandy conducting, 

Los Angeles. 

Philadelphia Symphony Orchestra; 

Iturbi a Ormandy conducting, 

San Francisco. 
San Bernardino Project presents 

Verdi's "Requiem," W. B. Olds 

conducting, Redlands. 
Stockton Project Orchestra; Guerin 

conducting, Stockton. 
Philadelphia Symphony Orchestra; 

Iturbi y Ormandy conducting, 

San Francisco. 
Los Angeles Project Symphony; 

conductor to be announced, Los 

Stockton Project Orchestra; Guerin 

conducting, Stockton, 
San Bernardino Project Symphony; 

Robinson conducting, Redlands, 

San Diego Project Symphony; Leib 

conducting, San Diego. 
San Francisco Project Symphony; 

Bacon conducting, San Francisco. 
Philadelphia Symphony Orchestra; 

Iturbi fi? Ormandy conducting, 

San Francisco. 
Stockton Project Orchestra; Guerin 

conducting, Stockton. 
Los Angeles Project Symphony Or- 
chestra; Usigli conducting, Los 

San Bernardino Project Symphony; 

Robinson conducting, San Ber- 
San Diego Project presents Japa- 
nese opera, "The Geisha," San 

Stockton Project Orchestra; Guerin 

conducting, Stockton. 
San Bernardino Project Symphony; 

Robinson conducting. Riverside. 
San Diego Project Choral Concert; 

San Diego. 
Stockton Project Orchestra; Guerin 

conducting, Stockton. 
San Bernardino Project Symphony; 

Robinson conducting. Riverside. 
Oakland Project Symphony; Hor- 

nig conducting, Oakland. 
San Diego Project presents "Hansel 

and Gretel," San Diego. 
Stockton Project Orchestra; Guerin 

conducting, Stockton. 
Oakland Project Concert Orchestra 

and chorus; John Fuerbringer 

conducting, Oakland. 
San Diego Project presents Par- 
ker's Oratorio "Hora Novissiraa" 

and Bach's "Coffee Cantata," 

San Diego. 
Stockton Project Orchestra; Guerin 

conducting, Stockton. 

Page 20 


Kreutzer was very much elated one day iwhen he was 
told he would be permitted to play for Napoleon I, but 
when he began to play, the Emperor listened with vis- 
ibly increasing impatience. Finally, after ten minutes, he 
jumped up and exclaimed as he stalked out of the room, 
"Will he never stop scraping?" 
* « * 

The King of Holland, 
after Clara Schumann had 
played the piano at a court 
function, turned to Clara's 
husband, the immortal Rob- 
ert, and asked, "Are you 
inusical too?" 

One day the well known 
woman composer, Cecilc 
Chaminade, decided to put 
a stop to the ranting of Sa- 
vard, her teacher in Har- 
mony, Counter -point and 

In accordance with Sa- 
vard's instructions, Cecilc 
was to bring to her next les- 
son a fugue. 

The day came, and she 
placed her exercise before 
the professor. 

"But that is all wrong. It 
is full of blunders," he com- 
menced. "What have I told 
you? You will not listen! 

Why do you not remembr 
what I tell you?" With a 
furious air he started to 
make corrections, grumbling 

Cecile let him go on for 
awhile. Then, with all the 
innocence in the world she 
remarked, "Oh, I beg your 
pardon, maitre, but I have 
made a mistake. The fugue 
is not mine — it is one of 

At Radio City Music Hall recently, twelve pianists, 
playing simultaneously, performed Tschaikowsky's con- 
certo in B flat minor, whicli lead a columnist to com- 
ment: "That has my full approval. When I used to stru;; 
i^lc with th.1t piece, I always had the fecliiig that 1 would 
have liked to have eleven other pianists help mc play -t." 
— Miisiral Courier 

"The happiest genius 
will hardly succeed, by 
nature and instinct 
alone, in rising to the 
sublime. Art is art; he 
who has not thought it 
out has no right to call 
himself an artist. Here 
all groping in the dark 
is vain; before a man 
can produce anything 
great, he must under- 
stand the means by 
which he is to produce 

— Goethe. 


"Notwithstanding the ram and the appearance of the 
American Operatic Quartet on the same program, a . . . 
crowd assembled at the Trinity Auditorium to hear the 
farewell concert of Nyiregyha;i, sensational Hungarian 

"It was the music of Chopin . . . that disclosed 
Nyiregyhaii's inadequacy to 
express the more subtle pas- 
sages of the great creators 
... The "Walt: in G Flat" 
had lost the airy spirit which 
Chopin breathed into it . . . 
His most pronounced faults 
arc . . . his infidelity to the 
printed page." 



Reviewing my recent pi- 
ano recital, Mr. criti- 

cised my playing of a num- 
ber designated by him and 
listed on the program as 
Chopin's Waltz in G Flat. 
The playing of the Waltz in 
G Flat should indeed have 
that which I am said to have 
'lost.' However, I did not 
play the Waltz in G Flat, 
but instead the Mazurka in 
C Minor, Opus 56, a work 
of contemplative, m e 1 a n- 
choly character . . ." 

— Ervin Nyiregyhazi 


Mr. Ervin Nyiregyhazi's 
clever rebuke of the . . . er- 
ri:-.g music critic was, to say 
the least, refreshing. It has 
often appeared to me that 
not a few of our caustic crit- 
ics are greatly in need of a 
primary education in that 
field which they so voluably 
criticize . . . The main pur- 
pose of this letter was to ex- 
press my appreciation to Mr. Nyrc;;yli3~.i. ^'■ho p-cnfly 
ci^nscntcd to appear on an assembly program at ^hc Los 
Angeles High School, where I am a student. I have sel- 
dom had such genuine pleasure . . . and hope he will 
appear again soon ... In the meantime, I shall certainly 
attend all his outside concerts and urge all lovers of truly 
fine artistry to do the same." 

— A Student. 






I am happy in the thought that the American people are again to have the 
stimulating effect on their cultural life of National Music Week. In its universal 
appeal to all classes and groups of people and to each individual, music exerts a 
strong influence for enriching our culture and for bringing happiness into our lives. 
During the brief periods in which we give music an opportunity to dominate our 
consciousness, we experience pleasures that lift us above the commonplace and into 
the realms of the ideal. We are thereby made more deeiply appreciative of those 
things in life that have lasting qualities. 

It is my hope that those interested in the development of music as a national 
cultural asset will take advantage of the opportunity afforded by National Music 
Week not only to present programs of high quality to the general public, but also 
to provide community programs that will aid in the discovery and development of 
local music talent. 

Very sincerely yours, 


1 937 






HARRY HOPKINS, Nationol Administrator 

DR NIKOLAI SOKOLOFF. Notionol Director 

ELLEN S. WOODWARD, Assistant Administrator 

Vol 2 

May, 1937 

No 5 




May is here with its National Mu- 
sic Week and May festivals. The 
Federal musicians again arc taking 
their instruments into the open. 
Those of you who played outdoor 
concerts last year will remember 
what an opportunity it was to make 
new friends for music. Music seems 
to have a more thrilling and romantic 
appeal when heard in the open. Peo- 
ple who never go into an auditorium 
to hear music will join the throng 
who gladly listen out-of-doors. 

It is so important that our summer 
music should reach those people who 
do not attend concerts during the 
winter. The music we play in the 
open should be v.ithin the under- 
standing of every person in the audi- 
ence. It should capture his imagina- 
tion so completely that he will follow 
this music indoors next fall. What a 
marvelous opportunity to build an 
audience for the winter season. 

But with these advantages goes a 
serious responsibility for each Fed- 
eral musician and conductor. Some 




Beaux Arts Building 

Los Angdes, Cilif. 



B^ Hjrie Itrri, .... 



By Lortl\ Grttenherg 



B) AI.;r;j« Buchjiun . . . 



By Dr. Kni^hl Dutihp . . 




6) A.'.»7 Wecker .... 



B) Judge Ben B. UntJiey 



By Gordon OnUjd . . . 




/!) Gr..h.m DeMa . . . 




By JMiies Thompuin . . . 



By Harold GtUmin . . . 




fi, ].,„„. Hopp.r , , . 




By {Ayr.i Kinch .... 




fli Boh Rn,„II .... 









CALIFORNIA . . . 22-23 


Tl-'f pholograph on ihe cover uu:> 
taken al a Federal Music Project per- 
formance in Hollywood Bowl, Holly- 
wood. Califonli:!. 

of the audience who have not heard 
our music may still be dubious about 
WPA work. In order to convince 
the doubtful of the worthiness of 
Federal music, the concerts given 
out-of-doors must be as nearly per- 
fect as we can make them. People 
must like the music, the musicians, 
and the conductor. If any one of 
these is at fault, the public will be 
only too ready to condemn, and they 
will not come again. If there are 
people who are not familiar with the 
quality of our program, we must v;in 
them with the sheer beauty of our 
music and the honesty of our pur- 

Careful preparation, intelligent 
practice, concentrated rehearsals, and 
sincere effort on the part of each 
musician should result in excellent 
performances out-of-doors this sum- 
mer, and should make valuable 
friends for the Federal Music Proj- 
ect in every community. Do not un- 
derestimate the significance of this 

This magazine u'ds primed through the courtesy of a private organization which contributed it.c equipmem 
for the furtherance of Federal Music Project activities. 


Page 3 


By fyjiiis Viriienber^ 


1 have a vision. 

When the Government took up 
ihe task of establishing what, at first 
iMance, seemed to be an artistic proj- 
ect, the American composer thought 
the m i 1 1 e n i u m had come. He 
thought he would be able to write 
operas and symphonies and chamber 
music without having to consider the 
traditional aspects. He saw opera 
houses and music halls springing up 
over a vast country that had hardly 
known them. He saw the possibility 
of finer music under these auspices 
returnmg a livelihood to the creator. 

He saw the possibility of a Gov- 
ernment taking this most beautiful 
of all arts, this only universal re- 
ligion, and making it available to 
those who are ready, so that the 
.spiritual and ethical world could be- 
come visible to them. 

Those for whom music could ac- 
complish that also had a vision, when 
the greatest country in the world 
lent its support to an artistic project. 

Now, ninety per cent of the pur- 
pose of the Federal Music Project 
is to supply work to unemployed mu- 
s'cians, and as long as this is the sole 
objective, it is quite possible that our 
vision will remain a vision. Artistic 
things have been done in various 
centers of the country since the or- 
ganization of the program, but these 
have been due to individual efforts 
of certain people in power and, alas, 
not to a national feeling or desire. 

If the Federal program is to con- 
tinue, and it is fervently hoped if 
will, it must first be subsidized na- 
tionally. It will then be necessary to 
organize the artistic side of the na- 
tional program. I do not mean merely 
'-•ngaging outstanding musicians, but 
having a definite artistic program. I 
want to stress the artistic side of this 
terrific plan, for the seed of the cul- 

tural movement lies there. 

The whole project could be di- 
vided into three groups. 

The first would be the entertain- 
ing group, consisting of dance or- 
chestras, light operas, and presenta- 
tions of the lighter compositions of 
modern composers. 

The function cf the second group 
would be purely educational. It 
would he definitely a university of 
music, a national conservatory. It 
would embrace schools, colleges, con- 
servatories, filled with eager and tal- 
ented students being scientifically 
taught, where the Beethoven sym- 
phonies would not only be played, 
but explained. 

The third group would be the one 
nearest my heart, the experimental 
field. It would endeavor to create 
American expression in music. The 
public productions by this group 
would be rarer than those of either 
of the other groups, at the same 
time showing the fruits of the other 
two. That would constitute the ac- 
cumulation of the last word in music 
of today. To this group would be- 
long the American composer. He 
would he assured of adequate re- 
hearsals, copyists, and the other ma- 
terial aspects and, above ail, he 
would be assured that units through- 

out the entire country producing his 
works in every city and hamlet 
would afford sufficient representation 
of his experimental endeavors. 

Through these various presenta- 
tions, the composer would be assured 
of a livelihood, no matter how small, 
and this would certainly be epic-mak- 
ing. The average royalty to a com- 
poser for a performance is from 
$150.00 to $600.00. If the composer, 
through the experimental group, 
could receive even $10.00 a perform- 
ance for all performances of his work 
throughout the country, he would 
have enough to live on and could be 
happy in the thought that he had a 
public who was interested. 

I need not remind you that this is 
a vision which depends first of all 
upon Governmental subsidization. 
All visions, as long as they remain 
visions, are thought to be preposter- 
ous. But when a vision achieves real- 
ity, it is immediately accepted as 
practical and thus enters the realm 
of the average man who does not 
commonly deal in visions. Every- 
thing we have today once passed 
through the visionary stage — the ra- 
dio, telephone, airplane, all forms of 

The higher a man climbs, the 
greater his perspective. Let us at- 
tempt to attain heights where we 
might enjoy a greater conception of 
the value of music toward inward 
development. Then the time will 
come when we will have a senate 
and a house of representatives ready 
to accept and acknowledge this fact, 
and willing to do something about it. 

Music is the only romantic thing 
left in the world, a legacy. The pres- 
ent potentialities for the bequeathal 
of this legacy are immense. 

I have a vision. 

Page 4 



As Revealed By 
Oklahoma's Folk-Music Research 

When the Oklahoma Federal Mu- 
sic Project decided to make a record 
of the white folk-music of its state, 
it swept aside existing ideas about 
the field of folk-music with the same 
forthright spirit tho.t its pioneers cm- 
ployed in overcoming odds and 
settling the state. 

That Oklahoma is an unusually 
fertile field for the student and the 
collector of folk-lore and folk-music 
is directly traceable to her origin. 
Civilization swirled and eddied on all 
sides of the forbidden Indian Terri- 
tory before it finally broke her 
boundaries and swept across her m 
a series of "runs" for land that 
settled her almost overnight, bring- 
ing in people from many parts of 
the nation. 

Since a state holding a cross-sec- 
tion of a nation's people would also 
contain representative folk-music of 
the country, research was begun to 
ascertain if there was something; 
more in this field than that already 
on record. 

It was found that, for the many 
ballads and songs which have been 
recorded over and over by other col- 
lectors, there IS accompanying instru- 
mental f o 1 k - m u s-i c — commonly 
known as fiddle music — and that 
every fiddler has his ov.'n version. In 
other words, that every fiddler has 
his own "swing" to each ballad-tune. 
The only difference in this and our 
current "swing" music being that 
while a dance musician might make 
a different "swing" every time he 
plays a piece over, the fiddler usually 
confines himself to one or two set 
swings that he has evolved around 
the tune in the process of endless 

"What is currently called "swing" 
music ... is the only music truly 
expressive of certain peculiarly 
American characteristics," said 
Raisch Stoll in the September. 1956, 
issue of the Baton. "It is the folk 

By Marian Buchanan 

(Oklahoma Federal Music Proiecl) 

music of our city masses." 

An understanding of why swing 
music IS the only music truly ex- 
pressive of certain peculiarly Amer- 
ican characteristics is gained by an 
examination in the Oklahoma collec- 
tion, of the swing music present in 
our rural folk tunes, which tunes an- 
tedate our current swing music by 
many years. Taking one example 
from the volume, we see that the 
ballad Coon Dog is sung to the fol- 
lowing melody: 

And this is one version of a 
fiddler's swing, which he either plays 
alone or as an accompaniment, to 
the above melody: 

Between each stanza of each ballad 
which the singer sings, the fiddler 
evolves a little "break". The break 
in this particular tune is descriptive 
of a pack of hounds in chase. One 
catches the rhythm of the chase as 
well as the excited clamor of the 
animals, and the voice of one that 
has a particularly hi^hpitched cry 
of excitement. 

Not only does the Oklahoma col- 
lection contain fiddle "swings" 
around ballads sung, but it also con- 
tains a representative collection of 
purely instrumental folk tunes — 
with no words, "jest to set and 
listen to." One of the most interest- 
ing examples is called "Dry and 
Dusty," a wierd folk fantasy, one 
part as wild and as freakish as a 
western whirlwind, and the other 
part both mournful and ludicrour in 
its swirl and drone. 

The most outstanding and the 
most colorful part of what was found 
was that part covering the special 
tunings of the fiddle. The strings of 
the instrument are often tuned to 
other pitches than that which, in 
the fiddler's vernacular, is called 
"natural flat key" — that is, the tun- 
ing in which the folk musician nat- 
urally plays melodies written in flats 
—or E, A, D, and G. 

The melodies, as to tuning — or, as 
the fiddler says, "as to keying" — 
fall into three classes: natural flat, 
A minor, and cross key, or discord. 

"Natural flat" means that the 
strings are tuned to E, A, D, and G 

In "A Minor" the G string is 
tuned up one whole tune to A, and 
the D string is tuned up one whole 
tone to E, the other two strings re- 
maining on A and E. This tunes the 
violin in the key of A or E, and 
makes playable in these keys double 
notes which would not be possible 
for the fiddler were the strings tuned 
lower where he would either have to 
shift into a higher position or 
else play out of tune, both rf 
which are undesirable to the 
folk musicians. Too, the lower 
strings being tuned in the key makes 
i;- possible to employ the open strings 
as double notes; these open - string 
double notes producing a tone color 
quite different from that made by 
fingering the same notes, since the 
clearly audible vibration or "ring" 
from the open string lingers on, 
blending with later sounds and en- 
riching them. There is also a sound 
acoustical basis for this tuning: when 
the fiddler plays in the key of A or 
E with two raised lower strings, the 
sympathetic vibrations set up by 
these strings, even when not being 
played upon, enrich the tone-color 

The "Cross Keys" are the tunings 
which do not fall in either of the 
above classes. Cross tuning achieves 
many interesting effects, and clearly 
reveals the Scotch origin of several 

(Please turn to Ptv SO) 


Page 5 



Psychologists are interested in mu- 
sic from two points of view. First; 
what happens to human beings when 
they appreciate or respond to music. 
Second; how the different types of 
human response to music are related 
to the objective music itself. We 
know, of course, that to a large ex- 
tent response to music is learned; 
that is, subject to habit-formation. 
Types of music which, on first hear- 
ing, are unpleasant and objection- 
able, may become through repeated 
hearing pleasant and desirable. This 
means that the responses which the 
hearer first made to the music have 
become greatly changed through fur- 
ther experience; that the hearer has 
learned to make new responses quite 
different from those he made at first. 
Further, the hearer learns to make 
to new types of music somewhat the 
same responses which he earher 
made to music of a quite different 
type. To a large extent the re- 
sponses become habits. The hearer 
continues to make to music of a cer- 
tain type the responses which he has 
earlier learned to make to it. 

However, much musical apprecia- 
tion is a matter of convention; and 
the person adapted to European mu- 
^.ic written in the tempered scale and 
in standardized form might under 
other conditions have adapted him- 
eclf to, and learned to appreciate, 
music of oriental types; it is cur- 
rently believed that music of certain 
types is really "better" than music 
nf other types. Opinions differ sharp- 
ly from time to time as to the superi- 
ority or inferiority of music of this 
or that type; but it would seem prob- 
able that there are really some diff- 
erences in value, and that the matter 
is not entirely one of convention. 
That is to say, music of some types 
may, after due process of habit for- 
mation, evoke responses which are, 
on the whole, superior to — more sat- 
isfying, more organically useful — or 
in some other way contributing more 
(o the total life of the individual 
than the responses evoked by music 
of other types. Just what thcfe nnv 
cesses of response are is a problem 

By Knight DunUip 

{Chairman of Deparlmeni of Psychology, 
University of California at Los Angeles) 

v^hich has not been solved. Difficult 
as the problem may be, the psycholo- 
g St will never be content until he 
has found the way to identify and 
evaluate the responses, and so open 
the road to the further discovery of 
what the responses do, as their fur- 
ther effects to the individual. 

We are well aware that the de- 
velopment of music as an objective 
stimulus pattern has been limited by, 
and determined by, the available in- 
struments for the production of mu- 
sical sounds. Further limitations and 
directional forces have been supplied 
by the nature of the human vocal 
mechanism, and the physical — that 
IS acoustical — features of caves and 
houses, and the social habits of hu- 
man groups. The diatonic scale, for 
example, was developed under the 
influence of the resonance of rooms 
in buildings with rather solid walls, 
and by choral singing. Peoples who 
have long inhabited tents, or other 
flim-sy dwellings, have developed mu- 
sic of other types. With-'n the limits 
of available instrumentation and of 
the human voice, fertile minded in- 
ventors have introduced variations 
on accepted forms, and made innova- 
tions. These innovations are always 
at first denounced, but some are sub- 
sequently approved. The innovation-^ 
of Bach, and then of Beethoven, and 
of Debussy passed through these 
stages. Certain composers of later 
date have had harder struggles for 
approval. Many innovations, on the 
other hand, have never established 
themselves. The progress of music 
has been an evolution, in which thi- 
production of variants and the sur- 
vi^'al of the fittest have played their 
roles. The question is: Why have 

certain variants survived; and others 
not? The evolutionary process, un- 
doubtedly, was as hard a struggle 
among our remote ancestors, and 
among savage and barbarous peoples, 
as it has been among us in recent 

The end is not yet. Although the 
ultimate has been achieved in the 
invention of simple instruments, the 
introduction of vacuum tube oscilla- 
tors as sources of musical sounds has 
opened a new vista of progress, the 
magnitude of which we can as yet 
hardly estimate. That in the music 
of the future, new scales and start' 
lingly new musical forms will be in- 
troduced; and that some of them 
will remake music, is certain. It will 
become all the more vital that we 
should know why music produces its 
effects; why, after due habituation, 
some innovations are accepted, others 

That music, so far, is an art and 
not a science, is an admitted fact. 
Musicians have learned how to pro- 
duce certain effects; but the learning 
has been a process of trial and error, 
not scientifically oriented. Having 
found that certain effects can be pro- 
duced in certain ways, the rules for 
this art are formulated — in our rules 
of harmony, or counterpoint, and so 
on. These, however, are rules of 
praxis, not principles of science. In- 
evitably there will be developed a 
science of music; and the founda- 
tions of this science must be in the 
knowledge, precise and definite, of 
the detailed effects which music pro- 
duces in human responses to it. Th;s 
will be the psychology of music; a 
science which today does not exist, 
although the name is sometimes 

The difficulty in the past has been 
that there have been very few psy- 
chologists sufficiently oriented and 
competent in the art of music. Those 
who have been both competent psy- 
chologists and competent musicians, 
such as Petran, Heinlein, and Met- 
fessel, can be counted on the fingers 

(i>le«e turn to Pas? 2« 


/ Stephen deHospodar 


Page 7 


By Ka>I M'ecker 

(Stjte Director, Michigan Federal 
Muiic Project) 
Those of us engaged in educational 
work in music know that children's 
concerts can become a very dull pro- 
cedure if they are not handled in- 
telligently and with a feeling for the 
audience's needs. I desire to make 
special mention here of the work ac- 
complished by the Detroit Civic Or- 
chestra under the direction of Mr. 
Otto Krueger, in its schedule of 
school performances. 

In a city the sise of Detroit there 
are many areas where the majority of 
students come from greatly under- 
privileged families and where the 
problems of school discipline and in- 
struction are greatly intensified by 
ihe class of students who make up 
the student body. It was my privilege 
to attend a concert in one of these 
schools recently and I wish to say 
with all frankness that I have never 
before in any city with any orchestra 
experienced the thrill I got from at- 
tending this particular children's con- 

At two o'clock in the afternoon 
there stamped into the auditorium a 
thousand under-fed, poorly dressed, 
unbelievably dirty and riotous young- 
sters from the ages of 7 to 17. I had 
visions of a barrage of spitballs and 
a cacophony of catcalls from this 
audience. Instead, when the curtains 
were drawn aside and the rather 
portly Mr. Krueger turned his beam- 
ing smile upon this audience, there 
was a tremendous outburst of ap- 
plause and a feeling of expectancy 
so definite that it poured over the 
auditorium in a tangible wave. 

Mr. Krueger had something on his 
program to interest every student 
there, and when they were given 
an opportunity to sing certain songs 




(Juienile Court Authorily) 
One of the most famous cases I ever 
had was a hoy who broke into a music 
store and stole a violin. The officers 
wanted to send kirn to the reform school, 
I turned him over to a music teacher. 
That contact resulted in a boy's band 
and a boy \ orchestra which became fa- 
mous in my old city of Denver, and not 
only saved several boys from the re- 
formatory and reform school but devel- 
oped that boy into one of the great con- 
ductors of this country. Of course I am 
not at liberty to divulge his name, hut 
some day I will put the story i n a hook . 


with the orchestra, with which they 
were familiar, they responded with 
an ear-splitting enthusiasm. 

Without going into full detail 
about this program let it be said here 
that during the 45 minutes allowed 
him, various musical subjects were 
presented with a deftness that could 
not help but affect the consciousness 
of each child. Instead of being a 
disorderly bunch of ragamuffins, the 
audience was transformed into a 
thousand eager children, their faces 
alight, leaning forward with anticipa- 
tion and greeting the orchestra with 
the most unusual signs of approba- 
t'on. The final chmax was reached 
when the orchestra as a closing num- 
ber played "The Victors", which is, 
as you know, the official march of 
the University of Michigan. 

Words beggar an inadequate de- 
scription of the tremendous value of 
these concerts in my mind. It has 
been my privilege to have heard 
most of the great music of the world 
and to have attended many concerts 
for both adults and children, but I 
have seldom been so deeply touched 
or impressed with the message of 
music as I was that afternoon. If 
the Federal Music Project had done 
nothing else than to present good 
music to the hundreds of thousands 
of school children in our country, 
this alone would, in my mind, have 
more than justified its existence. 

Rudolph Gans, one of the world's 
foremost pianists, recording artist, 
and president of the Chicago Musical 
College, will conduct the San Fran- 
cisco Federal Symphony on May 
24th, according to arrangements com- 
pleted this week by Harle Jervis, 
California Music Project State Di- 

Mr. Ganz' program will open with 
the Andante in C Major by Bach, 
arranged for string orchestra by 
Frederick Stock, from the Second 
Violin Sonata, to be followed by 
Schumann's Concerto for Piano in 
A Minor with Frances McCormick 
as soloist. Regarding Miss McCor- 
mick, Mr. Gans writes: "Miss Mc- 
Cormick is nineteen, has a lovely 
musical talent and will give a charm- 
ing performance of the Schumann 
Concerto. She has been studying 
with me the last two winters. She 
is well-known in Los Angeles musical 

Tschaikowsky's "R o m e o and 
Juliet", Robert Whitney's "Concerto 
Grosso", "Five Russian Dances" by 
Alexander Tcherepnine and Wag- 
ner's "Entrance of Gods" from 
Rheingold will also be conducted by 
Mr. Gans. It is thought the Bach, 
Whitney and Tcherepnine works 
will be heard for the first time in 
San Francisco. 

Mrs. Gans will accompany her 
husband to San Francisco, from 
whence they will continue to Los 


By Tommy O'Ncil 

He leeks new paths beyond the film- 
ing sun, 

While all the melodies ever born are 

In his heart, aglow with inspiri:tio:i. 

He finds perfection in the symphony 
Of living things, and dem nds iht 

there shall be 
No dearth of beauty. On humble 


He walks upon the curving earth. 

Respiring life into fertile seedlings 

Page 8 



By Gordo// OnstaJ 

(San Francisco Federal Muiic Project) 

To put one's self in an attitude of 
listening, whether it be in the prac- 
tice or the exercise of one's art, is 
of primary importance to the per- 
forming artist. To become so quiet 
that not only the mind but the heart 
hstens. Perfect coordination of mind 
and body demands a poise, a stillness 
that is metaphysical in its essence. 
A letting of one's bemg until ideas 
and the proper kind of action take 
hold of the entire man. This quiet 
is not actionlcss. Quite the contrary, 
it is the right kind of action. The 
fine artist has this to a greater de- 
gree than his lesser brother, but it 
is there for us all if we keep our 
"hands off". Since we are human, 
we must constantly "besiege the 
shrine", waiting and listening until 
there is the right kind of freedom. 
This is approaching music with the 
proper humility — knowing that each 
of us possesses the "perfect whole" 
if we will but allow ourselves to 

One of our great pianists said, 
"Every morning I look in the corner 
at my piano and know I have to con- 
quer the damned thing before I can 
have peace". What he meant, of 
course, was that he had to conquer 
himself, until every nerve and muscle 
were free and ready to respond to 
his feehng. The greatest aid in pre- 
paring the body and m'nd for rigl^f 
action and response is listening. I 
would say it is a kind of musician's 
prayer, where he puts himself in the 
attitude to receive all that is really 
his. If the musician will learn to be 
simple, to ALLOW instead of make, 
there will perforce be better per- 
formances. For what is music, or for 
that matter any great truth, but re- 
ligion? Let the artist in his practice 
not say: "1 will put the tone here, I 
will draw the bow in such a way." I 
Let him rather say, "Am I free to 
receive, is my will out of the way 
enough to let tone pass through me, 
to allow the bow to weigh on the 
strings the way I hear and feel it?" 

It is true we have to learn to walk 

before we can run, and there are 
certain physical actions and adjust- 
ments to be made consciously, at 
least for a time, before we can really 
pretend to serious practice. But I 
should say there is a higher approach 

which must enter into even these 
simple and primary elements of one's 
technique almost at the ver>' start. 
Too many of our so-called artists go 
through their careers placing and 
setting tone; mouthing and tonguing 
v.ords. The singer really needs more 
listening and waiting and less con- 
scious action. Given healthy sound 
and articulatory organs, he will be 
surprised at the way they will re- 
spond to the right kind of listening 
and stillness of his being. Listen with 
your inner ear and allow what you 
hear to take hold of your entire self. 
As your listening improves (and this 
includes your musical imagination) 
results must surely follow. "As a 
man thinketh, so is he" and we 
might add, as the musician hears so 
does he sound. 



From the Mus/cjI Trmef. London, EngU»J 

By "Feste" 
. . . ]uit .IS I am finishing this article there 
arrives a copy of "The Baton," an Ameri- 
can journal which reports the activities of 
the Federal Music Project of California on 
behalf of musicians thrown out of work by 
the machine. It is a striking record from 
which I take one sentence from an address 
by the National Director of the organiza- 
tion. Dr. Sokoloff: "More than seventeen 
thousand musicians came to the Federal 
Music Project for retraining and for the 
chance to keep bodies and souls together 
within their craft and aptitude^. Many of 
them were bitterly skeptical. Their morale 
was lamentably low. They were convinced 
they were failures set adrift through no 
fault of their own . . . They responded 
quickly, however, when they were con- 
vinced that honest standards of musician- 
ship were expected of them, and that per- 
sons found to be unequipped to earn a liv- 
ing as musicians were to he transferred to 
other agencies of relief as quickly as pos- 

Since the Project began work a little over 
1 year ago, these hitherto unemployed mu- 
(icians have given more than sixty-two 
'housand concerts in forty-two states, to au- 
diences totalling fifty million. 

We here have our thousands of srch 
hard cases (see that tragic picture on the 
stationery of the Musicians' Benevolent 
Fund entitled 'The Last Stage), but there 

ii nothing approaching this fint Americ.-n 
effort. More public music-making means 
more ttork and better listening, and those 
of us who are in comparative clover needn't 
be too anxious about State interference so 
long as our less fortunate brothers can get 
going once more in the only craft for which 
they are suitable. Never mind the super- 
optimists who say that things will right 
themselves, that so many more pianos arc be- 
ing sold, that the colleges are full, and so 
on. (Ask yourself, by the way. what these 
colleges-full of musicians are going to do 
for a living when their training is over.) 
Their attitude is not unfairly summed up in 
the concluding lines of that song of Brown- 
ing's — *Aly head's in the sand: I'm safe in 
my job: all's right with the world.' 

To end on a cheerful note (for I'm .n 
tired of writing about these problems as 
you are of reading about them : but. rs 
Stewart Macphenon said, musicir.ns have 
an inescapable duty in this matter), I quote 
in anecdote about Rosenthal that is netu to 
me. It is from "The Baton" where it (Ap- 
pears in a column entitled 'Shartts and 
Flats' (where have tve met that neadin^ 

'One day Rosenthal interrupted his good 
friend Eugene d' Albert in the midst of his 
composing. Seeing a number of scoicf of 
Wagner and Strauss opened on d' Albert's 
desk, he remarked, "My dear d' Albert, I'm 
surprised. I always thought you composed 
from memory." 


Page 9 


By Graham Dexter 

(Choral Unil, Oiiklund Federal Music Project) 

We preface our few remarks on 
the value of the intimate form of 
recital by a vital quotation taken 
from an article written by Richard 
Drake Saunders, distinguished Hol- 
lywood critic. Mr. Saunders says, 
"We must give contemporary music 
its opportunity to be heard. In so 
doing we will stimulate and develop 
the musical talent in which this coun- 
try abounds, and eventually produce 
our share of genius." Young musi- 
cians are indeed grateful for the far- 
sightedness of the leaders and sup- 
porters of the nation - wide Federal 
Music Project for just the reason so 
significantly made clear in Mr. 
Saunders" statement. 

Oakland is fortunate in this, that 
the zeal shown by Gastone Usigh, 
former supervisor at Oakland, and his 
Supervisor colleagues, in their effort 
to help and develop young talent, 
has resulted in numerous opportu- 
nities for the discovery and then ap- 
pearance of young musicians before 
public audiences. 

In accordance with this trend of 
thought the project in Oakland has 
introduced a series of intimate, "Sa- 
lon Recitals." It has been found that 
even though the young musicians are 
deriving experience and guidance of 
inestimable value in their ensemble 
ctivities, it was not always possible 
to give those who were possessed of 
virt'!. so qualities an opportunity to 
cxpr. ss themselves individually. 

The .iistitution of these recitals 
therefore has proven, as they de- 
velop, to have been a happy inspira- 
tion. String quartets of the masters 
have been heard; Mozart, flaydn, 
Beethoven, Dvorak. Soloists have 
collaborated with the strings on oc- 
casions producing such combinations 
as oboe and strings, clarinet quintet, 
Brahms piano quintet, and more. 

A number of vocalists have ap- 
peared, and with double interest, for 
they have brought forth works of 
local and contemporary composers of 
marked ability. Songs of Grace 
Becker, a local composer of promi- 
nence, have been heard; Jean Marie 
Goss, appearing on one of the pro- 
grams, was heard in a group of her 
own compositions; a group of songs 
by a young composer of great prom- 
ise. Miss Jean Coolbaugh, are soon 
to be heard. 

Concerts of the future, as well as 
the one in which Miss Cool- 
baugh's songs are to be sung, will 
include works of great interest. The 
string quartet is to be assisted at one 
of its concerts by Clara Harsha Up- 
shur, prominent concert soprano, as 
the guest artist. Mrs. Upshur has 
consented to sing with the quartet 
a most unusual group of songs by 
contemporary composers. The group 
will include the "II Tramonto" of 
Respighi; the "La Pesca del Anello" 
of Pijzetti; and the "Spring-twilight" 
of Brandts-Buys; all these written for 
voice with string quartet accompani- 
ment. Another young artist is plan- 
ning to present the "Die Schone 
Mullerin" suite of Franz Schubert. 

One could continue naming these 
splendid things that are being done 
by the young art'sts, and incident- 
ally, done well. The important thing 
is, however, that the opportunity is 

being given to them. It should con- 
tinue uninterrupted by any extenu- 
ating technicalities that may deprive 
America of even one fine musician. 
"Our job," to quote Miss Jervis in 
the December issue of "The Baton", 
"is not to be considered a temporary 
one ... it is significant for the fu- 

It is true, the young people today 
are making splendid history, history 
that future generations may well be 
proud of. 

Opportunities such as we have dis- 
cussed, mainly of course in this ar- 
ticle, the intimate recital, are far 
more significant in value than they 
appear to be on the surface. The 
opportunities presented by this 
movement are of a tremendous far- 
reaching value, for with a common 
end in view we are slowly uniting 
the young artists and composers of 
our country into one great body, 
bound closely together with the 
commendable desire of expressing 
beauty, of expressing outwardly that 
which is born of true inspiration, 
inusic and art. 

Who then can tell, as the youth 
of our land move forward, bound 
by this sincere desire to express the 
beautiful, a deeper understanding 
may arise between the young people 
of our land and the young people 
of other lands, hastening the day 
which Don Lorenzo Perosi, the great 
contemporary priest - composer, 
speaks of in his reference to eclecti- 
cism in music (a universal under- 
standing and style in music) : "Eclec- 
ticism after centuries of battles, revo- 
lutions, and of political and social 
strife, whose pain has found its re- 
flection in art; a new city of art, 
where men may gather in brotherly 
love for the same ideal." 

Page 10 



By Jtvnes Thompson 

(Djnce Band Supervisor, Oakland Federal 
Music Project) 

It is the general consensus of 
opinion that a dance orchestra player 
is not a musician. Present day or- 
chestrations are by no means as 
simple as one would think. They 
involve complicated harmonies, 
nhrasings and intricate articulations. 
Contrary to the above opinion is the 
fact that it takes a highly co-ordi- 
nated system of team work to ac- 
complish the phrasing and mtricate 
articulation necessary to get the de- 
sired effect, i. e. Swing, Jazz, Hot, 
etc. At rehearsals these phrases are 
nicked apart, added to, subtracted 
from, tried over and retried until 
the product is satisfactory. This de- 
mands a lot of work both on the part 
of the men and the leader, who 
nasses judgment, makes suggestions 
and corrections. 

Intonation is marked to a very 
high degree and is responsible for a 
greater part of the dance orchestra's 
success. Melodious or sweet tunes 
are dependent on intonation, dy- 
namics and phrasing for their suc- 

"Ad Libing" is an art in itself. 
An "Ad Liber" is one who has the 
ingenuity to improvise a variation 
of a given melody. The measure of 
his success is his ability to interpolate 
lipslurs, push beats (syncopes), 
screams, rips and arpeggios, at the 
same time making it swing and keep- 
ing it within the boundaries of cor- 
rect harmony. 

The rhythm section is the back- 
bone of the orchestra. Its name de- 
fines its function. To produce an 
even steady tempo it is necessary 

Golschmann to Lead 
First Bowl Concert 

Hollywood Bowl is scheduled to 
open July 1 ."i for eight weeks of 
"Symphonies Under the Stars" with 
Vladimir Golschmann, conductor of 
St. Louis Symphony orchestra an- 
nounced for the opening conductor 
and for Friday night of opening 
week. Mrs. Leiland Athcrton Irish, 
vice-president and manager of South- 
ern California Symphony Associa- 
tion, recently announced the remain- 
ing conductors engaged for the sea- 
son as follows: 

For Friday nights, known as 
"Symphony" nights: Golschmann of 

St. Louis, Erno Rapee of New York, 
Hans Kindlcr of Washington, D. C, 
Carlos Chavez of M e x i c o. Frit: 
Reiner and Dr. Otto Klemperer, with 
the latter directing the closing four 
concerts of the season. 

For Thursday night, ballet and 
opera nights, Pietro Cimini, Richard 
Lcrt, Carlo Peroni, Efrem Kurt: and 
Viscount Hidemaro Konoye. 

Friday nights, "Solo" nights, the 
same conductors will appear as are 
announced for Tuesday nights with 
the exception of Howard Hansen, 
who has been engaged to conduct 
an All-American program the eve- 
ning of July 50, with an outstanding 
American singer to be heard with 

that its members act as a well co- 
ordinated machine. The left hand 
of the pianist, the foot of the drum- 
mer on the pedal of his bass drum, 
the slap of the bass player's strings 
against the finger-board can be 
likened to that of the swing of a 
Metronome's arm. The section is 
as good as its weakest member. In 
a good rhythm section drag or an- 
ticipation is not tolerated. A dance 
orchestra whose tempo varies to any 
"reat degree will soon find itself on 
the unpopular list. 

The dance orchestra player studies 
his instrument and listens to dance 
orchestras of the upper strata for 
new ideas. He is ready at all times 
to improve himself and keep up to 
date with the ever changing styles 
of interpretation. 

What does it take to phrase, ar- 
ticulate, swing and set a tempo for 
the rhythm that will awaken the 
senses that will make a person want 
to get on his feet and dance? Mu- 
sicianship? We contend that it 


1. M'^ho u-rote the opera "La Gio- 
conda" } 

2. In what opera by Ponchielli if 
the "Dance of the Hours"/ 

^. Who wrote the opera "Emperor 
Jones" ? 

4. What famous pianist is presi- 
dent of the Chicago Musical 

5. \l"ho invented the saxophone? 

6. For what instrur^ent did Chopin 
write almost exclusively? 

7. W^hal is the most ancient f /ringed 

8. What is melody? 

9. What great Polish composer is 
buried in France between Bellini 
and Cherubini. while his HEART 
is buried in Poland? 

10. Who was called the "father of 
modern orchestration" ? 
(Answers on Page 19) 


Page 11 



"The Desert Song," Sigmund Rom- 
berg's musical romance, opened at 
the Majestic Theatre on May 3rd. 
This represents the Boston Project's 
first presentation of Hght opera. 

Snatches of "One Alone" and 
"The Riff Song" have been floating 
through the busy offices of the Fed- 
eral Music Project on Huntington 
Avenue. Everybody from the execu- 
tive director to the bill poster is 
imbued with the Romberg melodies. 

A case of one hundred and an or- 
chestra of fifty participated in this 
colorful story of the desert, myster- 
ious Morocco, and the great leader 
known to his friends and enemies as 
"The Red Shadow". 

One more concert remains in the 
Sunday evening series of Beethoven 
Symphonies, which have been a pop- 
ular Boston diversion since February. 
But, music patrons who have made 
the Copley and Majestic Theatres 
their meeting place for the past two 
months will find consolation in the 
announcement by William Haddon, 
State director, that another series 
featuring the Tschaikowsky Sym- 
phonies will be inaugurated at the 
Majestic Theatre within a few 
weeks. Alexander Thiede and guest 
conductors will direct the State Sym- 
phony Orchestra in these concerts. 

On Sunday, April 4, Mr. Theide 
was guest conductor of the Federal 
Symphony Orchestra, New York 

Felix Fox, distinguished concert 
pianist and one of the prominent fig- 
ures in musical life of New England, 
added his talents to the regular Sun- 
day concert of the State Symphony 
Orchestra on April 11th. Mr. Fox, a 
Bostonian, was recently awarded the 
Legion d'honneur by the French 
Government for his furtherance of 
modern French music in America. 


Fidelis Hoff, District Super- 
visor of the Rochester, New 
York, Federal Music Project, 
who has had years of exper- 
ience in acoustics and voice 
science, is cooperating with the 
Rochester Institute for the 
Deaf and Dumb to determine 
what progress can be made by 
a bone induction method, or by 
vibration of fingers, in order 
to convey more pleasure from 
music to the deaf and dumb 
than can be obtained through 
radio or other sources. 

Mr. Hoff is at present con- 
ducting primary experiments in 
this field, but the discovery has 
been made that many of the ■ 
subjects have slight sensations 
and it is thought that definite 
developments along these lines 
can be made. 


Chicago's Federal Music Project 
is acting as big brother to an orches- 
tra made up of thirty boys and girls 
from the NYA and directed by Her- 
bert Pyne. 

Illinois State Director Albert Gol- 
berg heard of this young orchestra 
which had been struggling against 
many inconveniencies, including the 
necessity for carrying music and in- 
struments long distances in inclement 
weather to rehearsals in Chicago's 
Naval Armory. A subsequent loca- 
tion had to be abandoned when the 
organisation donating it decided to 
move to a new building. Mr. Gold- 
berg, hearing of the plight of the 
boys and girls, offered them space 
in the music project headquarters 
and instructed his booking depart- 
ment to arrange appearances for 

This baby symphony is now giving 
concerts at schools, churches and 


On April 12th, New York City's 
Federal Theatre of Music presented 
a double bill of Pergolesi's "La Ser- 
va Padrona" in an English version 
by Marion Jones Farquhar and the 
premiere of a new one-act opera 
"The Romance of Robot" by Fred- 
eric Hart with libretto by Tillman 
Breiseth. Special interest in the ac- 
tion and lines of Pergolesi's work 
resulted from the fact that they were 
delivered in English. Chief roles 
were taken by Wells Clary, Cecile 
Sherman and Forest Huff. There 
were also several minor roles and a 
ballet of eight girls. The second half 
of the evening, "The Romance of 
Robot" presented a mechanized "civ- 
ilization" of the future, where ten 
Electrolysed ladies are under the 
tyrannical sway of Electro, master 
of the age. The tense and often 
amusing work centers around their 
efforts to arouse passion in the breast 
of a huge steel Robot. 

Leads were taken by William 
Kurz, Margaret Stevenson, Cecile 
Sherman, and Clifford Menz- 

Reviewing the performance, the 
"Musical Courier" of April 24th 
stated: "As a whole this double bill 
was of professional calibre and prom- 
ises well for future WPA produc- 
tions of chamber opera". 

Each night m New York City's 
Federal Theatre of Music is devoted 
to a particular type of musical work, 
one night being devoted to sym- 
phonies, another to chamber operas, 
and others to choral works, string 
ensembles, and grand operas. 

other worthwhile places and is help- 
ing to foster appreciation of music 
among children their own age. The 
programs consist of symphonies of 
Haydn, Schubert and Mozart, classi- 
cal overtures, and suites and novel- 
ties. The orchestra is doing excellent 
work and becoming a recognized unit 
among Chicago's musical forces. 


Page 12 



The program for Michigan is a 
sound, steady, non-spectacular pro- 
gram that is geared to the needs of 
its people. The units are not large 
but they are well scattered from the 
copper country up in the Keewenaw 
Peninsula down to Detroit in the 
lower Peninsula. 

There are fourteen units consisting 
of a small symphony orchestra, three 
concert orchestras, three concert 
bands, two jasz bands, one for white 
and the other for colored people, 
and four copying, binding and re- 
pairing projects. 

Since Michigan is a land with nine 
months of winter and three of sum- 
mer as far as out-door activity is 
concerned, the program is arranged 
accordingly. This consists of a very 
comprehensive series of educational 
concerts during the school season 
and a series of daily concerts in the 
public parks during the summer. 
Here, over a thousand concerts have 
been played to more than 100,000 
people, immense throngs gathering 


in beautiful parks for the purpose of 
listening to, and frequently joining 
with, units in the universal message 
of music. 

Activities arc not confined to units 
playing to their residence city, but 
they are sent out, some times long 
distances, in order that between eight 
and ten local points there may be 
as complete coverage as possible. It 
is the goal of the program to be of 
service to the greatest number, and 
no section of Michigan is slighted 
where a desire for good music is 
made manifest. 

In line with the originally ex- 
pressed ideals of the project every 
conductor is an American by birth 
and by training, and the music of 
the American composer is well rep- 
resented on their programs. 

Approximately two hundred sixty- 
five persons are employed in Michi- 
gan, ninety percent of whom are 
from the relief rolls. 


"Musicians are now active in making music i 
States than in any other country. Up to the prei 
Project concerts has been over fifty million. Li 
chestra for the first time in their lives." 


On Easter Sunday, the Indiana 
Federal Music Project presented the 
first of a series of six concerts to be 
given in Indianapolis public schools 
and featuring the concert orchestra; 
Pasquale Montani, harpist; and a 
massed P. T. A. chorus of one hun- 
dred fifty voices, trained by Federal 
Music Project teachers. Hugh Mason 
was guest conductor at the opening 
of this series. 

The Terre Haute State Teachers" 
College was the scene of an out- 
standing concert presented by the 
Clinton Concert Band, Indianapolis 
Concert Orchestra, and PeU and 
Whetstine, piano duo, on Marcii 

On April 4th, this piano duo was 
heard before a large crowd in Ev- 
ansville, playing with the EvansviHc 
Concert Band, under the direction 
of Harry High. 

The works of Theodore Bock were 

presented at the regular Composers" 
Forum Laboratory at the Arthur Jor- 
dan Conservatory in Indianapolis, 
on April 19th. 

Perhaps the outstanding concert 
of the Indianapolis units during 
April was the presentation of the 
operetta "Said Pasha"", by Richard 
Stahl. This production saw Federal 
Music and Federal Theatre Project 
units collaborating. The production 
ran for one week, opening April 

Music W e e k presentations in- 
cluded a program of American mu- 
sic by the Indianapolis Concert Or- 
chestra and the massed P. T.A. 
chorus, numbers performed by the 
Clinton and Evansville bands, recitals 
of piano pupils of musicians taught 
by Indianapolis Federal Music Proj- 
ect teachers, and semi-weekly broad- 
casts from station WIRE of Indian- 
apolis, each broadcast featuring a 
guest soloist. 



Page 13 


ig it to a larger number of persons in the United 
' is estimated that the attendance at Federal Music 
llions of these people have heard a symphony or- 
—Dr. Nikolai Sokoloff. 



The Federal Music Project of Ne- 
braska and its various units served 
nearly one hundred thousand per- 
sons in the state during the month of 
April. In the city of Omaha, ninety 
concert and orchestral engagements 
were played by the Omaha Civic 
Orchestra, its units, and the negro 
dance orchestras. 

March attendance figures were also 
high, in spite of the fact that spring 
vacation in schools caused the elim- 
ination of several regular programs 
and the fact that the theatre orches- 
tra was transferred from the Music 
Project to the Federal Theatre Proj- 

In April, Omaha brought to com- 
pletion its music contest conducted 
for the children of the elementary 
schools. Early in the year, State Di- 
rector William Meyers conceived the 
idea of such a competition and, al- 
though the actual contest was con- 
ducted throughout the city during 
February, the judging did not begin 
until March. Many exceptional com- 
positions were submitted, but last 
comparison revealed the unanimous 
choice of the judges to be "The 
Cowboy's Ride," a thirty-two meas- 
ure composition traced to Sears Nel- 
son, eleven-year-old student in the 
sixth grade. 

Sears Nelson's winning composi- 
tion, orchestrated for the Omaha 
Civic Orchestra by Bernard Leding- 
ton, was retitled "Cowboy on the 
Trail". In musical sequence it de- 
picts a cowboy's day from sunrise 
to sunset, including a thrilling chase 
and running battle with Indians. 

Radio programs recently broad- 
casted by the Omaha Civic Orches- 
tra over KOIL have included this 
prize-winning work and a program 
with Easter music predominating. 


Foremost among the activities of 
the Federal Music Project in Mis- 
souri, recently, has been the series 
of instrumental demonstration and 
music appreciation concerts held for 
children in the elementary and high 
schools at St. Louis, Kansas City and 

The music teaching units, espe- 
cially those in the rural districts, 
have definitely broadened their scope 
of activities by acquiring many new 
classes in schools where music never 
has been a part of the curriculum, 
and in communities where this type 
of program was hitherto unknown, 
'/he Kansas City Music Teaching 
Pi iject remains the outstanding pro- 
ducirij unit of this type in the state, 
and continues serving public and 
parochial schools with a music teach- 
ing program of real merit and pro- 

The project has cooperated with 



educational leaders throughout the 
state in an effort to bring concerts 
and music appreciation programs of 
genuine interest to thousands of 
children from under privileged fam- 
ilies, who otherwise would not have 
an opportunity of receiving such cul- 
tural education. 

The Colored Orchestra units in 
St. Louis and Kansas City had an 
active month in spreading cheer to 
thousands of patients in hospitals, 
sanitariums and institutions of both 
cities. Primarily set up as dance band 
units, these orchestras are well 
equipped to play first rate semi- 
classical programs and many such 
performances were played in negro 
schools, churches, settlement houses, 
etc., in addition to their dance en- 

l>age 14 




One of the most satisfactory per- 
formances given by Federal Music 
Project units in New Hampshire was 
the concert program presented by 
the forty-piece band before the State 
Legislature in Representatives Hall 
in the State Capitol recently. 

The combined band is made up of 
all professional band-men employed 
in the entire project and represents 
fourteen cities and towns through- 
out New Hampshire. The large, ap- 
preciative audience, which filled the 
huge auditorium and galleries, was 
roused to cheers at one point in the 
program. This same unit will present 
the first concert in a series of four 
to be given under the sponsorship 
of the Federal Music Project at In- 
stitute of Arts and Sciences Hall in 


Minneapolis, the center of activ- 
ities for the North Central Music 
Educators Conference early in April, 
was the scene of a concert which 
presented the Twin Cities Civic Or- 
chestra, under the direction of Bern- 
hard Anderson, and in which a thou- 
sand high school singers participated. 
The culminating point for instru- 
mental participants came April 9 at 
the Lyceum Theatre when Music 
Project theatre bands and orchestras 
made up the program. 

Delegates to the conference were 
entertained by a number of Federal 
Music Project units throughout the 


Music Week in Portland, Oregon 
will be observed with much activity 
with the Federal units in coopera- 
tion with the Oregon Federation of 
Music Clubs and the Oregon Chap- 
ter of the American Guild of Or- 
ganists. Symphonic Band Concerts 
conducted by Misha Pel;, will be 
presented at the Roosevelt Statue on 
the South Park Blocks each day of 
the week except Saturday. 

The Little Symphony Orchestra 
conductor, Harry Linden, will pre- 



The "Revery" by George Cran- 
dall, originally written for organ, had 
Its first performance for orchestra on 
a program presented by the Albany 
Project recently. Four concerts were 
played in a series in which Mr. Cran- 
dall's "Revery" was included. The 
final concert in this series, played on 
April 4th, featured Harry Braun, 
\-iolinist of New York City. 

The first concert of the new spring 
series, now being presented by the 
Syracuse Symphony Orchestra, was 
presented on March 9th at the Lin- 
coln Auditorium with Andre Polah 
conducting and Pauline Hund- 
shamer, soprano, as guest soloist. The 
second concert of this series, on 
March 2?rd, featured Guy Maier as 
soloist in a program composed o* 
the works of Bach, Brahms, Mozart, 
and Dukas. Mr. Maier gave a bril- 
liant performance of the Mozart E 
Flat Concerto, with Mr. Polah con- 

The Niagara Falls Power Com- 
pany recently turned over to the Ni- 
agara Falls Music Project the large 
George Terminal Auditorium, free 
of rental, as a gesture of civic co- 
operation. The program presented at 
the auditorium was attended by over 
five hundred people and presented 
as soloist Miss Isabel Whitman, so- 
prano, music critic of the Niagara 
Falls Gazette. 

Buffalo units have filled a great 
number of engagements during the 
month. The Buffalo Symphony Or 
chestra, the University Concert Or 
chestra, the Empire Dance Orchestra 
and the Abbott Colored Dance O 
chestra. as well as the Buffalo Civic 
String Orchestra, have all played 
in many public institutions, schools 
and educational centers during the 


sent concerts each day, except Fri- 
day at noon, in the Hall of the Cen- 
tral Library. 

On the night of Thursday, May 
6th, in the Auditorium of the Wo- 
man's Club Building, the Little Sym- 
phony Orchestra will present a pro- 
gram of compositions by Oregon 


The Wilmington Civic Orchestra 
of the Federal Music Project con- 
tinues to be a contributor of major 
importances in the musical field' in 
Wilmington. Developed by its di- 
rector, William Paul Hodgson, and 
under the leadership of Carl Elmer, 
the orchestra has attracted attention 
beyond the confines of Delaware. It 
is in demand by radio audiences and 
broadcasts a half hour program ev- 
ery Tuesday evening. Every Monday 
evening a concert is presented in the 
Federal Music Hall in Wilmington. 

At these regular Monday night 
concerts, color has been introduced 
to enhance the enjoyment of music. 
Further details of this color innova- 
tion will be found on another page 
of "The Baton". 


The Federal Music Project in 
Maine, with Orchestral and Choral 
Units in Lewiston and Portland, 
continue to present weekly major 
symphonic concerts in these two 
cities. These units also play each 
week at the various state and city 
institutions within their respective 

In Portland, weekly broadcasts arc 
presented over station WCSH each 
Friday afternoon from four to four- 
thirty, with the Orchestra and 
Chorus alternating with a Brass Band 
composed of members of the Con- 
cert Orchestra. 

During the winter season the units 
give approximately twenty concerts 
and four radio broadcasts each 
month with an average attendance 
of three hundred fifty people. 

This month, special programs arc 
being arranged in keeping with Na- 
tional Music Week. 

r s I c 


Page 15 


^ ** i MUSIC 

Music, as such, is paid very little 
•ittention by the average movie au- 
dience. To be noticed it must beat 
the distinction of being very good oi 
very bad. Ordinary, competent 
music which is in mood with the 
scene is accepted passively as a part 
of the entertainment. The motion 
picture began as an entirely optic 
stimulus; later, with the advent of 
sound, this stimulus was enhanced 
by an oral one, but one which had 
most to do with the furtherance of 
the drama by the spoken word. Ex- 
cept in the case of musicals, which 
naturally make of the music an im- 
portant element, it has always been 
sufficient that there was simply a 
suitable background of music. It has, 
of course, been recognized from the 
first that music could sway the emo- 
tions greatly. Most of us recall cer- 
tain stock tunes or types of tunes 
which accompanied the "villian still 
pursues her" scenes, and some of the 
other sweeter numbers that accom- 
panied the love-scenes 

Only very recently, with the de- 
velopment of the long feature with 
definite artistic aims, has a sincere 
effort been made to enhance the 
artistry, as well as the emotional 
stimulation, by the use of specially 

By Harold Gc/mnn 

( Pianist ; critic) 

written music for the occasion. To 
do this some of the most important 
names in present-day composition 
have been imported to do their stuff 
for the films. One of the outstand- 

Some of the outstanding bits 
af recent pictures: 

The trumpet player who did 
the marvelous playing in 
"Swing High, Swing Low". 
The trumpet virtuoso, played 
on the screen by Fred Mac- 
Murray, gave us some lessons 
on the art of blowing popular 

Herbert Stodhart's music for 
"The Good Earth". Always ap- 
propriate, and particularly fine 
in the impressionistic touches 
which accompanied the impres- 
sionism of certain of the film's 

Frank Capra's use of noise — 
plain noise — in the avalanche 
sequence in "Lost Horizon". 
The sheer awfulness of noise 
has seldom been portrayed as 

ing examples of this was the use of 
Werner Janssen's original score for 
"The General Died at Dawn." From 
the first striking notes of the 
trumpets, the music made itself a 
vital part of the production, and it 
upheld its own place as an integral 
part of the show throughout. Boris 
Morros, who was responsible for 
this, is following the scheme at Para- 
mount quite extensively. George 
Antheil is also composing for him 

A glance at the names to be found 
working in Hollywood now is sur- 
prising. Both Ernest Toch and Ar- 
nold Schoenberg are active, particu- 
larly the former. When Stravinsky 
was here he was sought after by at 
least two of the major studios, if not 
more. What arrangements may have 
been arrived at have not yet been 
publicly announced. 

The movies have become aware 
of fine music and the men who write 
it. What the liaison may mean must 
be problematical. The studio heads 
have opinions on the subject, as do 
the composers — and they are all dif- 
ferent. But what IS just experimental 
today may be very important, both 
to the films and to music, tomorrow. 

New Musical Talent 
Sought By San Jose 

The San Jose, California, Federal 
Music Project recently launched a 
contest in music schools and private 
studios for singers, pianists, violinists 
and cellists to appear with the Fed- 
eral Symphony Orchestra, under the 
baton of Joseph Gizkovsky, super- 

The final winners, one from each 
group, will soon be presented in a 
gala concert in the civic auditorium. 

Since the beginning of the last 
school term, or during the period 
from August 20, 19.^6 to January 
20, 19.i7, the San Diego Federal 
Music Project has presented 109 free 
prrformances in their city and county 
.schoiil.'i, serving 42 different schools. 

Personnel Announced 
For Audition Board 

Dr. George Liebling, Mary Carr 
Mcore, Ernest Douglas, Duval San- 
ders, Homer Grunn, and Mrs. Hen- 
nion Robinson are now members of 
I he audit on board v.'hich hears 
young artists and judges them for 
possible appearances with the Los 
Angeles Music Project Symphony 

A number of young artists already 
selected by this group have appeared 
with the orchestra, including Amelia 
Hester, Peter Jarrett, and Aida Mu- 

During this same period there were 
presented 99 free performances spon- 
sored by the city of San Diego and 
55 by the county. 

Oakland Hears Works 
Of State Composers 

The California Composers' and 
Writers' Society will present its sec- 
ond annual Music Week Festival on 
May 5, 6 and 7 in Oakland, featur- 
ing the works of over a score of 
California composers in three sep- 
arate programs. 

The third evening of the festival 
will feature, in the Oakland Audi- 
torium, an orchestral program inter- 
preted by the Oakland Federal Sym- 
phony under Jean Shanis. This pro- 
gram will include works by the fol- 
lowing composers: Nicola de Lor- 
enso, Philip M. Foote, Hendrik Jan- 
scn, Julia Klumpkcy, Jean Shanis, 
Paul Martin. Raymond Koechh'n. 
Lola Givin Smale, Clarence KauU, 
Howard Eastwood, and Joziena van 
de Ende. 

Page lA 



Bv James Hopper 

(State Director, CaUjornia Federal 
W'riters' Project) 

In California approximately three 
hundred workers on the Federal 
Writers" Project have been engaged 
in compiling the California section 
of the American Guide, a 3,000,000 
word tourist handbook to the United 
States. This work is now almost 
complete, with many tours and es- 
says already accepted by Washing- 

In addition to the assignment for 
the National Guide, the California 
Project IS working on a State Guide, 
and some of the district projects are 
preparing local city guides. A more 
elaborate guide to the San Francisco 
region is planned, on which the proj- 
ects in San Francisco and Oakland 
are now at work. In San Francisco 
two special editorial staffs are being 
organized, one to do the final work 
on the State Guide, the other to 
write the San Francisco Regional 
Guide. The remainder of the work- 
ers in San Francisco will work on a 
series of pamphlets, using the great 
mass of material collected, which, 
though of interest and value, can- 
not be incorporated in the Guides. 

Much interesting work is also 
Hearing completion in minor projects, 
such as the National Minorities Proj- 
ect, and the History of Migratory 
Labor in California. About twenty- 
five members of the Project are en- 
gaged on a Sur\'ey of Municipal 
Governments, in cities of more than 

50,000 population. This Survey has 
been approved by the United States 
Council of Mayors, and upon com- 
pletion the material will be deposited, 
as a reference library, with the 
United States Bureau of Census ac 
Washington, D.C. It is expected that 
this Survey will be completed in 

During the year and a half in 
which the Federal Writers" Project 
has been operating in California a 
tremendous amount of material has 
been accumulated, dealing with ev- 
cry phase of the State"s development. 
It IS planned to deposit this material 
in the public libraries of the cities 
and counties in which it has been 
gathered, to become a permanent 
part of the reference collection. Al- 
ready our files have been opened to 
various civic and cultural organiza- 
tions, the San Francisco Project hav- 
ing made a considerable amount of 
Its historical material available to the 
Junior Chamber oi Commerce, the 
Golden Gate Intorn.itional Exposi- 
tion and the Federal Housing Ad- 

ministration. The Los AiiTeles Proj- 
ect has cooperated with several civic 
bodies in research and compiling of 
data. One of these assignments was 
a history of education in Los An- 
geles, done at the request of the 
Board of Education. 

An interesting development has 
come from an unofficial enterprise 
of some of the writers of the San 
Francisco Project, who, in their off 
time, have published two issues of 
a magazine. This magazine has re- 
ceived attention and a good deal of 
praise from critics throughout the 
country. To quote from an article 
written by John D. Barry in the Gan 
Francisco "News": 

"Now it's a pleasure to recognize 
THE COAST as a rich fulfillment. 
It contains abundant material that 
shows writers in our neighborhood 
are working with enthusiasm and 
vitality ... I hope I've said enough 
to show the first number of THE 
COAST is unique." 

The hope is that this, so far, un- 
official work may become official, so 
that the Writers' Project may func- 
tion as do the Theatre, Music and 
Art Projects, in which the members 
have an opportunity to do creative 
and individual work. 


Pace 17 




By Myra Khic/j 

(CoordiniUor of Dance Units, C.ilij" 
P Client} Theatre Project} 

Many people rightfully assume a 
more serious mien with any art form 
presented for public gase bearing the 
title of "concert". This attitude has, 
to a degree, been dissipated in late 
years by the inclusion of satire, 
either defined as such by title, or 
subtly slipped in unannounced to add 
the zest of surprise at the proper 
moment. The average public had 
had little opportunity previously to 
educate its funnybones to real ap- 
preciation of this aristocrat of com- 
edy, due to the conviction held by 
most impresarios and producers that 
satire was indigestible, no matter 
what the appetite for amusement 
might be. Plays, such as "Once in a 
Life Time" and "Of Thee I Sing" 
did much to change their minds. The 
Jooss Ballet and Trudi Schoop have 
done as much for the dance. After 
all, the satirical approach allows the 
choreographer, playwright or artist 
the freedom lu believe that the mem- 
bers of his audience have some de- 
gree of critical sagacity (their "hair 
up", figuratively speaking), plus the 
true enjoyment of utihzing the full 
technical abilities of his performers 
to lampoon either present day or 
historical figures and modes. 

The bridal-month concert of the 
Los Angeles Dance Unit is to be as 
gay and serious in tone as a wedding 
ceremony written and staged by Noel 
Coward. A more serious side of the 
dance program will be, as previously 
anncunced, a dance cycle titled 
"Theme of Expansion" (American 
Exodus), while gaiety is intended 
with a suite of "Dance Satires" of 
d'Ifcrent periods, beginning with the 
old-school ballet, and proceedin'-- 
merrily through a "Serpentine 
Dance" and the "Greek" school, 
with addenda of "modern" dance 
at'rizing certain current trends. The 
r.iusic for the entire concert has been 
.(imposed or arranged bv Manuel 


The dancers in the Concert Group 
are working toward group expres- 
sion, a blending of individual per- 
sonalities and techniques into a mod- 
ern medium of expression. In the 
past, American dancers (much as de- 
signers have bowed to the decrees 
of Parisian dressmakers) have fol- 
lowed the precedents set by Euro- 
pean choreographers. Even music 
was necessarily of foreign composi- 
tion if it were to be given serious 
consideration. American choreogra- 
phers are now striving toward a 
point of view that is essentially 
American, with music composed 
from the movements of the dance, 
or arrangements applicable to the pe- 
riod in question. An American ap- 
proach offers the choreographer a 
wealth of episode for either serious 
rr satirical consideration. 

Many of the dancers in the Con- 
cert Group have had varied training 
and professional experience, a tech- 
nical background that promises for 
much in the forthcoming concert, 
Grace Adclphi, who has been fea- 
tured in many Federal Theatre pro- 
ductions, studied for several years 

with Ernest Belcher, as a child, and 
later with Theodore Bekefi, with 
whom she toured as Prima Ballerina. 
She has been in many New York 
productions as well as coast presenta- 
tions. Madeleine Lasard studied with 
Alexander Volinine and Fokine, and 
was a member of Najinska's ballet 
in Paris. She also had several seasons 
with the Russian Opera Ballet. Mar- 
garet Rees had her ballet training 
with Anna Arnova and more re- 
cently has been studying modern 
technique with Dorothy Lindall. 
Karen Burt, who has acted as assist- 
ant director with the Concert Group, 
has worked under many teachers, 
Martha Deane, Michio Ito and Dor- 
othy Lindall, as well as the famous 
Bennington School of the Dance. 
Bella Lewitzky and Renaldo Alarcon 
are well known to Los Angeles audi- 
ences as featured dancers with the 
Lester Horton Group. Teru Izumida 
has a fine background supplied by 
several years under the direction of 
Michio Ito. Zemach, director of the 
dances in Reinhardt's "Eternal 
Road", supplied the modern dance 
training for Clay Dalton. Mr. Dal- 
ton was featured in Zcmach's dances 
for the motion picture of Sir H. 
Rider Haggard's "She". 

The Dance Unit has recently ac- 
quired the valuable services as assist- 
ant director and coach of Miss 
Bertha Wardell, a student of Pavley, 
and of Cecil Sharpe, the great au- 
thority on English Folk dancing. 
Miss Wardell taught dancing for sev- 
eral years at the Universit>' of Cali- 
fornia and since that time has had 
her own studio. She was a featured 
writer for The Dance Magazine 
when it was in its heyday, and had 
a fascinating correspondence with 
Mary Austen, contributing source 
material for one of her books. Miss 
Wardell will also assist Elmer Maiden 
on the dances for the production o) 
"Johnny Johnson" 

Page 18 



By Bo/> Riisse// 

(Feiierjl Thejlre Project) 

The circus sets up its tents in big 
city and little town alike, but only 
the metropolis has regular theatre. 
Except for plays given by the high 
school dramatic club, the little town 
is never favored with footlights. 

America's small-community drama 
famine is one of the special interests 
of the Federal Theatre Project. 
Bringing back the hinterland "road" 
is an aim that Uncle Sam's troupers 
find eminently worth-while. 

That smaller cities appreciate the 
theatre is shown by the Federal com- 
pany in San Bernardino, California, 
where a new show is greeted each 
week by enthusiastic residents of the 
whole area for miles around. In icy 
weather, they still came to see the 
productions in an open-air theatre. 
Now housed under canvas, this com- 
pany is an admired community in- 

Throughout America, similar the- 
atres are operating under govern- 
ment sponsorship. Touring com- 
panies, with tents and portable 
stages, penetrate the remote Ozarks. 
Road companies play in high school 
auditorium.s, town halls, and band- 
stand pavilions. 

When a gay little satire called 
"Help Yourself" pleased the swelling 
audiences of the Musart theatre in 
Los Angeles, State Director George 
Gerwing thought it would be a good 
show to take on tour through Cali- 
fornia. It went on the road for ninety 
days, including two weeks in San 
Francisco, and then came back last 
week to the Hollywood Playhouse. 

Do Visalia, Fresno, Bakersfield, like 
the same show as Hollywood? From 
the reception of this play, the answer 
is — Yes! It isn't that California's 
smaller cities don't want real theatre 
— it's just that it never comes to 
them, unless Federal Theatre brings 

Amencan history has shown that 
many a Eugene O'Neill comes from 
a little town, many a Ma.xwell An- 
derson grows up in a town without 
street-cars. How important for our 
cultural development, then, is this 
program of touring theatrical com- 

Throughout the vast western re- 
gion of twenty-two states. Federal 
Theatre is carrying on the dramatic 
season that never ends. Even in the 
CCC camps, the Federal Theatre is 
creating new interest in the ancient 
art, with drama directors putting on 
weekly shows. The real spotlights, 
of course, are on the big cities. 

San Francisco's project opened the 
new Alcazar with kleig-Hghts and 
fanfare. The show was "Swing Pa- 
rade", inspired by the famous "Fol- 
low the Parade". 

Contemplated for production in 
San Francisco soon is the latest edi- 
tion of "The Living Newspaper", 
called "Power". It is now running 
in New York. 

Another spectacular opening this 
spring was the Negro labor play, 
"Stevedore", in Seattle. 

San Diego's theatre is planning to 
do "Men In White" and Ring Lard- 
ner's "June Moon". 

Theatre units throughout the re- 
gion v^ill produce Bradbury Foote's 
new play, "Rachel's Man", the Los 
Angeles opening being sometime in 
May. Foote is a noted screen-writer. 

An exciting prospect for Los An- 
geles is Paul Green's anti-war satire, 
"Johnny Johnson". Produced last 
November by the Group Theatre in 
New York, Green's play was barely 
nosed out on the third ballot for 
the Pulitzer Prize, losing to Maxwell 
Anderson's "High Tor". 

The musical treatment for "John- 
ny Johnson", almost amounting to 
a complete operatic score, is by Kurt 
Weill. The play is novel for its use 
of musical-comedy techniques to con- 
vey its themes. The opening is May 

Intrinsic musical scoring also is be 
ing prepared for the Negro players 
"Macbeth", due in early summer 
With elemental treatment of Shake 
speare's great tragedy, a similar pro 
duction was an outstanding success 
last year in New York. The action 
takes place in a tropical setting. Voo- 
doos take the place of the witches. 

The whole west is alive with the- 
atrical activity, with ever-increasing 
audience enthusiasm. Since the great 
days when Booth played at Central 
City, Colorado, and Lotta Crabtrce 
stood them in the aisles in gold- 
crazed San Francisco, there has never 
been such an interest in the stage. 

"I take off my hat in admiration 
and surprise," says Playwright Paul 
Green. "The Federal Theatre Proj- 
ect is the biggest thing that's ever 
happened in the American stage or 
American drama. Through it a new 
and living theatre has been born." 


Page 19 




As a part of its campaign to bring 
living, contemporary art into the out- 
of-the-way and underprivileged sec- 
tions of the country, where it has 
never before been available, the Fed- 
eral Art Project is sending three 
portfolios of lithographs and photo- 
graphs to Yreka, for use in the In- 
dian Schools of Siskiyou and Modoe 
Counties, according to Joseph Allen, 
State Director for Northern Cali- 

The material for these portfolios 
will include lithographs of Indian 
subjects by Maxine Albro and other 
Project artists; a complete set of 
colored reproductions of the ancient 
Indian cave paintings which are 
found on cliffs and cave walls 
throughout California; and photo- 
graphs of Indian artists at work in 
Nevada, Oregon, and Washington. 

This particular type of material 
has been chosen by Mrs. Beatrice 
Judd Ryan, State Supervisor of Ex- 
hibitions for the Federal Art Project 
in the hope that the children may 
be stimulated by the influences of 
work from their own tradition and 
culture, and perhaps be encouraged 
to create art work of their own. One 
of the series of photographs that 
should be particularly inspiring 
shows a young Indian artist, Julius 
Twohy, at work on a large mural 
painting of his own design in the 
Children's Refectory of the Seattle 
Indian Hospital, in which he has 
portrayed different versions of the 
Thunderbird Legend, which is found 
with variations in the mythology of 

nearly all the Western tribes. 

As an example of the difficulties 
which beset the path of the educator, 
one of the schools where this work 
will be displayed is housed in a Pull- 
man car on a railroad siding, by 
courtesy of the Southern Pacific! 

One of the most difficult problems 
of mural decoration in San Fran- 
cisco's Art history is presented bv 


To Questions nn Pag 


1. PoiichieU). 

2. L ' Giocnndu. 

3. Louia Crucnberg. 

4. Rudolph Ganz. 

•i. Adolph Sax. 

6. Piiinojorle. 

7. The hre. 

S. A uiccessioii of Ion 


to ihc ear. 

9. fredrk Chopin. 

10. Hector Berlioz. 


60 Passing 

70 Good 

80 Excellent 

90 You should tfrile 


100 You peeked! 

the lobby of San Francisco State Col- 
lege, Hall of Natural Science, now 
being decorated under the Federal 
Art Project by artist John Emmet 
Gerrity and his two assistants. Miss 
Constance Woolsey and Sebastin 

Octagonal in shape, the wall space 
of the lobby consists of eight panels, 
twenty-two feet high. Due to irreg- 
ular spacing of doors and windows, 
no two of the spaces are exactly 
alike; so Mr. Gerrity has planned 
his mural as a single unit of design 
instead of eight separate panels. The 
unifying motif of the whole decora- 
tion is, appropriately, the history of 
learning through the ages. Individual 
sections will represent the different 
sciences. History, Biology, Psychol- 
ogy, Astronomy, etc., and will in- 
clude portraits of historically famous 
scientists as well as a symbolical 
treatment of the character of their 

Thirty craftsmen are at work on 
the mural in the front exterior of 
the Long Beach Municipal Auditor- 
ium. The work, covering a vast arch 
thirty-eight feet high by thirty-six 
feet wide, frames a recessed wall on 
which four hundred thousand bits 
of tile are being placed by craftsmen 
working from designs by a master 
artist and expert on ceramics, Albert 
Henry King. 

A mural in fresco for the Beverly 
Hills High School is now being ex- 
ecuted for the Federal Art Project 
by P. G. Napohtano. 

Page 20 





At the Federal Music Hall in Wil- 
mington, Delaware, the Wilmington 
Civic Orchestra has recently intro- 
duced the use of color to enhance 
the enjoyment of symphonic pro- 
grams. This innovation of the Wil- 
mington Project Orchestra, under the 
conductorship of Carl Elmer, is in 
line with developments in recent 
years under well - known scientists 
and musicians to find a satisfactory 
way to blend the vibration of color 
with those of sound. 

The extent of the present color 
program includes the use of a screen 
at the back of the stage, having the 
colors of the spectrum modified by 
use of lights. The audiences attend- 
ing these Monday night concerts, 
which are open to the public, have 
been given an opportunity to vote 
upon the color most pleasing to them 
as background and environment 
while listening to the music. The 
color chart is on display in the lobby 
of the concert hall and the members 
of the audience have availed them- 
selves of the privilege of voting. So 
far, the color Violet has received 
the popular vote. During the series 


Continueii jron Page Five 
of one hand. Their contributions 
have been significant of the possi- 
bilities, but have hardly broken 

Financial difficulties have also lim- 
ited the beginning of the psychology 
of music. Any undertaking in their 
field requires long work, to which 
psychologists must be able to devote 
themselves unfettered by other de- 
mands. No positions of this sort have 
been provided. For the new develop- 
ments of music, moreover, expensive 
equipment will be needed, both for 
the production of endless variants in 
musical combinations and forms, and 
for the delicate registrations and 
study of human responses. No insti- 
tution at present is prepared to 
shoulder this vast expense. Provision 
for the adequate training of appren- 
tices in the great work do not even 

Yet those who have labored in 
the new field, under great difficulties 
and at great sacrifice, are assured that 
provision will be made eventually, 
because they must be made. 

of concerts to date, only one person 
has voted for black, giving as his 
reason that he liked to close his 
eyes and shut out all disturbing de- 
tail of color sensation and let his 
own imagination provide the visual 
background for the composer's 
theme. The concert programs include 
modern and classical music and are 
arranged with special study to give 
distinction, interest and coordination 
to each program. As the color experi- 
ment develops, the project hopes to 
be able to use changing color eifects 
suited to the range of the program 

including gay and lively selections 
contrasted with imposing and impres- 
sive themes. 

This Federal Music Project unit 
continues to be a contributor of ma- 
jor consequence to the musical field 
of Wilmington. It is in great demand 
by the radio audience, and broad 
casts a program every Tuesday c\c- 
ning. Every Monday evening the 
concerts using colors are attended bv 
music lovers, music critics, and those 
who search for human reaction for 
literature and art requirements. 


Continued jr 

of the melodies in the bagpipe imita- 
tion made by tuning the G, or low- 
est, string down into the bass eight 
tones below the next, or D, string, 
which itself is often tuned up one 
whole tone. When one of the strings 
is tuned m such a way that there is 
a perfect fourth instead of the usual 
fifth, the fiddler then can use the 
effect of which he is so fond — that 
of a perfect prime produced by an 
open string and a third finger. 

Another section of the volume 
consists of animal and nature tunes. 
In this collection the fiddler's in- 
genuity is ama;ing. the effects which 
he achieves with his instrument be- 
ing nothing short of breath-taking, 
when studied as instrumental folk 
music. One views with awe the 
work of the unschooled mountaineer, 
backwoodsman, frontiersman, and 
plainsman as exemplified in this col- 
lection. Through various tunes the 
yellow cat jumps on the wall; the 
fiddler's bow arm goes out in a flut- 
tering movement, his finger picks the 
strings, and the hen clucks and 
scratches; the old mule's ludicrous 
ears flop; the fiddle actually steals 
from a negro song and says, "Whoa, 

We hear the wolves a-howlin", and 
see the cowboy waltzing the closing 
number of the dance to the strains 
of Old Paint, Fierce sounds arise as 
the fiddler "wrassles" with a wild- 
cat. We see the rabbit jumping in 
the grass; and hear the woodchuck 
whistle in annoyance as he dashes to 
cover one split second before the 
dog plunges his excited nose into the 

All of the music is written down, 
not in ringle and simple melodic 


im Page Fo„r 

lines, but includes the double stops, 
tied notes, peculiar accents, embel- 
lishments, bowings, phrasings, and 
special tunings as employed by the 
American fiddler. The scoring, in the 
original folk keys of C, G, D, A, and 
F, is written in two ways: the spe- 
cial tuning is indicated, and the mu- 
sic written from that angle. Immedi- 
ately below is given the transposi- 
tion for piano, or for the violin 
tuned in its usual fifths. All of the 
music was written down directly 
from the playing of the fiddler, with 
the exception of one group of tunes 
taken from recordings made in the 

Studied as pure research, the 
grea' worth of the Oklahoma Federal 
Mus'c Project collection of folk mu- 
tic lies in the fact that the music 
possesses ver>' strong characteristics, 
due in part to the odd placing of 
embellishments, unusual phrasing, 
:inrl a certain haunting tone-quality 
as a result of the peculiar tunings. 
The part of ihe collection which per- 
tains to fiddle "swings" around old 
ballad-tunes is interesting to the stu- 
dent in that he has before him on 
each page a melody brought from 
over the seas, and immediately be- 
low it, this air as elaborated by our 
instrument folk musicians, and hiv 
ing characteristics and a style pecul- 
iar to the United States. The com- 
poser's interest is captured by the 
vigor of the melodies and their un- 
expected phrasings and embellish- 
ments. And this collection is unique 
in that it concerns itself with instru 
mental folk music rather than with 
folk singing and ballads, thus open- 
ing up a vast new field in folk re- 



Jacques Samossoud, gifted con- 
ductor and operatic maestro, who 
hai. acted as guest conductor for the 
Los Angeles and Oakland Federal 
orchestras, has been made musical 
assistant to Gastone Usigli, super- 
visor of the Los Angeles Project, ac- 
cording to an announcement made 
recently hy iiarle Jervis, State Direc- 
tor of the California Federal Music 

Mr. Samossoud began wielding thi.- 
baton early in life when he strayed 
from his classes at the Imperial Con- 
servatory in Russia and wandered 
into a local cabaret at the age of 
eleven to win himself a position as 
conductor. Previous to that time he 
had played a clarinet in his father's 
orchestra. Later he studied with 
chc famous conductor, Arthur 
Nikisch, and was graduated from the 
PetrograU Conservatory of Music. 
Following his graduation, he became 
director of the Czar"s Symphony 
Ore h e s t r a, afterwards conducting 
opera in Lisbon, Athens and Bar- 

Coming to the United States, he 
directed the Washington National 
Opera in Washington, D. C, dur- 
ing which time he introduced John 
Charles Thomas to the American 
public. For the Metropolitan Opera 
Company he later directed the first 
performance of Deems Taylor's 
"King's Henchman" in fifteen cities. 
Samossoud won particular fame for 
his grand opera performances in Chi- 
cago and was appointed conductor 
for the spectacular Ford Ballet at the 
Century of Progress Exposition in 

His musicianship won Mr. Samos- 
soud instant recognition from Los 
Angeles critics with his first per- 
formance as guest conductor of the 
Los Angeles Federal Symphony. 
More recently he cemented this fa- 
vor with the successful production of 
his friend Felix Borowski's operatic 
satire, "Fernando del Nonsentsico". 

On April 29th, Mr. Samossoud 
acted as guest conductor of the Oak- 
land Federal Symphony. He will 
be heard in Los Angeles again on 
May 26th, conducting the Los An- 
geles Federal Symphony. 



The first announcement of a con- 
test for appearance with the sym- 
phony of the San Francisco Federal 
Music Project, under the direction 
of Ernst Bacon, brought a great 
many contestants from the studios 
of distinguished teachers in San 
Francisco. The preliminary audi- 
tions are being conducted by Miss 
.lessie B. Hall of the Public Rela- 
tions Department, whose experience 
in matters of this kind include con- 
ducting the Eastman contests in Chi- 

This contest is to include voice, 
violin, "cello and piano, and the semi- 
final audition will be judged by 
Ernst Bacon, and seven other lead- 
ing bay region musicians who will 
assist him. The final audition will be 
with orchestra. The winners, one 
from each group, will be presented in 
gala concert in a down-town audito- 
riun on Sunday evening. May 9. 

Page 21 


The May Music Festival in Los 
Angeles will assume major propor- 
tions with, among other presenta- 
tions, four evenings of music sched- 
uled for Trinity and Philharmonic 

On Wednesday, May 5th, Gas- 
tone Usigli conducted the Los An- 
geles Federal Symphony in a concert 
featuring Dorothy Ellen Ford play- 
ing George Liebling's new Concerto 
for Piano and Orchestra. 

On Wednesday, May I2th, Mr. 
Usigli will present the Los Angeles 
Federal Symphony and four guest 
conductors, Manuel Compmsky, 
Willy Stahl, Max Donner and Mary 
Carr Moore. Mr. Donner will con- 
duct Earnest Anderson's "The Sun 
Worshiper", Mary Carr Moore will 
conduct her own composition, "Ka- 
Mi-A-Min", Willy Stahl will also 
conduct his own Triple Concerto for 
violin, piano and cello, while Manuel 
Compinsky, a member of the famous 
Compinsky Trio, will preside at the 
podium for Max Donner's "A Chi- 
nese Rhapsody" and William Grant 
Still's "Afro-American Symphony". 

The following Wednesday, May 
19th, will be Operatic Night with 
Gastone Usigli conducting excerpts 
from three famous operas, assisted 
by soloists and a chorus of one hun- 
dred sixty. Wotan's Farewell from 
"Die Walkure" will feature Saul 
Silverman as soloist. Scene II from 
the second act of "Aida" and a con- 
densed version of Act II from "Die 
Meistersinger" will also be presented. 

Jacques Samossoud will conduct 
the symphony concert on May 26th, 
at which time Mae Gilbert Reese, 
popular Southern California pianist, 
will play the world premiere of Felix 
Borowski's new Concerto for Piano 
and Orchestra. Laura Nemeth 
Saunders, guest soprano, will sing 
two of her husband's compositions. 
Mr. Saunders is music editor of the 
Hollywood C i t i :; e n News. Mrs. 
Saunders will also sing Elsa's Dream 
from "Lohengrin". 

Orchestral numbers to be con- 
ducted by Mr. Samossoud include 
"The Flying Dutchman" and Tschai- 
kowsky's Symphony No. 6. 

"The Gay Grenadiers," Van and 
Elliott's romantic operetta, is sched- 
uled for production in Lo.s Angeles 
late in May. One hundred thirty 
members from the Los Angeles Proj- 
ect light opera unit make up the cast. 


r )i r. BATON 




San Jose — Federal Music Project — 
WPA Recreation and school chil- 
dren are opening May Festival 
with following program: 

Federal Music Project Orches- 
School children in different 
dances of various nations, 
accompanied by project or- 
Miss Margaret Quesada, so- 
prano soloist, NYA. 
Project dance orchestra open 
air program. 

Stockton — Concert Orchestra— 1 10 
N. Hunter St. 

San Bernardino— Verdi Mass— Un- 
iversity Choir Redlands Univer- 
sity; 4:00 P.M. 

(Orchestra and soloists will be 
furnished by Federal Music Proj- 

Choral concert — First Methodist 
Church, San Bernardino: 7:30 

San Mateo — Outdoor concert. Em- 
erald Lake Bowl, sponsored by 
Council of Redwood City. Com- 
bined San Jose and San Mateo 
concert orchestras. 

Santa Barbara — Tipica Orchestra 
will present program of Mexican, 
Spanish and South American mu- 

Caimel — Open air concert — Forest 

San Diego— Band Concert — Balboa 
Park with Male Chorus— 1:20 

San Jose — May Day Festival — 
Alum Rock Park— 2:00 P.M. 
Joseph Cizkovsky, conductor 
(featuring 400 school children) 
sponsored by Recreation Depart- 

Santa Ana — Band Concert — Irvine 
Park— 2:30 P.M.— Santa Ana- 
Edward K.lein, conductor. 

Oceanside — Band Concert — Band 
Shell— 2:30 - 3:30 P. M.— Ocean- 
side — Lynn F. Stoddard, conduc- 


Stockton — Concert Orchestra — 110 
N Hunter St. Grattan Gucrin, 

Fresno — Concert Orchestra — Fresno 
Bee .Studio. Samuel Hungerford. 
conductor — 2:00 P.M. 

San Rafael — Concert Orchestra 
San Rafael High School, Erich 
Weiler, conductor. 

Oakland — Symphony Orchestra 
concert — Campus Theatre — Berk- 
eley, California. Walter Hornig, 

Santa Barbara — Concert Orchestra 
— Antoni van der Voort. conduc- 
tor — open air shell — Plaza Del 
Mar— 3 to 5 o'clock. 

Carmel — Tipica Orchestra — oper 
air concert Monterey Plaza. 

San Diego — -The Mikado" — Sa 
voy Theatre— 8:1 ■> P.M. 
Band Concert — out door. 
Plaza— down town— noon. 

San Jose — Music Week Concert- 
Willow Glen School — 1 1 :00 
A.M. Joseph Cizkovsky, conduc- 

Los Angeles — Concert Band— 200 
voice Chorus — Arthur Babich. 
10:00 A.M.- 11:00 A.M.— Reuben 

City Hall, Los Angeles. 
Concert Band— Don Philippini. 
Post Office, Glendale — 10:00- 
11:00 A.M. "< 

Pasadena Symphony — Maurice 

" — Marguerite Le- 




a (Festival of Allied 
Band concert — Orange 


Santa Ana 

City Park — Edward Klein, con- 
ductor— 1:30 .P.M. .. 
Street Dance — Orange, Calif. — 
9:00 P.M. 

Oceanside — Band Concert — Junior 
College — 1:00-2:00 P. M. — 

Band Concert — Oceanside High 
School — Lynn F. Stoddard, con- 
ductor— 1 :00- 2:00 P.M. 

Sacramento — Cavallena Rusttcana 
by Adult Educalion Dept. with 
Federal Music Project Orchestra. 
One hour concert by Music Proj- 
ect Orchestra prior to presenta- 
tion of opera — Leslie Hodge, 

Stockton — Concert Orchestra- — 110 
N. Hunter Street — Grattan 
Gucnn, conductor. ' 

San Bernardino — Symphony Or- 
chestra concert — Vernon Robin- 
son, conductor— 7:00 P.M. CCC 
Camp, Mentonc, California. Mill 
Creek CorfcciV Band— S.vnt Ber- 
nardine"s School (assembly) - 
9:4^' AM. 

Carnllo String Troubadours— 
Sturgis Jr. High School (assem- 
bly)— 9:30 A.M. and 10:10 A.M. 

Oakland — String Quartet — Webster 
Little Theatre. 

San Mateo — String Quartet — Bur- 

lingame Public Library. 
Santa Barbara — Dance Orchestra — 

Shell — open air — Earl Anderson, 

director — 3:00 P.M. 

String Quartet— 1408 State St. 


Cartnel — Cooperation with pubhc 
schools in short programs fi.r- 
nished by cello, violin and orchc 
tra ensemble. 

San Diego — Symphony Concert — 
Julius Leib, conductor — Savoy 
Theatre— 8:15 P.M. 
Band Concert — Plaza — Down 
town — Noon — Open air. 

San Jose— Combined Orchestras oi 
San Jose and San Maleo — Sunny- 
vale Town Hall — 8:15 P.M. — 
Josep.h Cizkovsky, conductor. ■ 
Joseph Di Beneditto — opera, ic 
tenor sponsored by Sunnyvale 
School Department. 

Los Angeles — Dance Orchestra — 
Lincoln Park, Long Beach— Dave 
Morris, director — 10:30-12:00. 
Long Beach Chorus — Municipal 
Band Shell, Long Beach— P. IL 
Lester, director — 2:30-4:00 P.M. 
Long Beach Concert Orchestra — 
Municipal Auditorium — Heinrich 
Hammer, conductor. 
Guest pianist — Dorothy Judy 
Klein (Federated Music Clubs)— 
8:30-10:00 P.M. 

Oceanside — Concert Band — Fall- 
brook High School — Lynn F. 
Stoddard, conductor— 9:00-10:0;) 


Stockton — Concert Orchestra — 
Grattan Guerin. conductor — 110 
North Hunter Street. 
San Bernardino — Symphony Cor 
cert — Vernon Robinson, conduc 

San Bernardino High School 
Auditorium— 8:15 P.M. 
Concert Band— Sturges Jr. High 
School (assembly) —9:30 A.M 
and 10:10 A.M. 
Carnllo String Troubadours 

Mexican Recreation Center 

Independence Day Celebration 

Mexican Recreation Center 


Independence Day Celebr.ition 

— 7:00 P.M. 
San Rafael — Concert Orchestra- 
Erich Weiler, conductor — Kent- 
field High School. 
Oakland — Symphony Concert - - 
Richmond High School. 

Jean Shams, conductor — after- 

Vocil Recital — Web:tcr Li:;!c 

Theatre (original compoiition.- 

by Project members) — even-n;; 

Santa Barbara — Concert Orc':e.':i,i 

— "Rockwood" Women's Club 

House — Antoni van dc Voort, 



Page 23 



Carmel — Cooperation with public 
schools in short programs fur- 
nished by cello, violin, and or- 
chestra ensemble. 
Tipica Orchestra — open air con- 
cert— Paafic Grove, California, 

San Diego — "The Geisha" — Sidney 
Jones — The Savoy Theatre — 
8:15 P.M. 

Band Concert — Plasa — Down 
town — Noon. 

Los AngclEs— Concert Band— The 
Plasa, Los Angeles — Arthur Ba- 
bich, conductor — 12:00-1:30 

Mexican Tipica — Lincoln Park, 
Los Angeles — Jose Cantu, di- 
rector (Mexican Consul) — 8:00- 
11:00 P.M. 

Symphony Orchestra — Trinity 
Auditorium — Gastone Usigli, 

Santa Ana — Band Concert — Birch 
Park, Santa Ana— Edward Klein, 
conductor — 2:30 P.M. 

Oceanside — Concert Band — High 
School — Encinitas — Lynn F. 
Stoddard, conductor— 9:00 A.M. 
Concert Band — E 1 e m c ntary 
School— Vista —Lynn F. Stod- 
dard, director — 2:00 P.M. 
Concert Band — E 1 e m e ntary 
School— Carlsbad— Lynn F. Stod- 
dard, director— 11:00 A.M. 

Stockton — 110 North Hunter St. — 
Stockton — Grattan Guerin, con- 

Fresno — Fresno Bee Studio — 3:00 
P.M.— Samuel Hungerford, con- 
ductor — Broadcast program. 

San Bernardino — Symphony Con- 
cert — 10:30 A.M. — Riverside 
Junior College, Riverside— Ver- 
non Robinson, conductor. 
Concert Band — San Bernardino 
High School, San Bernardino — 
9:30 A.M. and 10:10 A.M. 

San Rafael — Tamalpais Union High 
School — Erich Weiler, conduc- 

Oakland — Symphony and Choral 
concert — Auditorium Theatre — 
Walter Hornig, conductor — In- 
ternational program. 

Oan Jose — Symphony concert — 
Roosc%'elt Jr. High School, 10:30 
A.M. — Joseph Cizkovsky, con- 

San Mateo — Chamber Music Rc- 
ci;al— Burlingamc Public Library. 

Santa Barbara — Project concert or- 
chestra and Santa Barbara Choral 
Union under direction of Harold 

Carmel — Concert Orchestra — Sun- 
set School Auditorium— 8:1 <r P. 
M. — Bernard Gallery, conductor. 

L»s Angeles — Dance Orchestra — 
Virgil King, conductor — Lincoln 
Park, Long Beach— 10:30 A.M.- 
12 noon. 

Concert Band — Arthur Babich, 
conductor— Hollywood Of- 

fice — 12:00 noon- 1:00 P.M. 
Long Beach Concert Orchestra — 
Heinrich Hammer, conductor. 
Long Beach Mixed Chorus— P. 
H. Lester, director — Municipal 
Band Shell, Long Beach— 2:30- 
4:00 P.M. 

Santa Ana — Symphony concert in 
Anaheim High School Auditor- 
ium (student body assembly) — 
1:30 P.M. — Leon Eckles, con- 

Symphony Concert in Anaheim 
High School Auditorium (ele- 
mentary school children) — 2:30 

Symphony Orchestra and chorus 
— Santa Ana Willard Jr. High 
School Auditorium— 8:15 P.M. 

San Diego — Choral Concert— Sa- 
voy Theatre— 8:15 P.M.— featur- 
ing American Composers. 
Band Concert — Plaza Down town 
noon — Carl Kuehne, conductor. 


Sacramento — Concert Orchestra — 
Sacramento Memorial Auditor- 
ium — Leslie Hodge, conductor; 
Annual International Night. 

San Bernardino — Symphony Or- 
chestra — Missioji Inn Music 
Room, Riverside— 8:00 P.M.— 
String Ensemble and soloist. 
Concert Band — Highland Jr. 
High School, Highland. Califor- 
nia — 9:45 A.M. (assembly). 
Concert Band— Highland Gram- 
mar School. Highland, California 

— 11:00 A.M. (assembly). 
Chorus — Temple Emanuel — San 
Bernardino— 8:00 P.M. 
Carrillo String Troubadours — 
San Bernardino County Hospital 

— 3:00 P.M. 

San Rafael— Concert— Mill Valley 
Outdoor Art Club. 

Oakland — Symphony Concert — 
Auditorium Theatre — Walter 
Hornig, conductor — German pro- 

San Jose — Combined orchestras of 
San Jose and San Mateo, Daly 
City, San Mateo County— 8:15 
P.M.— Arthur Gunderson, con- 

Santa Barbara — Park Concert — 
Shell Plaza Del Mar — Lawrence 
Butler — baritone soloist. 

Los Angeles — Dance Orchestra con- 
cert — Dave Morris, director, Lin- 
coln Park, Long Beach — 10:30 
A.M.-12 noon. 

San Diego — "Hansel and Grctel". 
by Humperdinck— 8:15 P.M.-- 
Savoy Theatre. 
Band Concert — Plaza Down town 

Oceanside — High School — Ramona, 
California — Concert Band — 9:00 
to 10:00 A.M.— Lynn F. Stod- 
dard, conductor. 

High School — Escondido, Cali- 
fornia—Concert Band — 12:30 to 
1:30 P.M. — Lynn F. Stoddard, 

Elementary School — Escondido, 
California — Concert Band — 2:00 
to 3:00. 


Oakland — Chorus and concert or- 
ch estra — Afternoon — Castlemont 
High School — John Fuerbringer, 
conductor — Oratorio "Samson", 
by Handel. 

Symphony and Chorus — Auditor- 
ium Theatre — Walter Hornig, 
conductor — 8:30 P. M. — Inter- 
national program. 

San Mateo — Rehearsal Hall— Fed- 
eral Music Project Headquarters 
— Recital by students of San Ma- 
teo Music Project teaching unit. 

Santa Barbara — Santa Barbara Mu- 
sic Project Headquarters open 

— street 

y Orchestra 
Beach High 

all afte 
dance — evening. 

Santa Ana — Sympho 
and chorus — Lagun; 
School— 8:15 P.M. 

San Diego — "Hansel and Gretel", 
by Humperdinck — Savoy Thea- 
tre— 2:30 P.M. (Children's Mat- 

Band Concert — Plaza Down town 
— noon. 

Parker's Oratoria, Hora Novis- 
siraa and Bach's Coffee Cantata — 
Savoy Theatre— 8:15 P.M. 

Los Angeles — Long Beach Dance 
Orchestra— Virgil King conduc- 
tor — Bixby Park, Long Beach — 
12:30-2:00 P.M. 

Long Beach Mixed Chorus— P. 
H. Lester. 

Concert Band — Don Philippini — 
Hollenbeck Park, Los Angeles— 
1:00-3:00 P.M. 

Concert Band — Arthur Babich — 
Westlake Park, Los Angeles — 
1:00-3:00 P.M. 

Colored Concert Band— Leslie 
King- Lincoln Park, Los Angeles 
— 1:00-3:00 P.M. 
Piano Trio — Emil Danenberg — 
Los Angeles Museum— 3:00-4:00 

San Francisco — Syraph 
tra — Civic Auditori 
Bacon conducting 


violin, 'cello, and pi; 

ly Orches- 
m — Ernst 
for vocal, 
ro soloists. 

Pase 24 

r 1 1 E BATON 

A woman was hearj describing a symphony concert 
she had attended. 

"And the fellow who played the tuba was so fat," 
she said, "that he couldn't even get in it. He had to 
play it from the outside!" 

On a certain occasion a young man asked Moiart 
to tell him how to compose. The gentle Wolfgang 
Amadeus made answer that the questioner was too 
young to be thinking of such a serious occupation. 

"But you were much younger when you began," pro- 
tested the aspirant. 

"Ah, yes, that is true," 

Mozart said with a smile, 

"but then, you see, I did 
not ask anybody." 

To Leonard Liebling the 
world is indebted for the 
first accurate and exhaustive 
definition of stage fever: 

"We know from personal 
experience that stage fright 
is a malady made up in 
equal parts of amnesia, ague, 
indigestion, nausea, locomo- 
tor ataxia, water on the 
brain, jumping patella or 
kneecap, digital swelling, 
and paralysis, parched pal- 
ate, cleaving tongue, stutter- 
ing, semi-blindness, and gal- 
lows gait. On one occasion 
when we were performing 
a piano-piece in public we 
became confused because our 
teeth were chattering in 

12-S prestissimo rhythm and tempo, while the composi- 
tion called for .^-4 adagio. On the day we resolved to 
give up the v.riuoso career, musical art was deprived of 
probably the world"^ most njrvous pianis;." 

Lis..t hadn't much more reason to love t!ic cr tics than 
Wagner had. They were always "after h-'m". Once in a 
while he sharpened his tongue and talked back. 

One day when three friends called on him he sug- 
gested a game of whist. Two of them were willing, chc 
other confessed he didn't know a thing about whist. 

"Ah!" replied Liszt- "then you can be our critic!" 

We as a democratic 
people, a great mixed 
people of all races ov- 
errunning a vast con- 
tinent, need music 
even more than others. 
We need some ever- 
present, ever-welcome 
influence that shall 
warm out the individ- 
ual humanity of each 
and every unit of so- 
ciety, lest he become a 
mere in e m b e r of a 
party or sharer of a 
business or a fashion. 

— John Sullivan 


(Atlantic Monthly) 

"Cizkovsky is a real conductor, having not only the 
spirit but also the technique to implant his ideas in 
the minds of his men." 

San Jose (Calif.) News. 
* * * 

"By way of the 'Coifee Cantata', Bach is be n;; pleas- 
antly introduced to quantities of local schocl children 
by San Diego's Federal Opera Company. Bach is defi- 
nitely becoming a best seller in these parts. 

"The 'Coffee Cantata' goes over big at all the schools. 
The musical departments are enthusiastic over this pain- 
less method of introducing Bach to the young." 

Constance Herreshoff. 
San Diego (Calif.) Sun. 

" 'Humanitas', new and 
dramatic tone poem by Gas- 
tone Usigli, had its first lo- 
cal hearing last night at 
Trinity Auditorium. The 
composer conducted the 
great Federal Music Project 
orchestra with a dynamic 
power and brought before 
the big audience the full 
sweep and grandeur of his 
work. The composer - con- 
ductor has aimed high and 
uses a well thought out con- 
trapuntal style for the ex- 
pression of conflicting emo- 

Florence Lawrence 

Los Angeles (Calif) 


"It (Humanitas) is a gi- 
gantic work, soundly con- 
structed and intelligently 
worked out, and is personal 
nominacion number one for 
a Hollywood Bowl heariiv; 
this summer." 

Mildred Norton 
Los Angeles (Calif.) 

Evening News 

"An audience three times 
the size of the one that 
last year heard the concert by the San Mateo county 
concert orchestra paid tribute last evening to the ability 
of the combined Federal symphony orchestras of San 
Mateo and San Jose. The audience . . . seemed to be 
made up of true music lovers, who attested to th.cir 
enjoyment of the concert by enthusiastic applause for 
the performers. 

"Well directed by Arthur Gunderson, ihe orchestra 
personnel may justly feel proud of its accompl'shr.T'nt 
in last evening's presentation." 

Staff Reviewer 
Redwood City (Calif.) Tribune 


B. fi T o n 


ZAti f rt >.W0l*0O PUBUC l.m><1ART 







HARRY L. HOPKINS, National Adrr 


DR. NIKOLAI SOKOLOFF, National Director 


ELLEN S. WOODWARD, Assistant Administrator 


JUNE 1937 

No. 6 



(Slate Director California Federal Music Project) 

In the Federal program of mustc, the 
musician is not merely a skilled player 
of an instrument who rehearses dili- 
gently, plays his concerts seriously and 
has no further responsibility. The 
Federal musician has an important 
responsibility that will affect not only 
himself but the cause of music. He must 
not only play, but he must help de- 
velop audiences to whom his music will 
become a necessity. 

The Federal Music Project does nor 
have the assistance of an extensive 
publicity department with specialized 
and highly paid personnel who will 
create audiences through elaborate ad, 
vertising and costly publicity cam- 
paigns. In the Federal Music Project 
each musician must be the publicity 

Even if our music is excellent, people 
must be told about it and told enthusi- 
astically. You might say, "1 am playing 
the concert, publicity isn't my job." 
Well, it is, and a daily job at that. If 
you are thrilled with your work and 
sincerely interested in advancing music 
and the musician in America, it is your 
duty to speak glowingly of your work 
to your family, your friends, and your 
friend's friends. People are interested in 
knowing how your music is made, of the 
progress of each day's work, of the 
smallest things that make up your day. 
Musicians are thought to be odd fel- 
lows, a bit different, and somewhat 

The Bsitoii 


Beaux Arts Building 
L(is Angeles, Calif. 



By Harle Jenii 

57,000,000 AMERICANS HEAR 

;i) B</>/j Morro, .... 


B) R. M. MacAtphi .... 

By Cortttl Lengyel .... 


C) Frederick Gaodrkh . . . 



By II.KoU GelmM . 


hy ElcM 


mysterious. Let people know that this 
IS real, vital, healthy, invigoialing, 
inspiring work — this music making of 

Day by day each musician should 
help build up a group of people who 
come to hear this much talked of music. 
Think what an audience would be 
developed for your own unit if every 
member honestly did that. The most 
expensive publicity campaign cannot 
compete with "word of mouth" ad- 
vertising. No paid advertising would 
bring in such an interested audience. 

Laboriously we have worked to make 
good music, and by its beauty and sin- 
cerity we have attracted audiences. 
But why should we be satisfied with 
half-full houses if we can get full 
houses. Critics often say, "A small but 
appreciative audience attended". Let 
us make them say, "A large and en- 
thusiastic audience attended . 

Today's musician must be alert, wide 
awake, conscious of all the potential- 
ities of his job. His ideal must be to 
advance the cause of music. And insofar 
aj he advances the cause, he in turn 
will reap the benefit. You have chosen 
one of the grandest professions in the 
world. Let everyone know about it. 

This Magazine xias printed through the courtesy of a private organization xMch contributed its equipment for 
the furtherance of Vederal Music Project activities 




Audiences aggregating 57,000,000 
persons have heard "Uving music" in 
more than So,ooo Federal Music Pro- 
ject performances and programs since 
October, iQ35, Ellen S. Woodward, 
Assistant Administrator of the Works 
Progress Administration, announced on 
May 15th. Thfc statennent follows 
completion of a report by Dr. Nikolai 
Sokoloff, director, covering the scope 
and activities of the Federal Music Pro- 
ject to April 15, igj-J. 

"Since the Federal government inter- 
vened in the economic depression to 
employ, retrain and rehabilitate the 
skills of jobless professional musicians, 
the whole American audience base has 
been tremendously enlarged," Dr. 
Sokoloff «aid. "Great muaic is no longer 
the privilege of the more fortunate 
among the dwellers in the cities, but in 
fine manifestations it has been made 
available to our people in many parts 
of the country. 

"Millions have listened to symph- 
onies and operas, the beloved old 
oratorios and cantatas, the literature of 
chamber and salon groups: madrigals, 
ballads and folk songs of other cen- 
turies, and the new and nimble and 
sometimes vital works of contemporary 
American composers, and multitudes 
have heard "in the flesh' performances 
for the first time. Federally-sponsored 
music has tdu,ched every stratum of our 
diverse society." 

Salient facts in Dr. Sokolofl^'s report 

More than forty-five cities in the 
United States are hearing regularly 
scheduled symphony programs. In no 
cities there are WPA orchestras rang- 
ing from conventional concert groups 
to organizations of 35 instruments. 
Concert and symphonic bands, dance 
and novelty orchestras, opera, and 
choral groups, are heard frequently. 

Organized in 260 project units, 
music teachers are carrying free instruc- 
tion every week to half-a-million per- 
sons unable to pay for lessons. 

Encouragement for the American 
composer, an integral part of the na- 
tional plan, has resulted m public 
performance by WPA units of 4,915 
compositions written by 1,481 musi- 
cians residing in the United States. 

Approximately 2,500 indigenous and 

vernacular folk songs and tunefe have 
been gathered and transcribed by WPA 
Music Project workecs in a dozen 

Copyists, arrangers and librarians 
are assigned to 24 projects in 18 states. 
Thiy number J4Q and are quietly at 
work in public libraries, universities 
and project offices, and have turned out 
hundreds of thousands of music manu- 
scripts and folios. These will be made 
available as nuclei for public lending 

On April I the Federal Music 
Project had on its rolls 13,310 men and 
women who had faced the hazards of 
deteriorating skills and aptitudes and 
the relaxing of vital energies with the 
loss ot employment. They were em- 
ployed in 763 units as follows: 155 
symphony and concert orchestras, 80 
bands, 91 dance orchestras, 24 theatre 
and novelty orchestras, 260 teaching 
projects, choral groups, opera unite, 
chamber ensemble units, copyists, ar- 
rangers, librarians and tuners units, and 
coordinating and miscellaneous admin- 
istration, office and labor projects. 

Since the beginning of the Works 
Program free instruction in music has 
been given to an aggregate of 7,689,406 
children and adults unable to afford 
private instruction in Greater New 
York City. Oklahoma with 155 teach- 
ing centers has a class attendance of 
45,000 a week; an aggregate of 60,000 
have had music instruction in Missis- 
sippi; free instruction is provided for 
3 3 ,000 pupils in 2 1 6 schools and centers 
in South Carolina; 32 Music Project 
teachers preside over 81 classes a week 
in Virginia; New Mexico has 28 WPA 
music teachers, Missouri reports a 
monthly enrollment of 15,654, and 26 
teachers in Illinois preside over 404 
scheduled classes. 

In Massachusetts free music lessons 
were given to 12,208 persons during 
January; weekly enrollment in Florida 
aggregates 17,000; m Arkansas, 4,400 
there are 1,700 classes each month in 
California, and 354 classes in Minne 
sota. Other WPA music teaching pro- 
jects are carried on in Colorado, 
Connecticut, Louisiana, Maine, Ne 
braska, New Hampshire, New York 
State, Oregon, Pennsylvania and Ver- 

All instruction is in groups as the 
Federal Music Project teacher may not 
compete with the music teacher who is 
self-sustaining. There are more than 40 
courses including sight-singing, ear- 
training, harmony, keyboard harmony, 
notation, theory, composition, form 
and analysis, counterpoint, orchestra- 
tion, appreciation and music history; 
piano, voice, violin, violoncello, double 
bass, wood wind and brass instru- 
ments; percussion, guitar, mandolin 
and banjo; choral and orchestral score 
reading, coaching, diction, acoustics 
and piano tuning. 

"When the late Dr. Charles W. 
Eliot, then president of Harvard 
University, expressed himself many 
years ago upon the educational value of 
music, he gave a first impulse to the 
teaching of music to fchool children," 
Dr. Sokoloff says in his report. 

"SinCe that time many persons have 
assumed that music has been a part of 
the curriculum of most American 
schools. There was a jolt of surprise in 
learning therefore that at the time the 
Federal Music Project was created 
educators estimated that two-thirds of 
the 4,000,000 children in the 143,000 
rural schools in America were without 
music instruction in any form. 

"The work of the Federal Music 
Project has penetrated deeply into 
remote rural regions as well as into the 
congested areas of cities, both of which 
were found to be musically barren; and 
new texts and technics for music 
instruction have been evolved by 
WPA music teachers." 

Commenting on the eagerness with 
which under-privileged children have 
grasped this instruction in music. Dr. 
Sokoloff tells of lessons at six o'clock in 
the morning during the Summer so that 
sharecroppers' children may get their 
music lessons before starting work on 
the farms; and of youngsters who walk 
three and four miles to be in the classes. 

"The venerable myth that the 
American youngster has to be coaxed 
or coerced into the study of music 
seems to be pretty well exploded," 
says he. 

WPA orchestras of symphonic size 
are playing in Boston, Springfield, 

(.Please turn to page 20) 

Page 4 




(Director of Music, Paramount Pictures) 

The development of fine music in 
motion pictures has been and is a 
gradual process. No magic has been 
responsible for the ever finer accomp- 
animent to the new films; rather, a 
laborious attention to detail and the 
vision of a few leaders have combined 
to bring things to their present state 
of excellence. Nor may we feel that 
perfection is anywhere near reached — 
we must continue to build in every 
way possible towards even greater 
accomplishments than we now know. 
Music in the films is just beginning a 
great period of expansion and enlarge- 
ment, and its future may surprise even 
the optimistic. 

We have become so used to sound 
on the screen that we are apt to forget 
at times that it is a comparatively new 
departure. Few industries or crafts 
have grown as rapidly as this one has. 
This, in spite of limitations, the chief of 
which is the undeniable truth that to 
sell a commodity, it must be what the 
pubhc wants and grasps. To advance 
too rapidly in building standards of 
musical excellence would likely resi.;. 
in more harm than good. The public 
has had to, and must now, be brought 
gradually to an appreciation of better 
screen music. 

Our problem has been more than just 
making music acceptable to the great 
army of movie-goers. We are faced 
with purely technical problems foreign 
to any other division of musical 

The process of recording music to 
synchronize with the screen action is 
not a musical problem, but a mechanical 
one. Here, then, is the great difficulty; 
musicians there are in abundance, and 
there is a sufficient number who are 
versed in the mechanical knowledge 
But the fusion of the two is a rare 
thing. Many a musician who is, for 
example, a fine conductor in the con- 
cert hall or the opera house, is not 
capable of filling our needs, because 
our conductor must know acoustics, 
the split timing to the second, and the 
very exact science of recording. Our 
composers cannot develop their musical 
ideas to the length they may desire. 
They are limited to a certain amount of 
time, and even the content must be 
governed by the accompanying action 

Dn the screen. Change of mood, divers- 
ity in style, development of material — 
all of these fundamental necessities of 
fine music must he coordinated with 
the component parts that make up 
finally a unified picture. To do this, and 
at the same time to preserve originality, 
artistic integrity, and freedom of e.\- 
pression is obviously a problem which 
both jhe composer and the conductor 
must face and solve. 

All of this entails certain psychologi- 
cal attitudes in those responsible for 
the final scoring of a picture. The 
composer must be willing and able to 
respect the specialized technic and 
writing demanded of him. 

And the persons responsible for the 
musical scoring must try to give the 
composer every opportunity for indi- 
vidual expression. A combination of 
great talent and adaptability to new 
conditions are essential. 

Here at Paramount we have a large 
staff devoted to the musical side of 
motion pictures. Obviously, to produce 
the finest music we must have the 
finest composers. To this end we 
number on our staff names which have 
long been honored in the field of 
creative music — names which are part 
of the ever-moving history of music. 
Kurt Weill, Werner Janssen, George 
Antheil, Frederick Hollander, Gregory 
Stone are writing for us. A few months 

ago when Igor Stravinsky was in Los 
Angeles, he expressed a desire to 
become a member of our group. Paul 
Hindemith, recognized as another of 
the living immortals, is also negotiating 
with our studio. We have, it can be 
seen at a glance, the men who have 
created and can continue to create the 
music that will last. Their genius is 
now added to the production of great 
artistry in the screen medium. 

Of course these men alone cannot do 
the entire job. We have popular music 
written by its own corps of highly 
sf«cialized composers — among them, 
Ralph Rainger, Leo Robbins, Sam 
Coslow, Hoagy Carmichael, Victor 
Young, John Burke, Burton Lane, 
Ralph Freed, Arthur Johnston and 

That most important musician, the 
arranger, makes steady advances in his 
art. Victor Young heads this large 
department. We use, also, a large staff 
of scorers, conductors and musical 
advisers who work in direct coopera- 
tion with the director to achieve an 
harmonious whole. The production of 
the completed score to any picture is 
not the work of a single man. From the 
idea of the composer to the final 
recording of the conductor calls for the 
services of a veritable army of musicians 
and technicians. 

We do not sit back and rest happily 
on the achievements of the past few 
years. Much has been accomplished — a 
surprisingly lot; but much is being 
accomplished and u'll' be. Progress is 
so steady that we do not look back on 
the conditions of things a few years 
ago, but a few months ago. 

We continue to plan and advance. 
Music today is a secondary adjutant to 
the dramatic action of the scteen. It is 
becoming increasingly important and 
the fusion of music and action gets 
stronger. It is not too far-fetched to 
look forward to a day in a not distant 
future when the music becomes a thing 
of prime importance; when, even, the 
symphonic masterpieces of past and 
present are distributed as the movie of 
today; when every Down which has a 
movie house can see and hear great 
orchestras performing great music, and 
operas done in their entirety. 

The science of acoustics and repro- 
duction, and the genits of the world's 
great musicians will combine to pro- 
duce results hitherto undreamed of. 


Page 5 



To most of us, "Music of the 
Spheres" means the study of the tone 
and pitch ratios of the planets, from the 
sun to the Zodiac, and of the stars. 
This IS a good technical start; hut when 
looked into more deeply the doctrine 
of the Music of the Spheres indicates, 
for the human musician, a noble place 
in the universal scheme. 

Esotericisis regard every atom in the 
universe as a vibrating sphere of slowly 
unfolding, or evolving, consciousness; 
Space in Motion. Hence, the atoms 
bonded together to identify a material 
object or a perceptible force are vibrat- 
ing in relative harmony. Flowers, 
grasses and trees "sing" as they grow. 
The minerals, a kingdom in a deep 
lethargy on this plane, also have their 
long-wave "breathing" tone. The atoms 
in beasts and birds can express their 
collective symphony through vocal 
chords, while the atomic chorus that 
makes a body-vehicle for a man may 
have its voice directed by thought, 
feeling, desire and will, toward en- 
vironmental organization and control. 

If we can accept the elements, Earth, 
Air, Water, Fire and Ether, as condi- 
tions maintained by the harmonious 
activity of atomic entities, we have 
five more choirs of "cosmic musicians". 
Still more subtle is the music of the 
"kingdom" of thought-substance which 
man organizes into formative images. 

Taking only these perceptible condi- 
tions and processes, we find ever- 
performing grand opera, symphony, 
oratorio and dance Music of the 
Spheres. If we agree that eternal Space 
is at all times a great fullness, then our 
study IS hmited only by our own 
ability to wonder, to imagine and to 
expand. Old myths, legends and fairy- 
tales of heroes who have acquired the 
gift of "element-language", and have 
talked with stones, plants and birds as 
well as with the sylphs, nymphs and 
gnomes of the air, water and earth, 
are based on forgotten depths of the 
Music of the Spheres. 

Regarding this "element-language", 
here is a pregnant message for the 
human musician. H. P. Blavatsky, in 
her profound book, "Secret Doctrine", 
quotes from an ancient treatise; "It is 
composed of sounds, not words; of 
ounds, figures and numbers. He who 
nows how to blend the three, will 

By R.M.MacAlpin 

(Los Angeles Federal Music Project) 

call forth the response of the super- 
intending Power . . . sound being the 
most potent and effectual magic agent, 
and the first of the keys which open the 
door of communication between Mor- 
tals and Immortals". All these observa- 
tions indicate the study of the "inter- 
mingling hierarchies" that are the 
fullness of Space — but that is for the 
philosopher rather than for the musi- 

Carrying our theme into the human 
kingdom, we see, in a symphonic group, 
every member as a sphere of individual- 
ized thought, feeling, desire and will, 
whose inherent nature causes him to 
be a musician — a transformer of sound 
from the subjective to the objective 
rates of vibration. 

Three major influences draw these 
human spheres into the cosmic condi- 
tion called a chorus or an orchestra. 
The most subjective of these is the call 
and need of humanity. Whether music 
be accepted as entertainment for the 
ear or as rhythm for the feet, matters 
not a great deal; either method is but 
an approach to the inner man who 
craves an occasional bath in, and as, 
the Music of the Spheres; the universal 
language wherein differences are har- 
monized into a rounded-out sense of 

The designing intelligence is the 
composer of music, whom we may call 

the "point of departure" from the 
subjective to the objective planes. His 
work deserves a special monograph on 
the subtle conditions and processes of 
the kingdom of thought-substance. The 
third, or operative influence, is the 
conductor of the group; he being the 
synthesis of all the intelligent "spheres" 
that vibrate according to his interpret- 
ation of the composer's design and of 
humanity's appreciation. Chief among 
the symphonic "body-building" in- 
fluences are the music-teacher and the 
instrument maker. 

Thus a chorus or an orchestra is seen 
to be a link between human conscious- 
ness and some of the most profoundly 
interesting mysteries of universal Being 
and Becoming. The composer whose 
musicianship is supported by some 
philosophic depth will probably trans- 
cribe basic themes from the Music of 
the Spheres, producing human music 
that outlives generations. The conduc- 
tor who is himself a sphere of radiant 
thought-induction into which his per- 
forming spheres can gather in comfort 
and give of their best, is a great bene- 
factor, whether or not humanity 
realizes it. He and his group become as 
a musical solar system — a "home" to 
the finer intuitive perceptions of the 
human heart. 

Some recent experiments showed 
that an animal-trainer's voice, trans- 
mitted over a microphone to his beasts, 
exercised no command ; but his personal 
appearance brought the beasts under 
his sphere of influence. Does not this 
support the idea that humans are 
spheres of radiant energy? Who knows 
what the symphony of whirling atoms 
in the spirit, mind and body of a man 
may convey to the beast-consciousness? 
What composer, listening for inspira- 
tion from his Muse, has heard the 
rhythm, melody and harmony produced 
by our humanity, in its eternal process 
of "becoming"? 

Perhaps some gifted composer will 
see possibilities in these paragraphs, 
and will strike out into more direct 
transcription of the Music of the 
Spheres than we have had in modern 
times. Some wealthy patron of the fine 
arts should offer a substantial prize for 
the best symphonic interpretation of 
"Space, beingand becominga Universe." 



Redfern Mason Boosts 


Music Critic 

(Writing in the Boston Transcript) 

We mortals sometimes "build better 
than we know" and WPA has done 
so in letting men and women make mu- 
sic and, by so doing, helped them to 
eke out their liveHhood. Last night, 
at the Majestic Theatre, they per- 
formed the Ninth Symphony and it 
was a sociological as well as an aesthetic 
experience to be present. 

There were probably about three 
score players in the orchestra and a 
chorus of about seventy, a small con- 
tingent with which to give a world 
masterpiece, but a contingent in which 
many were palpably good musicians, 
and all were enthusiasts. 

Alexander Thiede waved his baton 
and the opening notes of the attention- 
compelling Allegro were heard. Mr. 
Thiede has a nervous but clean cut 
beat and he holds his forces with an 
assured grip. He quickly overcame 
some feeling of hesitancy at the outset; 
the instrumentalists gained confidence 
and soon they were playing for the 
sheer joy of creation. That the score 
was an ordeal for some, one can hardly 
doubt; but soon the gladness of parti- 
cipating in so glorious a work tri- 
umphed over all timorousness, and the 
great opening movement unfolded sat- 

In the Scherio the director literally 
startled his cohorts into energy. That 
barbed octave figure sounded like a 
challenge and the great episode which 
seems the merry making of giants rum- 
bled joyously. For the slow movement 
only the strings of the Boston Sym- 
phony at the best would be adequate. 
But our WPA players got through with 
their task creditably. 

Then, in the finale, came the turn of 
the chorus and admirably they respond- 
ed to the demands made upon them. 
The singers of our great choral socie- 
ties have had more experience, of 
course; but there was a wistful beauty 
about this WPA cohort that was some- 
times infinitely touching. The very 
constitution of the chorus 
helped to that end. There were a halt 
do:en racial groups, Jew and Gentile, 
Catholic and Protestant, negro and 
white, Nordic and Latin. But the mu- 
sic in the exuberance of its joy; its cry 
of the heart for that divine thing which 
v.'e call liberty, fused all these disparate 
elementa into one united 




(Siiii Francisco Federal Music Project) 

Every now and then we hear a critic 
solemnly say to the young composer, 
"The time has come for an American 
music. Why insist on imitating the 
German classical school or the latest 
clique of French impressionists? Why 
compose songs to the poetry of 
Baudelaire or Omar Khayyam — deca- 
dents Persian or Parisian? Why not 
turn to American sources for material, 
to the rhapsodic affirmations of Whit- 
man or the dramatic negations of 
Jeffers? Why write symphonic poems 
on the Pyramids when the Boulder 
Dam IS waiting for its poet?" 

How shall the young native composer 
defend himselt? 

Imitation is deadly, we agree. But 
isn't the nationalist's attitude equally 
fatal? Art is not an affair of locality. It 
breaks down boundaries and limita- 
tions. The artist takes the whole 
world for his province. He limits him- 
self to the particular only that he may 
express the universal. 

Our critic says, "We're looking 
forward to the appearance of a native 
composer who will stroll across th 
continent, from the Appalachians to 
the Sierras, with the air of a conqueror. 
An American Sibelius whose eyes will 
not be strangers to the imagery of the 
Southwest and the North, the vast 
prairies and bleak plateaus, the can- 
One girl I noted. She did not watch 
the conductor as the others did; but 
het head and her delicate hands told 
th;.t she was keeping a musician's grip 
on the tempo. Looking at her face, it 
came over me that she was blind. But 
in her expression there was an exalta- 
tion that made it possible to believe 
she was hearing in the music a grandeur 
nobler than sight can contemplate. 

It was no mere professional job that 
these people were doing. They were 
making music to the glory of God and 
their own interior happiness, and men- 
tally I thanked Mr. A. Buckingham 
Simpson, who had taught them to do 
their work so well. 

One thought more than any other 
distilled from the performance. The 
United States Government, for the time in its history, is helping musi- 
cians, great and small, as, in times past, 
it has only helped farmers and indus- 
trialists. The work of the WPA must 
not stop. It is necessary for the musi- 
cal development of these United States. 

yons, deserts, and legendary mountain- 
ranges in our landscape; one whose 
blood will stir to the tales of Vallev 
Forge and the Santa Fe trail, the build- 
ing of dams and bridges, the drone of 
the trans-pacific planes overhead, the 
rising skyscraper Babels that stoim the 
high heavens; one whose neart is not 
unaware of the titanic underground 
forces raging for expression in our 
society today; one who has solved 
heroic enigmas in nature and humanity 
and won thereby the right to speak." 

But where shall the native composer 
turn for the traditions of expression in 
his art? What great school has music 
but the European, the Western Euro- 
pean? It alone, over a period of four or 
five centuries, has evolved and de- 
veloped Its most complex forms. 

Art IS built on tradition, a founda- 
tion of accumulated experiences. The 
master practitioners of the past have 
taken the best in their predecessors and, 
according to their temperaments, con- 
tinued to shape the edifice 

Bach, with generations of musical 
tradition behind him, was untiring in 
his efforts to gain knowledge of the 
older music and the works ot his con- 
temporaries. Beethoven and Brahms, 

Who will doubt that today's mas- 
ters, Strauss, Sibelius, or Stravinsky, 
have a profound acquaintance with the 
techniques of Jhe past, the Western 
European school? To what other high 
tradition can the American composer 
turn? Has he more affinities with the 
music of the Negro or the Navajo? 

And in the choice of theme, why 
should the composer, dealing with the 
most transcendent and volatile of 
mediums, limit himself to a local 
habitation and a name? 

A strong and original mind infuses 
with vitality whatever theme may 
attract it. Dante walked with Virgil 
through his Inferno . . . Shakespeare 
peopled the sea-coast of Bohemia . . . 
and Faust, the old scholar of Wurtem- 
berg, partook of witches' sabbaths and 
the love of Trojan Helen, beyond time 
and space. To repeat, the American 
composer, grounded in the nch tradi- 
tions of his art, has the world tor his 
province. He limits himself as he 
chooses There's no such thing as a 
patriotic art or science, Goethe pointed 
out a hundred years ago. 



Music For The 
Uiiderprivi leged 


(State Director, West Virginia 

Federal Music Project) 

One of the greatest services per- 
formed by the Federal Music Projects, 
especially in the smaller localities, is the 
bringing of living music to those people 
who would not otherwise have any 
contact with living music. The three 
Projects operating under my super- 
vision serve a clientele, if I may so term 
it, that would have only the radio to 
bring them any type of music at all. 
Their tastes do not, as a rule, run to- 
ward concert music and so, if they 
should happen to tune in a concert or 
symphonic group on the air, they 
usually shun it and turn to "hillbilly" 
or jazz programs exclusively. 

With our units, and the type of 
programs we offer these people when 
we go out to play, their interest is first 
aroused by a snappy march or two. 
Once that interest is awakened, it is 
not hard to hold their attention to the 
next few offerings of the orchestra. 
These may be musical comedy selec- 
tions; catchy novelettes, popular songs 
arranged for the particular combination 
playing them, or anything that will 
keep the audience's attention. Each 
conductor can, and does, give a brief 
"appreciation talk" prior to the playing 
of a number, and it is surprising how 
well these talks are received. The 
audience is thus enabled to understand 
something of what the music is about, 
and is exposed, by degrees, to better 
and better music. People who would 
have scorned anything more serious 
than "Comin' Round the Mountain" 
now listen to and like Herbert, Friml, 
and even Haydn, Schubert and Men- 

They have come to look upon the 
members of the orchestra as personal 
friends, and eagerly await the next 
scheduled visit of the musicians to 
their particular locality. 

Two of the units broadcast regularly, 
and have a large circle of listeners who 
tune in regularly on the programs, and 
comment in a manner indicating a close 
appreciation of the works played. 

To people living in communities 
where good music is a matter of course, 
this may seem childish, but I assure you 
this is not the case. To really appreciate 
the growth of interest in the Federal 
Music Program in West Virginia, one 
would have to be here and have seen 
the indifference and often hostility that 
characterized the public's reaction when 
the Projects were begun. At one of the 


A capacity audience was thrilled on 
the night of May 24th, when Rudolph 
Ganz, world famed pianist, conductor 
and pedagogue, conducted the Federal 
Symphony Orchestra in concert at the 
Alcazar Theatre, San Francisco. Criti- 
cal praise from various cities throughout 
the world where he has appeared makes 
it almost superflous to add new adjec- 
tives about Mr. Ganz's performance. 
Members of the orchestra, the audience, 
and the San Francisco morning papers 
all agreed that the orchestra was at its 
best under Ganz's hand, and that the 
program was an overwhelming success 

The opening number was the Bach 
"Andante in C Major" from the Second 
Violm Sonata, arranged for orchestra 
by Frederick Stock. Following this, 
Frances McCormick, talented pianist of 
Southern California, played with ex- 
cellent taste and musicianship Schu- 
man's "Concerto for Piano in A 

Added interest was given the pro- 

gram by the inclusion of two new 
works. The first, a "Concerto Grosso" 
was by Robert Whitney of Chicago. 
Despite its very classical title the com- 
position is a modern one, yet without 
the attributes so often designated to 
ultra-modern music. It was well per- 
formed and evoked the interest and 
approbation of the audience. 

The other modern work, a 
hearing of which was long anticipated 
by San Francisco auditors, was Paul 
Hindemith's"A Hunter from Kurpulz". 
This, too, was played well and met 
with enthusiastic applause. 

The program also included 
Tschaikowsky's "Romeo and Juliet" 
and Wagner's Overture to "Rienzi". 

This concert was one of the regular 
Monday night series at the Alcazar 
Theatre. San Franciscans, with the 
regular concert season over, are dis- 
covering in growing numbers that 
good music is still to be found, and the 
Alcazar concerts are filling a vital spot 
in the city's musical lite. 

community centers, where one of the 
units played, the police were forced to 
arrest some young men, fully grown, 
who were creating a disturbance during 
the concert. They were absolutely sin- 
cere when they resented the orchestra's 
music; they were also sincere when, 
before that center closed for the sum- 
mer, they were among our "regulars" 
in attendance and applauded our pro- 
grams vociferously. They were edu- 
cated to a liking of better music. 

At hospitals, children's homes, insti- 
tutions for the aged and blind, etc., the 
orchestras have brought much joy and 
entertainment to the inmates. The 
programs are always followed with 
rapt attention and the listeners never 
fail to tell the conductors and side men 
how much the programs please them. 
They frequently request numbers that 
show them to be anxious to hear good 

Without the work of the Federal 
Music Project, these people would 
never hear a real live orchestra of ca- 
pable players. The radio would be 
their only contact, and could in no way 
compensate for the living presence of 
the musicians. One of the conductors 
told me recently that at a certain 
institution, where his group plays each 
week, he has to shake hands so much he 
IS thinking of running for sheriff. 

And so, the WPA Federal Music 
Project has filled a need that has, in 

West Virginia at least, been a crying 
one. The abolition of theatre music 
by mechanical devices removed the 
only contact with living music the 
great majority of people could enjoy. 
Our units have gone out to these 
people, have played good music for 
them, and have instilled a real apprecia- 
tion of It that trashy offerings will never 
displace. The Federal program has 
helped the musician to rehabilitate 
himself, it is true, but it has done some- 
thing more; it has brought good music 
and the love of good music, to the 
masses. That which they have known 
and enjoyed, they will not soon, nor 
willingly, relinquish. 

The Sacramento and Stockton, Cali- 
fornia Federal Music Projects are 
starting a series of joint admission 
concerts to be held alternately in 
Sacramento and Stockton. The first 
concert was held in Sacramento on 
June 3rd, with a return concert in 
Stockton a week following. 

The Sacramento Project also an- 
nounces plans for a series of Chamber 
Music concerts to be held during the 
latter part of the month. Arrange- 
ments are being completed for a series 
of Children's Evening Hour Concerts 
to be broadcast over the local Califor- 
nia Broadcasting System station, KFBK. 



Page 9 

What Is Good Music? 

By Frederick W. Goodrich 
(State Director, Oregon Federal Music Project) 

When an attempt is made to answer 
this question, many thoughts arise in 
the minds of the individual who wishes 
to have a clear picture of the subject. 
The adjective "good" is often loosely 
used and, therefore, is so frequently 
misunderstood. To many a person the 
only good music is that which appeals 
to his own individual taste. Thus, an 
individual who is a devotee of symph- 
onic literature cannot see any good in 
many other works, such as the lighter 
overtures of many operas, because the 
composer thereof may not have been a 
Beethoven or a Brahms. Many cannot 
realize that one who might enjoy the 
facile melodies and the brilliant rhythm 
of a Rossini Overture, but has not been 
fortunate enough to gain the musical 
knowledge sufficient to appreciate the 
intricate construction of a symphony 
by a great master, might have the right 
to be considered as a lover of good 
music just as much as the individual 
who has been able by means of en' 
vironment and fuller opportunity to 
gain such technical knowledge. The 
writer has known many organists who 
have tried to force the great organ 
fugues of Johann Sebastian Bach upon 
audiences who were lovers of good 
music, but had not received the techni- 
cal knowledge sufficient to advance 
them beyond the stage of a Lemare 
Andantino or a sugary melody of a 
French or Italian composer for the 

The problem of what might be 
considered good music was presented 
to the writer some three or four years 
ago when called upon to suggest some 
works that might be considered good 
enough to be placed on the Sunday 
afternoon programs of a certain Symph- 
ony Orchestra suffering at that time 
from seriously depleted audiences who 
were not ready to assimilate either 
entire symphonies or the greater Over- 
tures or Symphonic Poems. The sug- 
gestion was made to include such 
works as the lighter Overtures, various 
Suites such as "The Cid" of Massenet, 
waltzes by Johann Strauss or Gungl, or 
the "French Military March" of 
Saint-Saens. The reply was made with 
indignation that the Board of Directors 
would never consent to such programs. 

However, subsequent events forced 
many of these numbers on the pro- 
grams and the audiences responded 
with enthusiasm. These instances seem 
to show that much good music suffers 
from the actions of those who should 
be its chief upholders. 

Another cause of the suffering of 
good music is its placement in wrong 
environments. Much music that has 
been composed for Grand or Lyric 
Operas frequently finds its way into 
various religious services with sacred 
words substituted for the original texts 
for which the music was composed. 
Such instances are the flagrant abuses 
which allow the meditation from 
"Thais" or the Intermezzo from "Ca- 
valleria Rusticana" to be dragged into 
some of the most solemn functions of 
the Roman Catholic Church with the 
sacred words of the "Ave Maria" 
substituted for the original operatic 
text. There is also much glorious 
religious music which suffers from being 
transplanted into other environments 
from those for which it was composed. 
Such instances may be found in much 
of the splendid A Cappella music of the 
Greek and Russian Orthodox Churches 
written for performance in buildings of 
glorious architecture, to be accomp- 
anied with colorful and magnificent 
ceremonies, and set to the texts of 
languages dating back to remote anti- 

quity. Naturally these works suffer 
cruelly when they are performed in 
churches with forms of worship en- 
tirely alien to those for which the 
composers conceived them. This is also 
true of much lovely polyphonic music 
written in the 15th and i6th centuries 
for the services of the Roman Catholic 
Church. Take for instance the sublime 
"Miserere" of AUegri, long jealously 
guarded for the stately services of the 
Sistine Chapel to be sung amid the 
glories of the paintings and architecture 
of that famous building. Yet a few 
days ago the writer read an announce- 
ment of a group of business men who 
intend to present this wonderful speci- 
men of musical art in the prosaic en- 
vironment of a modern concert hall in 
the swallow-tail uniform of the present 
day. Of course it must lose much of 
its effect, dragged away from the 
environment for which it was composed 
and from which its composer received 
his inspiration. 

Many persons claim that good music 
will remain good in spite of its environ- 
ment. This may be true to a certain 
point. An instance is suggested in the 
case of the beautiful film, "Maytime", 
wherein the music of Tschaikovsky's 
Fifth Symphony is used as the vehicle 
of a Russian Opera with text set to 
its music. The defense for this pro- 
cedure would seem to be that the 
beauty of the music might impress the 
listener who first becomes acquainted 
with it by means of the picture, and 
then being impressed might exploit it 
still further until its full beauty be- 
came known in the glories of its original 

There are many thoughts that arise 
from the discussion of good music, its 
uses and abuses, but the final thought is 
predominant and that is any art, 
whether it be that of the musician, the 
actor, the painter, the writer or the 
architect, can only last if it is a true 
expression of the art professed by the 
individual producing it. Whatever may 
be its vicissitudes or its methods of 
presentation or the environment of 
such presentation, if it is true it will 
inevitably survive. There was never a 
better or a truer proverb than that of 
the old Latin writer who said, "Great 
is Truth and it will prevail". 

Page 10 



San Fi'aiieiseaii Coiupletes 20 Years Research 

By C. L. 

Giulio SiU'a, acting supervisor of the 
San Francisco Federal Music Project, 
and an authority on ancient music, 
has recently completed his book on the 
Gregorian Chant, the result of nearly 
two decades' critical research and 
study of original manuscripts. He has 
translated into modern notation the 
Antiphonanes (liturgical books) Co- 
dices 33Q;j59, from the collection at 
the Abbey of St. Gall in Switzerland, 
considered the most ancient and com- 
plete documents of musical antiquity. 

Earlier advance notice of this work 
appeared in the Argonaut for November 
1934. We quote from that issue's 
review : 

"Mr. Silva's researches which are 
always artistic as well as scholastic, 
i.e., practical as well as theoretical, led 
him farther and farther back into 
Gregorian music until he discovered 
that the real culmination of monodic 
Christian music lay in the 9th, loth, 
and nth centuries. Arithmetic note 
values did not exist then, nor were 
there ever any symbols 
for exact pitch. Instead, only 
the general curve of a melody 
which had, of course, no har- 
mony was indicated by 7ieii- 
mes, which look not unlike 
our shorthand. This melodic 
curve followed closely the 
prosody of Latin verse. Few 
manuscripts of this period are 
extant. The most important ot 
these, known as the St. Gail 
Antiphonal, Mr. Silva has 
translated into modern nota- 
tion. The results of this artis- 
tic and scholarly work appear 
to render the supposedly au- 
tlientic versions of Solesmes 
rather artificial and arbitrary, 
or at least reveal them to be of 
a decadent period 'there have 
been decadent periods before 
ours), and enable the mod- 
ern musician to study and to 
perform this eloquent music 
as never before. 
Gregorian chant melodies dif- 

fer in many respects from ordinary 
folk-songs and hymn-tunes, as well as 
from modern art songs. They offer us 
an art of a special kind, an art independ- 
ently endowed with its own mode 
of expression. Of course, the general 
laws of music hold good in Gregorian 
as in all other music, though their ap- 
plication results in different forms and 
effects. A thorough knowledge of Gre- 
gorian chant IS a help to a thorough 
knowledge of music, and the old 
masters rightly looked on the study 
of plain-song simply as a part of the 
study of music. 

To define it to those unfamiliar with 
this form, we might say that by Gre- 
gorian is meant the solo and unison 
choral chants of the Catholic Church. 
Their melodies move in one of the 
eight church modes, as a rule, without 
time, but with definite time-values, 
and with distinct divisions. 

Though written in the 9th century, 
this music is much older than the Car- 
olingian period when it was brought 

91h Century 
AliTipl>i)ii.iry ot St,6rfqor)f 
(AH,, ol5l,6.>ll) 

l\l,Vuti-ni''n "'"' '"if l'">0' '"" '■•'^ 

to the Abbey of St. Gall from Rome. 

The old liturgical chants of the 
Catholic Church, services fixed for the 
whole ecclesiastical year, were com- 
posed between the fourth and seventh 
centuries. They were collected defini- 
tively toward the end of the sixth by 
Pope Gregory the Great and his Scho- 
la Cantorum. The manuscripts of St. 
Gall are exact versions of the Roman 
Antiphonary ot Gregory's time, the 
period being still strongly imbued with 
the classic tradition of the Augustan 

Since the revival of research on the 
Chant, beginning in the middle of the 
nineteenth century, many scholars have 
tried to interpret the ancient neumes, 
the indeterminate note-symbols used 
in recording the music, but the subject 
was left largely to conjecture and con- 
troversial discussion. No authoritative 
musician had made a practical study 

of It. 

Giulio Silva m his book, "The 
Original Ancient Gregorian Chant", 
gives to the reader an his- 
toric outline of the music of 
Antiquity and the early Mid- 
dle Ages, explains the tonal 
modes and rhythmic character- 
istics of this music, and gives a 
structural analysis of the Gre- 
gorian Mass. Showing the 
differences between the early 
Gregorian style and the late 
Middle Ages, he gives ex- 
amples of the square notation 
used in the plain-chant, as in 
the thirteenth century Gradu- 
ale of the Dominican order. 

The illustration on this page 
is Mr. Silva's transcription 
into modern notation of a 9th 
century Antiphonary. 

The scarcity of detailed 
knowledge about ancient mu- 
sic makes Mr. Silva's research 
and translations of particular 
value to the student of music 
history. The necessity of fur- 
ther information has long 
been felt. 


Page 11 



"The Desert Song", Sigmund Rom- 
berg's romantic operetta, which closed 
on May 15th after a successful two 
weeks" run, had audiences representing 
all walks of life. WPA workers rubbed 
elbows with mayors of large cities, 
army and navy officials sat side by side 
with business men and discussed the 
performance in the lobby between 
acts, and actors and theatre men from 
other Boston shows were in frequent 

With the completion of "The Desert 
Song", the State Chorus and the Fed- 
eral Commonwealth Symphony will 
immediately plunge into rehearsals of 
several of the large choral works which 
they have previously performed, "The 
Creation", "The Beatitudes", and 
"Hora Novissima" are among the 
oratorios which will be repeated. 

The final meeting of the Composers' 
Forum-Laboratory on May 20th was a 
satisfactory climax to a very successful 
season. The work of seventeen com- 
posers, who had been featured on the 
programs throughout the fall and winter 
season, were performed, and fifteen 
other composers were the guests of the 
evening. A special tribute was paid to 
the late Arthur Foote. who opened the 
Composers" Forum series last October. 


The combined Evansville and Clin- 
ton concert bands featured in a concert 
in the Terre Haute State Teachers 
College on May 26th the first perfor- 
mance of Beethoven's Fifth Symphony, 
first movement, as arranged for band 
by Nicholas Falcone, formerly head of 
the band department of the University 
of Michigan. The same program fea- 
tured Paul Fidlar as piano soloist 
playing Liszt's "Hungarian Fantasie" 
with William Pelz directing. 

The Indianapolis Teachers" unit 
holds regular Saturday morning in- 
service training forums to study the 
technique of rhythm band, arranging, 
directing, and organization. Toy sym- 
phony orchestras are being organized at 
a large number of city parks and pby- 
grounds, and a rhythm band festival is 
being planned for the late summer. 

Xew York City 

National Music Week in New York 
City was observed at the Federal 
Theatre of Music by the appearance 
of the Federal Symphony Orchestra, a 
chamber music concert, two opera pro- 
ductions, a chamber orchestra concert, 
and evenings devoted to the Madrigal 
Singers and Composers' Forum- Labor- 

Music Week was opened with the 
Federal Symphony Orchestra with 
Chalmers Clifton and Philip James 
conducting and with Mildred Wald- 
man as soloist. 

The following Monday the chamber 
music group was heard in compositions 
by Quincy Porter, Werner Josten, 
Robert McBride, Ross Lee Finney and 
Marion Bauer. 

The operas "La Serva Padrona" by 
Pergolesi and "The Romance of Robot" 
by Frederic Hart were presented on a 
double bill on May 4th. 

The Composers' Forum-Laboratory 
occupied the Theatre of Music on 
Wednesday night, the works of Hunter 
Johnson being presented and dis- 
cussed. Lehman Engel conducted Mr. 
Johnson's works, which were pre- 
sented by the Greenwich concert or- 

On Thursday night. May 6th, 
Lehman Engel conducted the Madrigal 
Singers in a program of early American 
and contemporary American music. 

The chamber orchestra concert of 
Friday night. May 7th, with Jacques 
Gordon conducting, included Louise 
Taylor, soprano, and the works of Aa- 
ron Copland, Virgil Thomson, David 
Diamond, Charles LoefFler, Louis 
Gruenberg, and Bernard Wagenaar. 

The final night of Music Week was 
devoted to a repetition of the two 
operas given on Tuesday night. 

Regarding the double bill of operas, 
W. J. Henderson wrote in the New 
York Sun, "This Federal Opera enter- 
prise was a genuinely good offering, 
professional in manner, assured in its 
aims and achieving results which re- 
flected credit on every one concerned. 
The briUiant audience received it with 
prolonged and hearty applause." 


The Federal Illinois Symphony Or- 
chestra closed a first year of Sunday 
concerts on May 20th. 

Chicago critics have been unani- 
mous in their praise and encouragement 
of this eighty-piece orchestra and of the 
conducting of Izler Solomon, until re- 
cently the Federal Music Project's 
Chicago Supervisor and that of Albert 
Goldberg, Illinois State Director, who 
have directed most of the concerts. 
Guest conductors have included Ni- 
kolai SokolofF, the Federal Music 
Project National Director; Rudolph 
Ganz, Frank Laird Waller, Daniel 
Saidenberg, Oscar Anderson, Ernst 
Bacon, Richard Czerwonky, Chalmers 
Clifton and Robert Sanders. 

The concerts "caught on", and their 
popular appeal is shown in the fact 
that audiences were consistently good 
at the end of the season when even the 
most ardent music lovers are apt to 
succumb to the call of the out-of-doors. 

The repertoire of over one hundred 
seventy-five compositions performed in 
thirty-seven programs has included ten 
world premieres, two American pre- 
mieres and twenty-seven first per- 
formances in Chicago. 


The Tulsa Symphony Orchestra 
Association composed of the city of 
Tulsa Fine Arts Committee, appointed 
by Dr. T. A. Penney, Mayor; the City 
Federation of Music Clubs, and a 
group of prominent citizens known as 
the Patrons' Committee has been 
formed for the purpose of raising funds 
to support a permanent symphony 
orchestra. In developing local responsi- 
bihty for the Tulsa Federal Symphony 
Orchestra, it is hoped to evolve a plan 
which may be used elsewhere for the 
development of similar organizations. 

Figures recently released indicated 
that the Ardmore orchestra has, since 
its organization in March of last year, 
given one hundred seventy-seven con- 
certs and dances to nearly seventy 
thousand persons. 

Other units in Oklahoma include a 
statewide Music Project to employ 
music teachers, the Okmulgee Federal 
concert and dance band, the Shawnee 
Federal string ensemble and the Tulsa 
negro dance orchestra. 


Page 12 



Xew York State 

The Nassau-Suffolk Little Symphony 
and Adelphi College, Garden City, 
Long Island, commemorated the birth 
of William Shakespeare with a brilliant 
concert on the night of April 23. A 
feature of the occasion was the pre- 
sence of Dr. Daniel Gregory Mason 
whose "Suite after English Folk Songs" 
was included. Among the other num- 
bers played were the "Scherso" from 
"Midsummer Night's Dream" and 
"Sonata V" by Purcell-Vrionides, the 
latter performance being the first time 
in America. 

The Yonkers Symphony Orchestra 
presented concerts before eighty-five 
hundred school students assembled in 
various auditoriums during April This 
number represented a total of ten 
school concerts. In addition to the 
programs played, a detailed demonstra- 
tion of the orchestral instruments was 
made in each case by Mr. Jaifrey 
Harris, the director. 

The Albany Symphony Orchestra 


performed six engagements and four 
radio broadcasts during the month of 
April. The orchestra broadcasts each 
Friday evening at eight o'clock over 
station WABY. These broadcasts have 
brought many favorable comments and 
brought the orchestra to many persons 
who otherwise could not have heard it. 

One of the outstanding Music Week 
concerts, presented on May 4 in the 
Albany Academy for Girls, featured 
Guy Maier as master of ceremonies and 

The third concert of the new spring 
.series given by the Syracuse Project 
presented the Symphony Orchestra 
with George McNabb, pianist, and 
John Ingrem, conductor of the Albany 
Federal Orchestra, as guest soloist and 
guest conductor respectively. Regard- 
ing this performance, the local music 
critic wrote : "It was a performance that 
reflected credit upon conductor and 

The fact that Rochester appreciates 
(Please turn to page 14) 


National Music Week opened in 
Kansas City with a combined program 
presented by the concert orchestra and 
music teaching classes at the Assump- 
tion School. The concert orchestra gave 
subsequent programs at the children's 
hospital, Paseo High School, and the 
Municipal Auditorium. 

Several concerts were given by the 
colored orchestra units of Kansas City 
and St. Louis. Foremost among their 
Music Week performances was the 
combined program presented at the 
Lincoln High School on May 5 th by the 
Kansas City colored orchestra and two 
chorus groups, the Dolly Brown Civic 
chorus of forty mixed voices and two 
hundred women singers on the Federal 
Sewing Project. 

Music Week presentations by the 
concert orchestra of Joplin included 
programs at Pierce City, Carthage, 
Webb City and Joplin. 

The St. Louis concert orchestra gave 
concerts at five high schools, the 
Ranken Vocational School, the Jackson 
school pageant, the St. Louis Hills 
Music Club, and at the Jewel Box in 
Forest Park. 

The outstanding concert of Music 
Week was that held at the Municipal 
Auditorium in Kansas City, in which 
Mr. Savino Rendina, conductor-pianist, 
was featured as soloist. 

Bach's Mass in B Minor was 
presented by the Reading Choral 
Society, one of the oldest traditional 
singing groups in Pennsylvania, in 
cooperation with the WPA Civic 
Symphony Orchestra of Philadelphia 
on the afternoon of May 9 in the 
Irvine Auditorium, at the University 
ot Pennsylvania. N. Lindsay Norden, 
director of the Choral Society, was at 
the conductor's desk. 

The Irvine Auditorium organ, the 
largest in the world when it was 
presented to the University by the 
late Cyrus H. K. Curtis, was used 
during the singing of the mass. A 
preliminary program consisted of Bach 















Tipica Orchestra, El Pa; 

The Omaha 
and the Omah 
bined in broa 
ing attention t 
and Its many 
ments and gen 
week the Om 
merce worked 
project in the 
to the first we 

During Ap 
Orchestra besi 
tion concerts 
radio programs 
grams bringin] 
ninety-six for 
tional engagem 
thou.sand six 

The Federa: 
during a thii 
twenty-two tl 
thirty-seven ir 
sembly and sc 
The Negro Da 
SIX engagemen 
sons. The mui 
more than dou 



Page 13 


I (mIi ral Music Project 


of Commerce 
rchestra com- 
rograms call- 
Music Week 
In announce- 
ation for this 
ber of Com- 
'ederal Music 
, period prior 

)ffiaha Civic 
sic Apprecia- 
lools and its 
dditional pro' 
. number to 
. These addi- 
heard by ten 
seventy -four 

iject in Omaha 
eriod served 
line hundred 
in school as- 
ity programs. 
?stras in fifty- 
ril played to 
ixty-five per- 
1 these groups 
age 14) 



In Denver, the largest unit in the 
state. The Denver Concert Band, with 
Fred Schmitt conducting, made its 
initial appearance over the air on 
Sunday, May i6, over the National 
Broadcasting Company'' Station KOA 
Arrangements have now been made 
for a series of Sunday evening programs, 
which will go on the air at nine 
o'clock p.m. Mountain Time, by this 
excellent organization. 

The band recently started a regular 
schedule of outdoor concerts to be 
given every Thursday and Friday 
nights in the Greek Theatre of the 
Denver Civic Center, the first one on 
Tuesday, May iS. 

Dr. Nikolai Sokoloff, National Direc- 
tor of the Federal Music Project 
visited the Denver units on April ig, 
and while only able to stop over a 
short while he expressed himself as 
being very well pleased at the results 
obtained. He announced his intention 
of returning again in the near future 
when he would be able to stay longer. 

The Denver Symphonietta, with 
Waldo Williamson as Conductor, pre- 
sented a group of four concerts during 
Music Week at the City Auditorium 
which proved to be a revelation to 
those who had rio t yet heard this unit. 
Several very talented young local 
artists assisted on these programs as 
guest soloists. The Symphonietta, con- 
sisting of thirty-three musicians, has 
presented a large number of programs 
to the Junior and Senior High Schools 
during the past winter and has been 
very well received on all occasions. 

Durin _ the winter the Band, which 
has a membership of fifty, gave a 
number of free concerts in the City 
Auditorium as well as making appear- 
ances in several of the schools. 

The concert orchestra units in 
Colorado Springs and Pueblo, under 
the direction of Edwin A. Dietrich and 
Robert Gross, respectively, have estab- 
lished enviable concert records, both 
being around the five hundred mark, 
and these units have proven to be in 
demand in both cities. 


Recent programs by several Federal 
orchestras have attracted favorable 
comment and drawn increasingly large 
audiences. While during the winter 
season these concerts were given in 
down-town auditoriums, they will be 
t -ansferred to city parks this month. In 
San Antonio the city government will 
place at the disposal of the Federal 
Music Project the Sunken Garden in 
Brackenridge Park for two concerts each 
month. In Dallas the Federal Little 
Symphony Orchestra has already in- 
augurated a series of park concerts. Two 
performances a week will be given in 
several city parks. 

In Fort Worth a program given in 
the Municipal Rose Garden during 
Music Week drew an audience of 
nearly ten thousand persons. This ideal 
outdoor setting will be used frequently 
during the summer months. 

The final formal concert of the Dallas 
Federal Orchestra on May 20 devoted 
half of the program to compositions by 


Texas composers. The first half of the 
concert presented the Don Giovanni 
Overture and the Symphony in G 
Minor of Mo:art. 

At a recent concert by the San 
Antonio Symphony unit, the audience 
was treated to a novel presentation of 
the Ferde Grofe arrangement of Ger- 
shwin's Rhapsody in Blue. An unusual 
stage lighting in dim blue, with a 
profile of the soloist at the grand piano 
flashed on the back wall of the stage in 
a deeper blue, was most effective. The 
success of this concert warranted a 
repeat of the Rhapsody in Blue number 
at which time a Rhapsody in Gold, 
featuring the Mexican Tipica orchestra 
and a Rhapsody in Brown, presenting 
the negro units, were given. 

The Federal Tipica orchestra of El 
Paso played in the down-town pla:a 
during Music Week. The Federal 
concert orchestra was also heard in the 
Project building at a church program 
and over the radio during the week. 
(Please turn to page 14) 

Page 14 



Xew York State Minnesota 

(t'ontimied from page 12) 
good band music is proven by the 
many inquiries received as to where the 
band is performing other than its 
regular performances. The band aver- 
ages three concerts a week in institu- 
tions, high schools and orphanages. 
Other active units on the Rochester 
Project are a concert orchestra and a 
male quartet. 

Bookings for the Niagara Falls 
Orchestra in May included several 
parochial school concerts and those 
given at the CCC camp on Grand 
Island. Concerts are also expected to be 
resumed at Fort Niagara in the near 

The highlight of the month of April 
for the Buffalo Federal Orchestra came 
on April 25 at the State Teachers 
College when Paul Hindemith, recog- 
nized as the greatest of the active 
German composers, gave freely of his 
talents in the performance of his con- 
certo for the viola and orchestra "Der 
Schwanendreher", in which he assumed 
the role as soloist. He then conducted 
his own "Mathis der Maler". The 
audience rose in a body to greet Mr. 
Hlindemith when he arrived on the 
p atform to play his concerto. 

In the middle of April, the Bufelo 
Federal Orchestra opened the Cen- 
tennial Celebrj^tion of Music in the 
Buffalo schools with a concert in the 
Elmwood Music Hall. Three selections 
from Handel's "Messiah", Brahm's 
"Academic Festival Overture", and 
"Bergamasco" by Frescobaldi-Autori 
were included in the concert. 

(Continued from page 12) 

for April as compared to March. 

The outstanding engagement of 
April in many ways was the concert 
program played by these musicians with 
the massed Negro choirs of the city on 
Sunday, April 25, at Pilgrim Baptist 
Church, before two thousand five 
hundred fifty persons.Lincoln attendance 
totals were eighteen thousand seven 
hundred seventeen, while outstate 
instructors and teachers served a total 
of four thousand nine hundred twelve 
individuals during the month. 

Early in April, two thousand music 
lovers attended a concert presented by 
the Twin Cities Orchestra, which was 
sponsored by the Mayor and the City 
Council of St. Paul. Dr. Daniel Saiden- 
berg of Chicago was guest conductor 
and Guy Maier, distinguished pianist 
and regional director of the Federal 
Music Project, was soloist. Mr. Maier 
played Moairt's concerto for piano and 
orchestra in E flat major. Dr. James 
Davies, music critic of the Minneapolis 
Tribune, was commentator on this 

On April 21, 22, and 23, the or- 
chestra played with the St. Paul Civic 
Opera Association in the St. Paul 
Auditorium presenting "The Secret 
of SuKinne" and "Pagliacci" on a double 
bill. A critic said: "Once again the 
company had the invaluable aid of the 
Twin Cities Civic Orchestra in the 
pit, this having been made possible 
by special negotiations with the Min- 
nesota Federal Music Project." 

On April 27, the Composers' Forum- 
Laboratory was held in the Macalester 
College Conservatory of Music at 
which time a program of compositions 
by Stanley R. Avery, organist and 
choirmaster of St. Mark's Church in 
Minneapohs, was presented. 

Minnesota has four dance orchestras, 
one each in St. Paul, Minneapohs, 
Duluth, and Virginia. These orchestras 
play in settlement houses, not only for 
dances, but augment their other social 
activities by playing for other enter- 
tainment. In the schools the dance 
orchestras have furnished entertain- 
ment for auditorium periods and dance 
music for evening school classes. 

The Jubilee Singers gave eleven 
programs of their negro spirituals dur- 
ing the month of April in churches and 


(C.ontinueil from page 13) 
Since the inception of the El Paso 
Project, more than five thousand music 
lessons to underprivileged children 
have been given and audiences have 
numbered more than thirty thousand. 
Eighty-one concerts have been pre- 
sented in schools, churches, at con- 
ventions, and over the air. 

IVei«' Hampshire 

A series of Tuesday concerts featur- 
ing the forty-piece Federal Concert 
Band and the thirty-piece Federal 
Symphony Orchestra was concluded 
recently at the Institute of Arts and 
Sciences Hall in Manchester. The first 
in this eries of concerts featured John 
Muehling, editor and publisher of New 
Hampshire's foremost newspaper, as 
guest conductor. The feature of the 
second program was the appearance of 
Harry C. Whittemore, State Director 
of the Federal Music Pro|ect, as piano 
soloist with the orchestra. The third 
concert, by the band, had Joseph 
Gladysz, director of the 172nd Field 
Artillery Band, as guest conductor, 
and Eleanor Steher, dramatic soprano of 
Boston as guest soloist. The final 
program of the series featured the 
Symphony Orchestra with the Temple 
Choir of Manchester as a added 
attraction. This fifty-voice choir has 
been developed under the direction of 
Mr. Whittemore. 

Many favorable comments were 
heard concerning the artistic standard 
of the programs and the splendid 
opportunity afforded the general public 
to enjoy, at a minimum cost, good 
music well performed. 


Music Week was well observed in 
Portland and various parts of Oregon. 
The symphonic band of the Portland 
Project contributed daily open-air con- 
certs m the center of the city, which 
were well attended. The orchestra did 
its share in presenting music for the 
week. On May 7th the concert by the 
orchestra featured compositions by 
Oregon composers and, as a special 
attraction, a young student, Edward 
Mayor, presented the D major violin 
concerto of Tschaikowsky. 

The orchestra has also been active in 
school work and presented late in May 
the Mozart concerto in E flat in one of 
the Portland schools. This concerto 
was the number selected for the grade 
school contest of the Oregon Music 
Teachers Association a few weeks ago, 
and the young student who will play 
the concerto attends the school where 
the concert will be presented. 



Page 15 



Federal footlights in Los Angeles 
wil! glitter during the season of 1937-58 
with the Bernard Shaw dramas, "Caesar 
and Cleopatra," "Heartbreak House," 
and "Too True to be Good". 

The broad program of cultural 
plays planned for next year will see 
both American and International works 
for Los Angeles. Eugene O'Neill will 
head the list of native playwrights 
being produced here, with three pro- 

Historical sources in American his- 
tory promise to reveal untold wealth of 
play material. Los Angeles will have a 
dramatization of Abraham Lincoln's 
wife in "Mary Lincoln", to open some- 
time this summer. "Rachel's Man ", 
the tragic romance of Andrew Jackson, 
is now in rehearsal. 

"Rachel's Man", is being done 
throughout the western region of 
Federal Theatre, in eight cities. 

"Johnny Johnson", anti-war play 
now current in Los Angeles, is the 
production of immediate artistic im- 
portance m the West. Direct from New 
York, It is following closely on the 
heels of the Eastern production, which 
brought the play within hailing dis- 
tance of the Pulitzer Prize. 

The negro "Macbeth" is now in 
rehearsal, for presentation in early 
summer. "Pinocchio" and "Treasure 
Island" Children's Theatre are also 
under way. The Stevenson pirate 
legend will be done at the Greek 
Theatre in Griffith Park. 

San Francisco's Federal Theatre will 
soon see the latest edition of the Living 
Newspaper, the novel production 
"Power". "Two Hundred Were 
Chosen", story of the Alaskan adven- 
ture, IS also tentatively slated for the 
Bay City. 

San Diego's unit contemplates "Men 
In White", "Another Language", and 
"Chalk Dust" Federal Theatre in the 
southern city is tremendously popular; 
patrons come back w.eek after week to 
see each show. 

The tent theatre in San Bernardino 
does a new show every week, with an 
occasional breathing-spell when a tour- 


Aeschylus' "Electra" is an important 
dramatic date for Denver Federal 
Theatre. This distinctly cultural ven- 
ture IS anticipated by Coloradoans who 
have enjoyed such dramatic fare as the 
annual Central City festival. 

Portland, Ore. 

"At Last Civilized" and "The 
Taming of the Shrew" are productions 
for Federal Theatre in Portland, Ore- 
gon. Much vaudeville activity is a 
feature of the Portland unit, where 
companies play in rural communities 
to audiences that have never seen 
flesh-and-blood actors. 

During Fleet Week, which is to be 
held during July, the combined units of 
the Federal Music Project will pro- 
vide music for the enlisted men, in a 
centrally located amusement center in 
Portland. The Federal Theatre will 
cooperate in Fleet Week presentations. 

ing show from Los Angeles plays an 
engagement. "A Slight Case of Mur- 
der", "One Sunday Afternoon", Gals- 
worthy's "Loyalties", "Waiting for 
Lefty", and "Hansel and Gretel ' are 
on the ambitious schedule for the 
inland city. 

Xe^v York 

The acting director of the New 
York State Federal Theatre Project, 
Charles Hopkins, has been made per- 
manent director for the state. 

The picturesque Theatre of the Four 
Seasons at Roslyn, Long Island, is to 
be the home of the State Project's 
productions and was opened on June 
jrd. The satirical comedy of Ernst 
Toller, "No More Peace", will inaugu- 
rate the new theatre and will be 
followed by George Bernard Shaw's 
'Tygmalion". These productions will 
be under the personal direction and 
supervision of Mr. Hopkins 

At Freeport members of the Project 
are soon to present Historical Marion- 
ettes under the supervision of Walter 
Brooks. The physical production is 
being sent intact from Buffalo and 
Freeport actors are rehearsing the roles. 
The marionettes will be presented in 
schools, institutions, hospitals and to 
underprivileged groups, as well as 
clubs and other civic organizations. 


"Stevedore" was a hit of the spring 
for Seattle's hustling Negro group. 
Paul Green's Pulitzer Prize-winner, "In 
Abraham's Bosom", also appealed to 
Puget Sound audiences. "Power", 
"The Chocolate Soldier", and "Robin 
Hood" are summer shows for this area. 

Des Moines 

Des Moines has just seen "It Can't 
Happen Here", a production not in- 
cluded in the nation-wide opening last 
October. "The Mad Hopes", "People's 
Choice", and "Brothers" are three 
more unusual items on the Iowa slate. 


Theatre-goers in Omaha will see 
both "A Touch of Brimstone" and 
"The Devil Passes". "Mr. Moonlight" 
and "Oliver Oliver" are other contri- 
butions to the novel middle-western 

Page 16 



Neii' Mexico 

An exhibit of sculpture by Patrocino 
Barela and plates from portfolios of 
Spanish-Colonial design have recently 
been sent to San Francisco for an ex- 
hibit at rhe Palace of Legion of Honor, 
which opened May 13. It is possible 
that the complete exhibit will be shown 
at the Universit)' of California at Los 
Angeles next month. 


The first large edition composed en- 
tirely of the work of "Index of Amer- 
ican Design" was shown by the Fed- 
eral Art Projea in the public library 
in San Francisco May 24 to June 30. 

One of the largest undertakings of 
the Art Project, the "Index of Amer- 
ican Design," is now operating in 
twenty-five states. Its purpose is to 
produce a series of portfolios in black 
and white, which will illustrate the rise 
and development of the decorative arts 
in America. 

Ten paintings from Los Angeles 
County were selected by Joseph Danysh, 
Regional Director of the Federal Art 
Project, for participation in the Inter- 
national Art Exposition, which opens 
in Paris this month. 

At this writing twelve important 
mural projects, in or near Los Angeles, 
are under way, with others being rap- 
idly arranged. There are also six 
mosaic projects in various srages of 
completion, with many others ordered. 

Five important sculptural works are 
in progress in playgrounds and high 
schools, and models for three monu- 
mental sculptural undertakings are 
praaically completed. 

With ceremonies attended by more 
than two thousand people, an impres- 
sive figure of an Aztec Indian carved 
from black diorite by Donal Hord of 
the Federal Art Projea was unveiled 
May 2 in the main quadrangle of San 
Diego State College. 

Mounted on a rough-hewn base of 
diorite from quarries near San Diego, 
the sculpture represenrs more than a 
year of infinitely patient work with 
hand tools by Hord and his assistant, 
Homer Dana. Harder than steel, 
diorite has been little used since the 
days of the ancient Egyptians. The 
block from which rhe Azrec was carved 

Louis Z.ack, Los Angeles Federal Art Project, Modeling Head of 
Arnold Schoenberg. 


Oklahoma's two Art Project units 
in Oklahoma City and Tulsa -have 
created many works in ah meu.a, ex- 
cept oil. 

An interesting activity has been 
developed in Garfield County Court 
House at Enid, where mural paintings, 
depicting Oklahoma history and pio- 
neer scenes of settlement days, are be- 
ing created by Ruth Monroe Augur. 

Xe^v Jersey 

The New Jersey Federal Art Project 
boasts several prominent artists. Among 
these are Fabia Zaccone, whose works 
have been exhibited in several states; 
Roland Ellis, who is at present doing a 
special art project assignment in the 
Newark Museum; Margaret Lente 
Raoul, whose wotk in linoleum cuts 
has created considerable interest, and 
Blanche Greer, whose murals "Four 
Seasons" were recently installed in the 
cafeteria of the New Jersey College for 
Women at New Brunswick. 

weighed two and one-half tons, and the 
figure itself weighs a ton. The highly 
polished surface of the figure adds 
richness to its appearance. 

The finished sculpture was viewed 
recently by Holger Cahill, national di- 
rector of the Federal Art Projea, and 
Stanron Macdonald-Wright, noted ar- 
tist and critic, who declared it "the 
finest piece of stone carving ever done 
in the United States." A few replicas 
of the Aztec, in terra cona with black 
glaze finish, have been made for cir- 
culating exhibitions of the Federal Art 

Recent activities of the Federal Art 
Project in Wyoming have included 
twenty-two works by the Laramie Fed- 
eral Art staff in oil, linoleum, pen and 
ink, and dry point. Scenery for the re- 
cent University of Wyoming ptoduc- 
tion of "The Student Prince ' was de- 
signed and executed by the Wyoming 

Last month a state-wide competition 
in oil painting and sculpture was con- 
ducted for the purpose of seletcing five 
oils and one piece of sculpture to be 
exhibited at the National Exhibition 
of American Art in Rockefeller Plaza 
in New York City. 


Page 17 


Xeiiv Jersey 

The Writer's Project in New Jersey- 
lias recently completed the New Jer- 
sey State Guide, in which is to be 
found an enlightening chapter on edu- 
cation in New Jersey. This chapter 
was recently reprinted in "Highlight," 
a monthly publication of the New Jer- 
sey Works Progress Administration. 


Complete and accurate information 
on all points of interest along all main 
highways of the state probably is the 
greatest achievement of the Oklahoma 
Writers' Project. Information on side 
tours as far as twenty miles from the 
highway is provided in the Writers' 
Guide Book. More than one hundred 
persons have been employed for the 
past year gathering this information. 

Probably the most extraordinary 
achievement has been the preparation 
and compilation of a dictionary of the 
Comanche Indian language, the first 
dictionaty to be made of this tongue. 

Many of the factual findings of the 
Writers' Project already have been 
made the basis of feature stories by 
metropolitan press of Oklahoma. 


The Maine Writers' Project is ap- 
proaching the publication of the Maine 
Guide, which should be on the market 
next month. The Fedetal Writers here 
have also compiled a small city pamph- 
let for Ellsworrh. Maine, home of the 
famous Black Mansion, an historic 
house. Ellsworth is near the Bar Har- 
bor summer resort. Other publica- 
tions planned by the Maine Federal 
Writers' Project include a comprehen- 
sive recreational booklet, a state capi- 
tol guide, an air line pamphlet, and 
a collection of Down-East Folklore and 


The Federal Writers' Projea in 
Idaho has succeeded not only in pub- 
lishing its guide, but also in producing 
a valuable book, "Idaho, a Guide in 
Word and Picture," which has attract- 
ed national interest from reviewers. 
From many newspaper reviews of this 
work, the book critic from the Boston 
Post is quoted: "If all of the state 
books which follow measure up to the 
standard of the Idaho book, then critics 
all over the nation will acclaim the 
Federal Writers' Projects, for IDAHO 
is more than a mere guide book of the 

Xew York City 

"Spot News," an interesting clip 
sheet, is prepared and distributed 
weekly by the department of informa- 
tion of the New York City Federal 
Writers' Project. The issue of May 
1 5 is composed of an article entitled 
"Let's Learn Something About 
Monkeys," in which a short, concise 
history and descriprion of several va- 
rieties of monkeys is given. This 
issue, illustrated with designs by the 
Federal Art Project, was distributed to 
the school children of New York City. 


Preparation of the traveler's guide 
book to Utah is the chief objective of 
the Writers' Project there, although ex- 
tensive research has been done in as- 
sembling farts about local history, com- 
piling bibliographies, material on the 
origins of place names and interviews 
with living pioneers. 

Many of the workers have been 
taught accuracy, methods of research, 
methods of writing and editing. Some 
have had articles published in newspa- 
pers and magazines. 


The "Nebraska Folklore" pamphlet 
number one, containing Cowboy Songs 
and issued by the Writers' Projert, was 
released on May 10. Many of the 
songs contained therein, handed down 
and repeated by word of mouth, are 
found to be adaptations of old English 
ballads. The sources of many of them 
are doubtful, but a few of them have 
their origin in Nebraska. 


The Massachusetts sertion of the 
American Guide, the Federal Writers' 
Projea publication describing Ameri- 
can communities, points of interest and 
people, will be published June 25. 
Called "Massachusetts — a Guide to Its 
Places and People, " the volume will be 
printed by the Houghton Mifiin Com- 
pany of Boston and will contain five 
hundred and fifty pages with sixrj'-four 
illustrations and twenty-six maps. 


Besides preparing the Kansas State 
Guide and several local guides, a week- 
ly news release, "Know Your Kansas," 
is mailed to over four hundred daily 
and weekly newspapers throughout the 
state by the Kansas City Federal Wri- 
ters' Project and has received much 
favorable comment. 

Page 18 



The Los Angeles Dance Unit of the 
Federal Theatre Project, under the 
direction of Myra Kinch, is entering 
upon its most ambitious program. The 
summer months will be very busy ones 
for members of this unit. At their 
headquarters at 7512 Santa Monica 
Boulevard, formerly an experimental 
theatrp, action isverymuchinevidence. 
Pianists are playing, dancers are re- 
hearsing, photographers are posing 
their subjects and the telephone is 
constantly ringing. 

The impetus for all this is the 
scheduled dance concert to be pre- 
sented throughout Southern California 
in July, and m Los Angeles in August. 
Dates, which are still somewhat tenta- 
tive, are as follows: 

July 2 — Redlands (Redlands Bowl.) 
July 16-17 — Santa Barbara. 
July 20-21 — Pomona. 
July 2J-24 — Santa Monica. 
July 28-29 — San Diego. 

August 6 — Open at Holly woodPlay - 
house for indefinite term. 

"This concert", according to Miss 
Kinch, "will give us the opportunity 
of bringing the modern dance to many 
people who have probably never before 
had a chance to see it. Depending some- 
what on the outcome of the summer 
appearances, a tour may be arranged in 
the Fall which will take us to commun- 
ities unvisited this summer. 

"The music we are using is particu- 
larly interesting", she continued. "We 
are using on this program some music 
by Scarlatti and the modernists Tansman 
and Shostakowitch. However, the bulk 
of the music is being written especially 
for us by Manuel Galea. He is writing 
from the form of the dances, reversing 
the usual process of making the dance 
fit the already completed music. This 
program is to be a dance cycle titled 
"Theme of Expansion". This is divided 
into several parts: 'The Trek", "Estab- 
lishment", "Burden", 'No.stalgi:!', "Tryst" 
and "Festal Rhythm"."" 

Miss Kinch is, herself, going to take a 
leading part in the concert and Robert 
Tyler Lee, formerly of the Pasadena 
Playhouse, has designed the costumes. 

Project memoers are very busy at the 
present. Eight men are taking the 
soldier parts m "Johnny Johnson"", the 
sensational play now so popular Fifteen 
girls are in '"Pinnochio"", opening June 
3. Pinnochio's role, calling for an 
acrobatic dancer and the skillful use of 
pantomime, is being played by Project 
member Herbert Easley. 

In all, there are forty-four dancers in 
the Project. They are divided into two 
distinct groups, each with twenty-two 
members. Group one is the concert 
group, while two is the revue division. 
Any type ot dancer can be had from 
members of one of the two divisions — 
tap, ballet, modern, classical. Miss 
Kinch is also directing the ballet for 
"Aida", which will be given by the 
Los Angeles Federal Music Project on 
July u. 

The Los Angeles Dance Unit has been 
so successful that George Gerwing, 
State Director of the Federal Theatre 
Project, is inaugurating a unit in San 
Francisco. The Bay City, always an 
avid audience for the dance, will have 
its own unit after June 14. It will be 
under the direction of Miss Avila 
Williams, a well-known d:ince director 
in San Francisco. 

Schumann s 
W ritings 

The saying, ""I've thrown it 
into the fire," hides a piece of 
shameless modesty. The world 
IS not rendered unhappy by the 
loss of an unworthy work: the 
remark is often but a shameless 
boast. I detest people who throw 
their compositions in the fire. 

Music induces nightingales to 
sing, puppy dogs to yelp. 

He who is anxious to preserve 
his originality is in danger of 
losing it. 

It IS not enough that I know 
something, unless I can make use 
of what Tve learned in the con- 
duct of my life. 

Art is a great fugue into which 
different individualities and n;i- 
tionalities enter, step by step, 
like the different subjects, one 
after another. 

Experience has proven that 
the composer is not usually the 
finest and most interesting per- 
former of his own works, es- 
pecially of his newest which he 
cannot yet be expected to master 
from an objective point of view. 
It is more difficult for a man to 
discover his own ideal within 
his own heart than in that of 
another. And should the com- 
poser, who needs rest at the 
conclusion of a work, strive at 
once to concentrate his powers 
on Its performance, his judgment- 
like over-fatigued sight which 
tries to focus on one point-would 
become clouded, if not blind. 


PaK'' 19 

Future Of Music 

Depends On Youth 

By Ellis Lew 

■ C„mt,oscr 

The musical future of Americi 
depends on the youth of today and tha 
future seems definite'/ assured, tui 
nowhere is there g-r iter interest in 
music appreciation study than in the 
public schools of the United States. 
Cold statistics and staggering figures 
prove this daily. 

The value of this training to Ameri- 
can youth cannot be overestimated, for 
in a few years it will pay huge divid- 
ends in the production of a higher and 
better citizenship, arising from the 
natural moral and spiritual benefits of 
music study. What can be of greater 
value to our nation? 

The moral and spiritual benefits from 
music study are numerous. Correct 
rhythm develops mental control, ad- 
hering to correct time teaches honesty, 
group or ensemble playing affords the 
chance of cooperating with others, pro- 
viding a means of self expression and 
exchange of ideas, an ideal outlet for 
the emotion. 

Physical improvement m some in- 
stances can be aided by music study. 
Playing a violin for example develops 
the chest and shoulders — playing a 
trumpet compels proper breathing and 
improves posture. A master trumpeter 
has devised a series of facial exercises 
that have aided and effected cures of 
teeth and jaw deformities and even 
stuttering. International medical ex- 
perts have sought his counsel. 

Invaluable to youth is music study 
for it can begin at an early age when 
many of these necessary attributes to 
good character building can be ac- 
quired. True they are taught other 
subjects of equal moral and spiritual 
worth, but in later years, often too 
late. The music learned in early life can 
be played and enjoyed throughout a 
lifetime, whereas m many school sub- 
jects, and particularly athletics, their 
duration is comparatively short. 

The music and youth combination is 
a splendid recipe for good citizenship. 
This type of citizen becomes an enemy 
to crime and its practices. Can the 
hours of youth be spent in any more 
valued purpose or in any greater ser- 

In conclusion, 1 quote James A. 
Johnston, warden of Alcatraz prison 
who recently said: "The prison is a 
monument to neglected youth. If we 
spent more time and money in the 
making of citizens, we should not be 
obliged to spend so much in the at- 
tempt at their remaking." 

Mit^iical Development Of California 
School Children IVoted 

The Federal Writers' Project in 
compiling data for the Los Angeles 
County Guide, has recently completed 
a survey of musical development in the 
Los Angelco public schools. This sur- 
vey disclosed that the Board of Educa- 
tion adopted several years ago a four- 
fold objective for the musical education 
of all school children in the public 
school system. The outstanding .esults 
of this movement can be SC- 1 in the 
large number of student r ' sical or- 
ganizations in the schools. 

This four-fold objective is as follows ; 

1. Every child should have an op- 
piitunity to express himself through 
music, from kindergarten through jun- 
ior college. They are afforded constant 
opportunities to express themselves, 
through vocal and instrumental activ- 
ities, from the singing of two-phrase 
songs to the study and performance of 
great choral masterpieces. 

2. To teach music appreciation to 
every student. 

J. To provide the tools which the 
young people will need for subsequent 
musical endeavor. 

4. The chief objective is to make the 
lives of the pupils happier through 
aiusical activities now and to provide 
for worthy use of their future leisure 

In iQji an All City Junior High 
School Orchestra was organized, now 
having a membership of 75. 

In 1928 an All City Senior High 


1. From what o/ierj b\ Rmisf(rKor.s<i- 
kpfl IS the "Song of India",' 

2. Who was the gieat Polish composer 
iepKtei hy GeoT-',e Sand m "Lucrezia 
FioTidna" as a ''ugh fiown, consump- 
twe and exasperat\r\g nuisance?" 

3. a What \s t\\e r\ame oj the sor\gcyde 
from which the aria "Ah' Moon 0/ 
M> Delight" l^tal^en■' 

b Who was the composerl 

4. Who was the ^i-st great composer of 

5. What IS the o\dcst existing body of or- 
chestral players m America? 

6. Hoik many Hungarian Rhapsodies 
did Liszt write? 

7. What Italian composer wrue sixty- 
three operas and became insane two 
years before his death m 1848? 

8. Who lOT-ote the symphonic poem "Also 
Sprach Zarathitstra"? 

g. in what opera b> Richard Strauss is 

the "Dance of the Seven Veils?" 
10. The Italian word tutti means. 

a. That the trumpets are to toot. 

b. A confection popular among Ital- 

c. The entire orchestra. 

d. The brass instruments of a hand. 

e. The soloist m a concerto. 

Answers on Page 23 

School Orchestra was organized, with 
a present membership of lOO. 

These two All City Orchestras are 
composed of the cream of the talent 
from all of the Los Angeles junior and 
senior high schools. The same is true 
of the All City Band, organized in 
193,0, but the activity of which lapsed 
until recently, when it was started 
again, with a present membership of 75. 

The city schools teach such musical 
subjects as: all instruments, vocal, 
choral, music appreciation, theory, 
harmony, emphasizing creative music. 
Each spring, festivals are held for 
creative music of students, during 
which original compositions are played. 
A recent festival included presentation 
of a pageant, in which the history of 
Los Angeles was depicted by students 
of all high schools. The history was 
expressed in music and dance, original 
compositions for which were made by 

There are a total of 649 different 
organizations in the public schools of 
Los Angeles. Of these, the 23, junior 
high schools are responsible for 140, the 
32 senior high schools are responsible 
for 276, and the elementary schools . 
have a total of 235. 

Following is listed the number of 
these various organizations for junior 
and senior high schools: 

Junior High Schools: Bands, 7; 
choruses, 37; glee clubs, 51; orchestras, 
44; drum and bugle corps, i. 

Senior High Schools: A cappella 
choirs, 14; bands, 38; choruses, 75; 
glee clubs, 84; orchestras, 56; vocal 
orchestras, 3; drum and bugle corps, 4. 

Musical activities in the public 
schools of other cities in Los Angeles 
County are on a par with those in the 
Los Angeles City Schools. 

On Copying Music 

Reproducing music photographically 
instead of by press is the labor-saving 
device used by the San Francisco Pro- 
ject. The copyist or composer in- 
scribes his work on tracing paper. This 
IS treated with a certain chemical. 
When photographed, instead of the 
expected reversal, the result is a per- 
fect positive, black remaining black, 
and white, white. The size of the 
notes can be enlarged or reduced, and 
copies can be multiplied indefinitely. 
The process is unmercifully accurate, 
giving the composer's score note for 
note. Since the Los Angeles Project 
alone in California has its own photo- 
graphic-printing unit, San Francisco 
sends there its tracing-paper .scores. 

Page 20 


57.000.000 Hear Federal Music 

(Continued from page 3) 

Haverhill, Hartford, Bridgeport, Pro- 
vidence, Yonkers, New York City, 
Syracuse, Bufflalo, Newark, Philadel- 
phia, Pittsburgh, WiUiamsport, Read- 
ing, Richmond, Greensboro, Miami, 
Jacksonville, Akron, Cleveland, Cin- 
cinnati, Toledo, Detroit, Grand Rapids, 
Chicago, New Orleans, St. Paul and 
Minneapohs, Milwaukee, Omaha, Tul- 
sa, Oakland, San Francisco, San Ber- 
nardino, San Diego, Los Angeles and 
Portland, Oregon. 

The report reads: "In addition to 
scheduled symphony concerts these 
orchestras have combined with choral 
and opera groups. They also have 
appeared in hundreds of public and 
parochial schools and in other institu- 

"Because they have not had to keep 
a wary eye on the box office, many 
works that are infrequently heard on 
programs of the established organiza- 
tions have been pe' formed, and, to an 
extent never before experienced, these 
orchestras have played the music of 
American composers. The music li- 
braries of the world have been exam- 
ined for program material." 

The report lists a score of works by 
famous European composers which had 
first performances in America by the 
WPA symphony orchestras, and a 
dozen major programs devoted entirely 
to American compositions. 

Frederick Stock, Willem Van 
Hoogstraten, Rudolph Ganz, Henry 
Hadley, Howard Hanson, Alfred Hertz, 
Albert Stoessel, Arthur Fiedler, Eman- 
uel Balaban, Philip James, Georges 
Barrere, Hans Lange, Erno Rapee, 
Howard Barlow, Antonia Brico, John 
Powell, Quinto Maganini, and the 
late Sandor Harmati, are among those 
who have given their service as guest 
conductors of Federally-sponsored or- 

Distinguished foreign musicians, vis- 
iting America, who also have been 
guest conductors include, Paul Hinde- 
mith, Arnold Schoenberg, Jerzy Bo- 
janowski, Paul Stassevitch, Paul Amad- 
eus Pisk, Hans Bernstein, Burle Marx, 
former conductor ot the Rio de Janiero 
Philhaimonic Orchestra, and Carlos 
Chavez, Mexico's ranking conductor 
and composer. 

Leopold Stokowski was among the 
first to proffer his services to Dr. 
Sokoloff when the Federal Music Pro- 
ject was created. 

More than 40 operas, chamber 

operas, opera buffa and operettas are in 
the repertoire of the Project forces. 
Performances number 60 a month. 

Federal musicians in Cincinnati 
staged Gilbert and Sullivan's Pinafore 
in September, 1936, on a boat built on 
the edge of a lake in Burnet Woods 
Park. The performances ran for three 
weeks and were heard by 75,000 per- 
sons. Eighteen thousand heard the 
first four performances of the Tales of 
Hoffman in Los Angeles and Lcrg 
Beach; j,ooo persons were present at a 
single performance of II Trovatore by 
the Cleveland music unit; 7,500 heard 
an open-air performance of Aida in 
Bayfront Park, Miami; 4,800 attended 
two performances of Cavelleria Rusti- 
cana in San Diego. In New York two 
chamber operas had a three-weeks' 
Summer run on Broadway last year and 
on April 12 a regularly scheduled 
season of four performances a week was 
started in the WPA Theatre of Music. 

"These are a few among hundreds of 
performances of opera and operetta 
given by WPA musicians in a country, 
in which, we have heretofore been 
told, there was no native love for the 
lyric drama," the report reads. 

In another section the report says: 
"The need for an experimental labora- 
tory in which the American composer 
might hear, rescore and amend his 
works under conditions of complete 
instrumentation and in the light of 
audience reaction, has long been re- 
cognized. With the establishment m 
October, 1QJ5, of the Composers' 
Forum Laboratory as an extra curricular 
activity of the Education Unit of the 
Federal Music Project in New York 
City, such an agency was provided and 
a formum technic was created." 

Composers' Forum Laboratories are 
now operating in Boston, Philadelphia 
Indianapolis, Chicago, Milwaukee, Tul- 
sa, Los Angeles and at the University 
of Minnesota. Composers in Florida, 
Ohio and Michigan have heard their 
work at Forum sessions, and in Los 
Angeles a board of musicians reads 
submitted manuscripts and advises the 

There are suflncient musical resources 
available under the WPA Music Pro- 
ject to provide performance for any 
approved work, whether this be for the 
full symphony orchestra, a string 
quartet, a septet for wood-winds or a 
composition for voices. 

Dr. Sokoloff says in his report, 
"Following each program the composer 

submits to 1 nterrogation by his audience . 
In New York and Boston full steno- 
graphic transcriptions are taken of the 
questions and answers, and these af- 
ford an interesting insight into the 
creative compulsions of the composers 
as they discuss their methods and 
mathematics as well as their esthetic 
theories and emotional persuasions." 

An unsuspected opulence in the 
native creative talent, it is reported, 
has been brought to view on WPA 
programs. Among these American com- 
positions are 50 symphonies, 35 con- 
certi, 60 symphonic and tone poem s, 30 
grand, light or chamber operas, operas 
buffa and masques, performed in ex- 
cerpts or in entirety; 10 cantatas, two 
masses and nine other liturgical or 
sacred works, and hundreds of suites, 
overtures and descriptive pieces ; bal- 
lets; works for chamber ense mbles, 
trios, duets and solos. 

Dr. Sokoloff says: "It is recognized 
that a great part of the music by the 
new or lesser known composers may 
have only a contemporaneous merit, 
that most of it is transient, much is 
anecdotal and some of it is trivial; but 
among American artists, it should be 
remembered, the composer in the past 
had been accorded little recognition. 

"In the program literature of the 
established orchestras, selected from 
the music written during the last 200 
years, it is only the occasional work 
that has endured. Thousands of other 
compositions are now forgotten. And 
there may be a risk in passing judgment 
too quickly on these new works of ours 
when it is recalled that the directors of 
the Vienna Court Theatre preferred 
the music of Adalbert Gyrowetz to 
that of his contemporary Beethoven. 

"If only a few of these works 
brought to performance through the 
Federal Music Project possess endur- 
ing values the whole cause of native 
music will have been tremendously 
advanced. The question arises: Will 
this encouragement for the American 
composer hasten the day when the 
United States will produce a literature 
of indigenous music, identihably its 
own, finding expression, form, elo- 
quence and cadence in its vernacular 
and idiom, and stemming from our own 
ideals, history and folk habits? 

"We may be standing on the thresh- 
hold of a truly great national culture, as 
many social students aver, and we know 
that the contribution of creative music 
to this culture must be a fundamental 


Page 21 



\ Music 

(Pianist and Critic) 

It is literally almost impossible to 
pick up any magazine or periodical 
these days dealing with the movies 
without reading ai50ut the future of 
music on the screen. About fifty per 
cent of these articles have something to 
add about the possibilities of grand 
opera as screen fare, and there are as 
many opinions as there are writers. 
Some thousands of words and hundreds 
of columns state and restate the laud- 
able truth that in Hollywood now are 
to be found some of the greatest names 
in present day music. Almost any week 
a new name can be added to the rapidly 
growing list. To the great "names" in 
literature, in acting, in directing, __are 
now being added the great "names" in 
music. The world is being told, and 
probably with much truth, that in a 
few years Hollywood will be the 
cultural and musical center of the 
world. Stokowski, in numerous inter- 
views and articles, speaks in glowing 
terms of the work that filmland is doing. 
His enthusiasm has led him to take an 
active part in that work. Mary Garden, 
a few weeks ago in a radio broadcast, 
expressed her own conviction that big 
things are being done around the stud- 
ios. She has been at Metro-Goldwyn- 
Mayer Studios listening to singers who. 
it is hoped and expected, will some 
day bring glory and box office receipts 
to their alma mater. The studios are 
taking a predatory and paternal in- 
terest in this new field of expression 
and what they have in mind is not to be 
known to outsiders. 

There are, however, some incon- 
sistencies, and it might be interesting to 
glance at the past and immediate 
present and mentally ask a few ques- 

One great wonder is just how a 
certain individual is chosen to rise to 
the heights of stardom as, let's say, a 
singer. What are the qualifications; 
acting abihty, vocal ability, good looks, 
personality? Manifestly, to be fair, 
singers must be divided into groups. 
Group one includes those singers who 
have come to the screen via the 
operatic stage or the concert hall. This 

contingent would include Tibbett, 
Swarthout, Martini, Moore and Pons. 
They, ostensibly, have been hired 
because of thier voices and their 
musicianship. They are "classical" 
musicians, upholding a tradition of 
music handed down to them by illust- 
rious predecessors. But they have gone 
into competition with the crooners. 
Swarthout and Pons have proved 
themselves great "pluggers" of new 
songs. Grace Moore was recently ad- 
vertised as giving something new and 
different to "Mmnie the Moocher" (as 
a matter of fact, Martha Raye could 
probably have done it much better). 
Then it isn't musicianship that counts 
— that isn't what it takes to sing some 
of the songs. And, without going into 
the horrible details, it isn't acting 
ability — that's obvious. It must, then, 
be sheer beauty of voice that makes 
these singers valuable to the screen. 

Group two includes some singers 
whose beauty of voice has been 
questioned. They have something else 
— perhaps it's personality. Bing Crosby, 
Dick Powell, Martha Raye; each has a 
distinctive offering to lay before the 
awaiting public. Crosby croons a 
smooth song; he, along with Rudy 
Vallee, has brought a new style of 
music to the public. Dick Powell — 
well, what is his secret? His singing 
gets no raves; it must be that wide- 
open, big-hearted way he has. And so 
on through the crooners and specialty 
singers. Some voice, some acting ability, 
and a lot of that old — guess what. 

Group three among the singers is a 
puzzle. The puzzle is — why do they 
sing? They are pleasing to look at, 
some of them can act, but their ability, 
both as vocalists and musicians is open 
to much question. Jimmy Stewart can 
act convincingly, but his singing is 
rather pathetic. Leif Erricson can't be 
fooling himself, surely, as to his ability 
to make music. These are not the most 
glaring examples of this group, but 
they are specimens. Do the producers 
hope that they will develop into 
singers, or is it the general idea that if 
the public listens to them enough it 

will be hypnotized into the belief that 
they are musicians? 

This article does not try to work 
out or offer any solution. It, as stated, 
points out some inconsistencies and 
mentally asks some questions. Few of 
the singers of any of the three groups 
are to be criticized personally. Almost 
all of them, in their own type of lines 
are sincere and trying to do a first-rate 
job. They are handicapped in many 
ways. The screen demands a special 
technique of acting, and the possession 
of a great voice doesn't always bespeak 
the added possession of dramatic ability. 
And if a man sees a pot of gold, is he to 
leave it alone because he won't stoop 
to pick it up? Furthermore, who is to 
criticize the crooner or the "personal- 
ity" singer if that great voice Box 
Office speaks overhwelmingly in his 

The big question is — what now? 
There can be no denying the fact that 
there is a lot of talent available. There 
are, in abundance, fine voices, good 
looks, youth, dramatic ability, and the 
capacity for hard work. Few have all 
the quahties, but many have enough of 
them. As far as the singing star is 
concerned one of two things seems 
inevitable. The potential star may be 
chosen for one particular quahty ; if an 
opera singer, he will do just operas; if a 
singer of popular ditties, he will stick 
to them. The hot singer will sing hot 
songs and the grand opera star won't 
crowd him. In short, every man in the 
field suited to him. 

This is one procedure. The other 
seems to lead to the development of a 
sort of super-singer, a being who in- 
cludes all the requisite qualities for 
screen greatness. It is possible that such 
a singer will appear from the ranks or 
from one of music's other branches — 
opera, radio, or the concert stage. It is 
far more likely that this super-star will 
be a developed personality, conditioned 
by training to do all the things that 
will be demanded of him in his role. 
If and when he appears, he'll be a very 
interesting fellow. 

Page 22 



Roiser. Eldred ^>\v 

As the June issue of "The Baton" 
goes to press, announcement is made 
by Harle Jervis, State Director of the 
California Federal Music Project, of 
new appointments to local projects. 

Of importance is the appointment ot 
Dr. Alois Reiser to the directorship of 
the Oakland Project. Dr. Reiser's 
reputation as a composer and conductor 
is a national one. Early this year he was 
awarded second prize for his String 
Quartet in a contest sponsored hy the 
National Broadcasting Company. Over 
six hundred works were submitted for 
judgement. He has won, in all, five 
major awards for his compositions. 
Dr. Reiser has been one of the most 
successful conductors associated with 
the Project. His muscianship and his 
years of active experience will be of 
inestimable value to the Oakland musi- 

Raymond B. Eldred has been ap- 
pointed supervisor of the Santa Barbara 
Project, where he has already accomp- 
lished much in enlarging the scope of 
the Federal Music Project activities. 
Prominently identified with civic and 
musical life in Santa Barbara, Mr. 
Eldred will add his new duties to 
those he already carries in the com- 
munity. He will conduct the Project 
orchestra and supervise activities in the 
district. In addition to plans to enlarge 
the orchestra, he will organise quartet 
and other chamber music groups to 
appear in frequent concerts in Santa 
Barbara and vicinity. 

Another recent appointment makes 
EJernard Gallery successor to Dene 
Denny as supervisor of the Project's 
personnel in Carmel. Miss Denny, as 
CO manager of Denny-Watrous, pro- 
ducing managers, is leaving the Project 
to devote her time to the Bach Festival 
to be held in Carmel July tg to 25. The 
Carmel Project will miss the enthusi- 
astic guidance of Miss Denny. 

tAts Aiiji£<*loN Hears 
Varied Pro^raiiis 

With the concert on May 26th, 
conducted by Jacques Samossoud, the 
Los Angeles May Festival came to a 
conclusion. During this period a num- 
ber of programs were offered to the 
community by all units — the out- 
standing event being the four concert, 
given by the Symphony Orchestras 

Oakland Supervisor 

during which nine compositions by 
American composers, eight of whom 
are residents of Los Angeles, were 
presented. Three pianists, one viohnist, 
one cellist, and nine singers, of whom 
eight are members of the Project, 
appeared on the program. 

The third concert of the May 
Festival marked the first presentation — 
in concert form — of the newly or- 
ganized operatic group under the con- 
ductorship of Gastone Usigli, with a 
cast of eight suloists and choral group 
of one hundred and seventy-five voices, 
including forty members of the colored 
chorus. Supported by the Los Angeles 
Project Symphony Orchestra they 
offered a most impressive performance 
of "Aida", Act !I, and a condensed 
version of "Die Meistersingers", Act 

On May 25 the Light Opera Group, 
under the direction of John Britz, gave 
the first performance of the operetta 
"The Gay Grenadiers" by Warner Van 
Valkenburg, coauthor, one of the 
supervisors of the Los Angeles Music 
Project, which met with the enthus 
lastic applause of the audience. 

The concert on June gth, in which — 
following the policies established by 
Gastone Usigli, Los Angeles County 
Director of the Federal Music Proiect 
— a local soloist will appear and a 
composition by an American composer 
will be performed ("Symphonic Suite" 

( ombined Conoerts 
For Bay Projoots 

Plans for the summer in Northern 
California predict a comprehensive 
program and a great deal of activity. 
These plans will be immeasurably 
facilitated by the combination of two 
units, San Francisco and Oakland, 
making possible the selection from 1 oth 
to till the ranks of the various orchestra 
and other musical units to be employed. 

A season of light opera is in prospect 
for the summer. Dr. Reiser is to conduct 
this new venture and will choose the 
large number of participants from among 
the members of both projects. An 
opera orchestra is to be organized to 
play opera productions, and a chorus 
for the same purpose will be chosen. 
These, besides the casts and principals, 
wilt make heavy demands on the 
members of the Bay district projects. 

The two units will further combine 
to create, from within their member- 
shi]5s, a symphony orchestra which 
will give performances during the 
summer at Tamalpais Bowl on Sunday 
afternoons and at the Alcazar Theatre 
in San Francisco on Monday nights. 
These programs will be weekly fea- 

The programs at Tamalpais Bowl 
are to be in the nature of a summer 
festival, the first program to take place 
on June ij. It is planned to have the 
opera units produce a series of operas 
in the same location, and it is desired to 
repeat these programs in Oakland, 
Alameda and Berkeley as well as San 

by Vernon Leftwich) will close our 
spring Symphony season. After that, 
all time and attention will be devoted 
to the preparation of the forthcoming 
operatic season beginning June yo. 

In the meantime an extended series 
of weekly appearance? at the Santa 
Barbara Bowl has been arranged 
beginning June 27, and ending Sept- 
ember 15, 1957, during which time a 
number of concerts will be given with 
the Symphony Orchestra. Furthermore, 
the Operatic Group will appear m two 
performances of "Aida" and "The 
King's Henchman". 

It is hoped that Dr. Nikolai SokoloiF, 
National Director of the Federal 
Music Project, will conduct one of 
these Symphony concerts. 


Page 23 

Arts Pi'ojects 
Counterpart of 
Machine Age 

By Jerry Voorhis 

., Twelfth District of Califor 


The very existence of music 
in the universe has always 
seemed to me one of the most 
convincing proofs of the ex- 
istence of God. And I have 
often thought that, if anything 
in the world was obviously in- 
tended for the enjoyment of all 
the people, and to serve as a 
common bond between them, 
it is music. 

Therefore, it seems to me that 
we have seldom had a finer 
movement in America than the 
one embodied in the Federal 
Music Project (and a similar 
statement might be made of 
all the Federal Arts Projects] 
wherein we find our government 
making available to its people 
the beauty and inspiration 
which God has implanted in 
the hearts and minds of the 
musicians of the nation. 

It is the counterpart of the 
machine age. As machinery 
reduces the number of persons 
who can be employed at pro- 
ducing the essentials of life, 
and as it likewise reduces the 
hours of necessary toil, we 
must, if we are to remain ra- 
tional human beings, find 
means of employment for in- 
creasing numbers in those vo- 
cations which make life richer 
and more beautiful. We must 
develop such projects as pro- 
vide more worthwhile influ- 
ences to fill the leisure hours of 
our American folk. 


To Questions P.ise 19 

1. Sadkp. 

2. Chopin. 

V a "111 a Persian Garden". 

b Liza Lefimann. 

4. M.chael Gl.n)(a. 

5. Heiv Tork Philharmonic. 

6. Fi/leen. 

7. Donizetti 

8. Richard Strauss. 

y- Salome. 

10. The entire orchestra. 


60 PassinfJ. 

70 Good. 

80 Excellent. 

t;o You should u'rite questions! 

100 You peeked! 

"Sharecroppers' Children Arise at Six O'clock in the Morning to Get 
Their Music Lesson Before Starting to Work on the Farm." 
From Dr. Nikolai Sokoloff's report, page 3. 

Audiences Like 
*»Gay CJreiiaiiiers'"* 

The world premiere of a romantic 
operetta, "The Gay Grenadiers" by 
two Los Angeles collaborators, Warner 
Van and Vern Elliot, was presented to 
a well pleased audience at the Mason 
Theatre on May a^th. With a theme 
of love against a throne in the romantic 
days of old Mexico, the piece abounds 
with romance, intrugie and melody. 

Under the supervision of John R. 
Britz and the staging and directing of 
Lou Jacobs, a large cast of eighty 'five, an 
orchestra of fifty, and a ballet have 
combined their talents to put on a 
smooth running and convincing show 

Not a little was added to the effec, 
tiveness of the whole by the excellent 
individual performances given by many 
of the principals. Particular commenda. 
tion is due Theo Pennington and John 
Hamilton for their work in the leads. 
Others deserving of critical praise in- 
clude Rafael Villegrana, Rena Case, 
J. M. del Campo, famed Mexican 
actor. Jack Henderson, Joya Babri, 
Salvador Chavez, and many who played 
smaller parts. Ballet, chorus and or- 
chestra aided materially in insuring the 
success of the production. 

Critic Captivated 
By Music Weelt^ 

(Writing in the San Diego Sun) 

"Thanks are due the Federal Music 
Project of San Diego for the most 
entertaining Music Week we have ever 
had here. After being diverted Monday 
night by something light and amusing 
hke 'Geisha Girl", Thursday night's 
'Cavalleria', dealing with the more 
tempestuous emotions, seemed just the 
thing. Yesterday afternoon there was 
something for the children, the fairy 
opera, "Hansel and Gretel'. And last 
night, there was 'Gefsha Girl', much 
improved after the two performances 
of Wednesday, half an hour shorter and 
everybody knowing his repartee by 

"Bach's "Coffee Cantata', beautifully 
set and costumed was given joyful 
performance Friday night under Julius 
Leibs' direction. The father and daught- 
er roles were extremely well carried by 
Charles Cannon and Carmen Conger. 
Again, under Charles H. Marsh's direc- 
tion, the Federal Opera Chorus won 
honors in Vaughan-WiUiam's "Benedi- 
cite' and Elgar's Choral dance suite, 
"From the Bavarian Highlands.' Re- 
membering that a costumed and or- 
chestrated version of Lehman's "Persian 
Garden' also was co-billed with "Ca- 
valleria', where, we ask you, could you 
have had more fun on Music Week?" 

Page 24 


The following exchange of messages is said to have taken 
place when Stravinsky announced his intention of coming 
to the United States this season. George Gershwin sent him 
this cable: 


Stravinsky wired back; 


Gershwin : 


Stravinsky ; 

. . . From Musical Courier 

". . . More and more persons are taking pleasure 
in the weekly springtime concerts of the Federal Symphony 
at the Alcaiar Theatre. Last night Rudolph Canz, the 
pianist-conductor, came here on tour to be gLCst leader. 
His program was full of interest. He was warmly welcomed 
by a near capacity audience. . 

"Gan: made the orchestra play really excellently. His 
performances had precision. He based them upon a 
mature musicianship and enlivened- them with original 

Alexander Fried, San Francisco Examiner 

It is related that Offenbach 
once devoted a whole evening 
to playing Bach to the opera 
composer, Linnander. His col- 
league was ama:ed at what he 
heard. "That's grand'" he 
exclaimed, "but you ought not 
to make this music known to 
the public. There is much in 
it that we might utilize in our 
own works." 


The famed pianist Josetfy 
used to tell this story : 

He was present at a re- 
hearsal of a Richter concert in 
Vienna when a Bruckner sym- 
phony was being prepared 
The composer, seated far back 
in the dimly lighted hall, 
listened enraptured to his 
music, performances of which 
at that time were very few 
and exceedingly far between. 
Suddenly Richter struck a 
snag in the manuscript, at a 
place where the orchestra was 
working up an impassioned 
climax. Seeing that the passage 

repeated, Richter turned and called to Bruckner: "'F"or 'F' 
sharp in that chord?" Leaping to his feet, his face blazing 
with excitement and pleasure, the composer yelled: "Any- 
thing you like, Herr Kapellmeister, goon, goon!" 



. . . Thoofl(.ipR(ins(>V(ll. 


. \\ uixirow \\ ilsuii. 


. . . FiMiiklin I). Ro(,,s,.\cll. 

"An all-American program 
with the Federal Symphony 
Orchestra, led by the com- 
posers themselves in most of 
the works, displayed some 
significant musical values in 
Trinity Auditorium 1 a .s t 
night. A large and enthusi- 
astic audience teetified em- 
phatically to the growth of a 
national spirit and apprecia- 
t ion. The composer-c o n 
ductors were so warmly 
applauded as to prolong the 
program to unusual length. 
Richard D. Saunders 
Hollywood Citizen-News 


"Federal Opera enterprise. 
"The Romance of Robot", was 
a genuinely good otfering, 
professional in manner, assured 
in its aims and achieving 
results which reflected credit 
on everyone concerned. The 
brilliant audience received it 
with prolonged and hearty 

W. I. Henderson 
" New York Sun 

". . . a rollicking show ("The Romance nt Robcit") 
done with taste and infectious enthusiasm," 
Winthrop Sargent 

New York American 

Franz Liszt once humbled a vain young man with severity. 
The young fellow had submitted to him for his approval a 
manuscript piece bristling with hideous dissonances. 

Putting his finger on one pas.sage, Liszt .said: "That 
cannot be done in music". 

"But I h;ive done it", smirked the young man. 

With a .sarca.stic smile, Liszt walked to his desk, |Hit his 
quill into the ink and then spattered it over the young 
man's white vest. 

"This, too", he said, "can be done, but it must not be." 

Then he bought his victim a new waistcoat. 


"Here were dyed-in-the-wool professionals, near pro- 
fessionals, and amateurs, all making music, romance and 
comedy, and earning a living bydoing so, ihanks to the 
policy of an enlightened governmeht . . . ■» revelation of 
talent which, if it were not for WPA, would not have an 
opportunity of making itself known." 

Redfern Mascn 
Boston Evening Transcript 

"Music Week - we don't know how it will he cele- 
brated by other organizations, but you should draw red 
circles around the dates on your calendar to remind you that 
you cannot afford to miss one of the fine things planned by 
Federal Music Projects." 

San Diegd LIr.irai